Free for academic non-profit institutions. Other users need a Commercial license

Aliases for AMH Gene

Aliases for AMH Gene

  • Anti-Mullerian Hormone 2 3 5
  • Muellerian-Inhibiting Substance 3 4
  • Anti-Muellerian Hormone 3 4
  • MIF 3 4
  • MIS 3 4
  • Mullerian Inhibiting Substance 3
  • Muellerian-Inhibiting Factor 3
  • Mullerian Inhibiting Factor 3

External Ids for AMH Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for AMH Gene

  • GC19P002311
  • GC19P002188
  • GC19P002200

Summaries for AMH Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for AMH Gene

  • This gene encodes a secreted ligand of the TGF-beta (transforming growth factor-beta) superfamily of proteins. Ligands of this family bind various TGF-beta receptors leading to recruitment and activation of SMAD family transcription factors that regulate gene expression. The encoded preproprotein is proteolytically processed to generate N- and C-terminal cleavage products that homodimerize and associate to form a biologically active noncovalent complex. This complex binds to the anti-Mullerian hormone receptor type 2 and causes the regression of Mullerian ducts in the male embryo that would otherwise differentiate into the uterus and fallopian tubes. This protein also plays a role in Leydig cell differentiation and function and follicular development in adult females. Mutations in this gene result in persistent Mullerian duct syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2016]

GeneCards Summary for AMH Gene

AMH (Anti-Mullerian Hormone) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with AMH include Persistent Mullerian Duct Syndrome, Type Ii and Persistent Mullerian Duct Syndrome. Among its related pathways are Mesodermal Commitment Pathway and TGF-beta signaling pathway (KEGG). GO annotations related to this gene include receptor binding and hormone activity.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for AMH Gene

  • This glycoprotein, produced by the Sertoli cells of the testis, causes regression of the Muellerian duct. It is also able to inhibit the growth of tumors derived from tissues of Muellerian duct origin.

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for AMH Gene

Genomics for AMH Gene

Regulatory Elements for AMH Gene

Enhancers for AMH Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH19G002247 1.2 Ensembl ENCODE 38.7 +1.8 1785 7.5 PKNOX1 AGO1 ARID4B DMAP1 FEZF1 ZNF48 SLC30A9 ZNF121 GLIS2 ZNF143 AMH SF3A2 LOC100288123 ZNF77 ENSG00000267139 PLEKHJ1 ENSG00000267317 THOP1 MIR4321 LOC105372240
GH19G002234 1.2 ENCODE 31.9 -9.6 -9599 10.6 CREB3L1 MLX AGO1 ZFP64 DMAP1 YBX1 YY1 SLC30A9 ZNF143 ZNF263 AMH ZNF77 SF3A2 LOC100288123 GNA11 CIRBP PLEKHJ1 ENSG00000267139 ZNF554 ENSG00000268798
GH19G002184 1.5 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 17.7 -61.9 -61912 5.0 HDGF FEZF1 HIC1 POLR2A EED FOS RELB IKZF2 MAFK NFE2L2 AMH MIR1227 SF3A2 PLEKHJ1 IZUMO4 AP3D1 GC19M002178 LOC105372239
GH19G002160 1.8 FANTOM5 ENCODE dbSUPER 10.5 -81.4 -81374 13.7 CREB3L1 MLX ZFP64 DMAP1 YBX1 FEZF1 YY1 SLC30A9 ZNF143 SP3 ZNF77 SF3A2 LOC100288123 CIRBP GADD45B ENSG00000267139 DOT1L ENSG00000267317 ZNF554 ADAT3
GH19G002149 1.3 ENCODE dbSUPER 11.6 -98.4 -98375 3.7 HDGF PKNOX1 MLX CREB3L1 ZFP64 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 YY1 ZNF766 AP3D1 AMH SF3A2 PLEKHJ1 IZUMO4 DOT1L GC19P002134
- Elite enhancer and/or Elite enhancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around AMH on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for AMH Gene

Chromosome:
19
Start:
2,249,114 bp from pter
End:
2,252,073 bp from pter
Size:
2,960 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for AMH Gene

Genes around AMH on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
AMH Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for AMH Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for AMH Gene

Proteins for AMH Gene

  • Protein details for AMH Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P03971-MIS_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Muellerian-inhibiting factor
    Protein Accession:
    P03971
    Secondary Accessions:
    • O75246
    • Q6GTN3

    Protein attributes for AMH Gene

    Size:
    560 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    59195 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer; disulfide-linked.
    Miscellaneous:
    • Although it does not compete with EGF for receptor binding sites, MIS can inhibit the autophosphorylation of the EGF receptor in vitro.

neXtProt entry for AMH Gene

Post-translational modifications for AMH Gene

  • Glycosylation at Asn64 and posLast=329329
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for AMH Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibody Products

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for AMH Gene

Domains & Families for AMH Gene

Gene Families for AMH Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for AMH Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P03971

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

MIS_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the TGF-beta family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the TGF-beta family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with AMH: view

Function for AMH Gene

Molecular function for AMH Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
anti-Mullerian hormone (TGFB superfamily),140kDa,expressed in the Sertoli cells of the fetal and neonatal testis,preventing the development of the uterus and fallopian tubes in male
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
This glycoprotein, produced by the Sertoli cells of the testis, causes regression of the Muellerian duct. It is also able to inhibit the growth of tumors derived from tissues of Muellerian duct origin.

LifeMap Function Summary for AMH Gene

During embryonic development, AMH as signaling molecule is secreted from the following cells
It affects the following cells:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for AMH Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005102 receptor binding IPI 14750901
GO:0005160 transforming growth factor beta receptor binding IEA --
GO:0005179 hormone activity TAS 3754790
GO:0008083 growth factor activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with AMH: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with AMH: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for AMH Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for AMH Gene

MGI Knock Outs for AMH:

Animal Model Products

miRNA for AMH Gene

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for AMH Gene

Localization for AMH Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for AMH Gene

Secreted.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for AMH gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
nucleus 2
endoplasmic reticulum 2
cytoskeleton 1
lysosome 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for AMH Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS,NAS --
GO:0005615 extracellular space IEA,TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with AMH: view

Pathways & Interactions for AMH Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with AMH: view

SIGNOR curated interactions for AMH Gene

Activates:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for AMH Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001546 preantral ovarian follicle growth IEA --
GO:0001655 urogenital system development IEA --
GO:0001880 Mullerian duct regression NAS 14750901
GO:0007267 cell-cell signaling TAS 3754790
GO:0007506 gonadal mesoderm development IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with AMH: view

Drugs & Compounds for AMH Gene

(41) Drugs for AMH Gene - From: ClinicalTrials and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Folic Acid Approved, Vet_approved Nutra 4392
leucovorin Approved Nutra 3235,1128
Melatonin Approved, Vet_approved Nutra Antagonist Melatonin receptors MT inhibitor 268
Enclomiphene Investigational Pharma 167
Anesthetics Pharma 9596

(1) Additional Compounds for AMH Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with AMH: view

Transcripts for AMH Gene

mRNA/cDNA for AMH Gene

Unigene Clusters for AMH Gene

Anti-Mullerian hormone:
Representative Sequences:

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for AMH Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3a · 3b ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5
SP1:
SP2: - -
SP3:

Relevant External Links for AMH Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
AMH
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
AMH

Expression for AMH Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for AMH Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for AMH Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Testis (x8.9) and Pituitary (x5.9).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for AMH Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Testis (43.4) and Fetal testis (20.3).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for AMH Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for AMH Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of AMH Gene:

AMH

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for AMH Gene:

Hs.112432

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for AMH Gene

  • Nervous system(4.4)
  • Blood(2.4)

Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for AMH Gene

Germ Layers:
  • ectoderm
  • endoderm
  • mesoderm
Systems:
  • digestive
  • endocrine
  • reproductive
  • skeletal muscle
Organs:
Abdomen:
  • abdominal wall
  • intestine
Pelvis:
  • ovary
  • penis
  • prostate
  • testicle
  • vagina
  • vas deferens
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with AMH: view

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for AMH Gene

Orthologs for AMH Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for AMH Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia AMH 34 35
  • 99.02 (n)
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia AMH 34
  • 81.87 (n)
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia AMH 34 35
  • 80.22 (n)
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Amh 34 16 35
  • 75.53 (n)
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Amh 34
  • 74.7 (n)
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia AMH 35
  • 47 (a)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia AMH 35
  • 43 (a)
OneToOne
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves AMH 35
  • 34 (a)
OneToOne
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia AMH 35
  • 35 (a)
OneToOne
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii amh 35
  • 22 (a)
OneToOne
Species where no ortholog for AMH was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for AMH Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for AMH (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for AMH (if available)

Paralogs for AMH Gene

No data available for Paralogs for AMH Gene

Variants for AMH Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for AMH Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 19 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs138571039 Persistent Muellerian duct syndrome 1 (PMDS1) [MIM:261550] 2,251,792(+) AACCA(C/G)GTGGT downstream-variant-500B, reference, missense
rs149082963 Persistent Muellerian duct syndrome 1 (PMDS1) [MIM:261550] 2,249,367(+) CCTAG(G/T)GCTGT upstream-variant-2KB, reference, missense
rs371874189 Persistent Muellerian duct syndrome 1 (PMDS1) [MIM:261550] 2,250,424(+) GCTGT(A/G)CCCTG upstream-variant-2KB, reference, missense
rs569914235 Persistent Muellerian duct syndrome 1 (PMDS1) [MIM:261550] 2,249,699(+) GGCTG(C/T)GGGAC upstream-variant-2KB, reference, missense
rs777003373 Persistent Muellerian duct syndrome 1 (PMDS1) [MIM:261550] 2,250,676(+) ACACC(C/T)GCTAC nc-transcript-variant, reference, missense

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for AMH Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv6218n54 CNV loss 21841781
nsv578382 CNV loss 21841781
nsv578383 CNV loss 21841781
nsv833706 CNV loss 17160897
nsv833707 CNV loss 17160897

Variation tolerance for AMH Gene

Gene Damage Index Score: 2.09; 38.25% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for AMH Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
AMH
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
AMH

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for AMH Gene

Disorders for AMH Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(23) MalaCards diseases for AMH Gene - From: OMIM, GeneTests, Orphanet, Swiss-Prot, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
persistent mullerian duct syndrome, type ii
  • persistent mullerian duct syndrome, type i
persistent mullerian duct syndrome
  • persistent muellerian duct syndrome
reproductive system disease
  • genital system disease
female reproductive system disease
  • genital diseases, female
chronic salpingo-oophoritis
  • chronic salpingitis and oophoritis
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search AMH in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

MIS_HUMAN
  • Persistent Muellerian duct syndrome 1 (PMDS1) [MIM:261550]: A form of male pseudohermaphroditism characterized by a failure of Muellerian duct regression in otherwise normal males. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:8162013, ECO:0000269 PubMed:8872466}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Genatlas disease for AMH Gene

persistent Mullerian duct syndrome

Relevant External Links for AMH

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
AMH
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
AMH
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
AMH
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with AMH: view

Publications for AMH Gene

  1. Anti-mullerian hormone is an endocrine marker of ovarian gonadotropin-responsive follicles and can help to predict superovulatory responses in the cow. (PMID: 18784351) Rico C. … Monniaux D. (Biol. Reprod. 2009) 2 3 22 64
  2. Isolation of the bovine and human genes for Mullerian inhibiting substance and expression of the human gene in animal cells. (PMID: 3754790) Cate R.L. … Donahoe P.K. (Cell 1986) 2 3 4 64
  3. A large-scale candidate gene association study of age at menarche and age at natural menopause. (PMID: 20734064) He C. … Hunter D.J. (Hum. Genet. 2010) 3 46 64
  4. Association study of AMH and AMHRII polymorphisms with unexplained infertility. (PMID: 19539910) Rigon C. … Clementi M. (Fertil. Steril. 2010) 3 46 64
  5. Association study of four key folliculogenesis genes in polycystic ovary syndrome. (PMID: 20236105) Sproul K. … Goodarzi M.O. (BJOG 2010) 3 46 64

Products for AMH Gene

Sources for AMH Gene

Content
Loading form....