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Aliases for AMD1 Gene

Aliases for AMD1 Gene

  • Adenosylmethionine Decarboxylase 1 2 3 5
  • S-Adenosylmethionine Decarboxylase 1 2 3
  • EC 4 61
  • ADOMETDC 3 4
  • SAMDC 3 4
  • AMD 3 4
  • S-Adenosylmethionine Decarboxylase Proenzyme 3

External Ids for AMD1 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for AMD1 Gene

  • GC06P111031
  • GC06P111218
  • GC06P111241
  • GC06P111304
  • GC06P108767
  • GC06P111195

Summaries for AMD1 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for AMD1 Gene

  • This gene encodes an important intermediate enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis. The polyamines spermine, spermidine, and putrescine are low-molecular-weight aliphatic amines essential for cellular proliferation and tumor promotion. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been identified. Pseudogenes of this gene are found on chromosomes 5, 6, 10, X and Y. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2013]

GeneCards Summary for AMD1 Gene

AMD1 (Adenosylmethionine Decarboxylase 1) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with AMD1 include Sleeping Sickness and Trypanosomiasis. Among its related pathways are Viral mRNA Translation and Arginine and proline metabolism. GO annotations related to this gene include adenosylmethionine decarboxylase activity.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for AMD1 Gene

  • Essential for biosynthesis of the polyamines spermidine and spermine. Promotes maintenance and self-renewal of embryonic stem cells, by maintaining spermine levels.

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for AMD1 Gene

Genomics for AMD1 Gene

Regulatory Elements for AMD1 Gene

Enhancers for AMD1 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH06G110681 1.5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 18.5 -132.3 -132298 1.4 PKNOX1 FOXA2 MLX WRNIP1 ARID4B SIN3A FEZF1 YY1 ZNF143 ZNF207 AMD1 CDK19 GTF3C6 RNU6-957P RPF2 CNN2P9 RPS20P18 LOC100129155
GH06G110873 1.8 FANTOM5 ENCODE dbSUPER 8.5 +61.9 61935 6.6 CREB3L1 AGO1 ZFP64 FEZF1 DMAP1 YY1 SLC30A9 ZNF143 ZNF263 SP3 RPF2 CDK19 FCF1P5 GTF3C6 RNU6-957P MFSD4B AMD1 SLC16A10 ENSG00000271607 GC06P110895
GH06G110754 0.7 ENCODE 18.6 -59.0 -59048 1.4 SOX5 SOX13 GATAD2A NFIA FOXA3 ZFP64 NCOR1 RCOR2 TCF7 NR2F6 AMD1 RPF2 RNU6-957P CDK19 GTF3C6
GH06G110951 1.2 Ensembl ENCODE 10.2 +137.9 137913 1.1 PKNOX1 FOXA2 MLX ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 YY1 FOS SP5 NFYC RPF2 CDK19 AMD1 RNU6-957P GTF3C6 LOC442244
GH06G110689 1 ENCODE dbSUPER 11.8 -124.6 -124584 1.5 CTCF ZNF654 NFIB HLF ZMYM3 TRIM22 ZNF2 RAD21 YY1 ZNF121 RPF2 RNU6-957P AMD1 CDK19 GTF3C6 RPS20P18 LOC100129155
- Elite enhancer and/or Elite enhancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around AMD1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for AMD1 Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters
ENSR00000201086 579 2401 CREB3L1 ZFP64 DMAP1 YY1 ZNF143 ZNF263 SP3 NFYC TBX21 SSRP1

Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the AMD1 gene promoter:

Genomic Location for AMD1 Gene

110,814,621 bp from pter
110,895,713 bp from pter
81,093 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for AMD1 Gene

Genes around AMD1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
AMD1 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for AMD1 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for AMD1 Gene

Proteins for AMD1 Gene

  • Protein details for AMD1 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase proenzyme
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • E1P5F7
    • Q5VXN4
    • Q5VXN6
    • Q9BWK4

    Protein attributes for AMD1 Gene

    334 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    38340 Da
    Name=pyruvate; Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:15361;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Heterotetramer of two alpha and two beta chains.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for AMD1 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for AMD1 Gene


neXtProt entry for AMD1 Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for AMD1 Gene


Post-translational modifications for AMD1 Gene

  • Is synthesized initially as an inactive proenzyme. Formation of the active enzyme involves a self-maturation process in which the active site pyruvoyl group is generated from an internal serine residue via an autocatalytic post-translational modification. Two non-identical subunits are generated from the proenzyme in this reaction, and the pyruvate is formed at the N-terminus of the alpha chain, which is derived from the carboxyl end of the proenzyme. The post-translation cleavage follows an unusual pathway, termed non-hydrolytic serinolysis, in which the side chain hydroxyl group of the serine supplies its oxygen atom to form the C-terminus of the beta chain, while the remainder of the serine residue undergoes an oxidative deamination to produce ammonia and the pyruvoyl group blocking the N-terminus of the alpha chain.
  • Ubiquitination at posLast=9696, posLast=291291, and Lys301
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Domains & Families for AMD1 Gene

Gene Families for AMD1 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the eukaryotic AdoMetDC family.
  • Belongs to the eukaryotic AdoMetDC family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with AMD1: view

Function for AMD1 Gene

Molecular function for AMD1 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase 1 (Adomet DC),polyamine biosynthesis
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
S-adenosyl-L-methionine = S-adenosyl 3-(methylthio)propylamine + CO(2).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
Both proenzyme processing and catalytic activity are stimulated by putrescine. Catalytic activity is inhibited by iodoacetic acid.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Essential for biosynthesis of the polyamines spermidine and spermine. Promotes maintenance and self-renewal of embryonic stem cells, by maintaining spermine levels.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for AMD1 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for AMD1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004014 adenosylmethionine decarboxylase activity TAS 1917972
GO:0016829 lyase activity IEA --
GO:0016831 carboxy-lyase activity IEA --
GO:0019810 putrescine binding IBA,IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with AMD1: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with AMD1: view

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

miRNA for AMD1 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target AMD1

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

  • Applied Biological Materials Clones for AMD1

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for AMD1 Gene

Localization for AMD1 Gene

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for AMD1 gene
Compartment Confidence
nucleus 4
cytosol 4
plasma membrane 1
extracellular 1
mitochondrion 1
peroxisome 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for AMD1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with AMD1: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for AMD1 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for AMD1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with AMD1: view

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot P17707-DCAM_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Amine and polyamine biosynthesis; S-adenosylmethioninamine biosynthesis; S-adenosylmethioninamine from S-adenosyl-L-methionine: step 1/1.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for AMD1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006557 S-adenosylmethioninamine biosynthetic process IEA --
GO:0006595 polyamine metabolic process TAS --
GO:0006596 polyamine biosynthetic process IEA --
GO:0006597 spermine biosynthetic process IEA,IBA --
GO:0008295 spermidine biosynthetic process IBA,IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with AMD1: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for AMD1 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for AMD1 Gene

(14) Drugs for AMD1 Gene - From: DrugBank, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
S-Adenosylmethionine Approved Nutra Target, cofactor 0
spermine Approved Nutra Full agonist, Agonist 0
Tris Approved Pharma Target 0
Carbon dioxide Approved, Vet_approved Pharma 0
Pyruvic acid Approved Nutra 0

(16) Additional Compounds for AMD1 Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • 1,3-Diamino-N-propane
  • 1,3-Propanediamine
  • 1,3-Propylenediamine
  • 1,3-Trimethylenediamine
  • 3-Aminopropylamine
Hydrogen Ion
  • Hydrogen cation
  • Hydron
  • Proton
  • N'-Acetylspermine
  • N'-Monoacetylspermine
  • N(1)-Acetylspermine
  • N-(3-((4-((3-Aminopropyl)amino)butyl)amino)propyl)-Acetamide
  • N-Acetylspermine
  • -1,3-propanediamine
  • 1,7-Diamino-4-azaheptane
  • 3, 3'-Diaminodipropylamine
  • 3, {3'-Iminobis[propylamine]}
  • 3,3'-Diamino-Dipropylamine
  • (5-deoxy-5-adenosyl)(3-aminopropyl) methylsulfonium salt
  • DAdoMet
  • Decarboxylated AdoMet
  • Decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine
  • Decarboxylated SAM
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with AMD1: view

Transcripts for AMD1 Gene

Unigene Clusters for AMD1 Gene

Adenosylmethionine decarboxylase 1:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

  • Applied Biological Materials Clones for AMD1

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for AMD1 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7a · 7b ^ 8a · 8b · 8c ^ 9a · 9b · 9c ^ 10a · 10b
SP1: -
SP2: -
SP3: -
SP5: - - - - - -
SP6: - - - - -

Relevant External Links for AMD1 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for AMD1 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for AMD1 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for AMD1 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Platelet (40.3) and Placenta (28.7).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for AMD1 Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for AMD1 Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of AMD1 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for AMD1 Gene:


Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for AMD1 Gene

  • Nervous system(4.9)
  • Heart(4.5)
  • Kidney(3.1)
  • Lung(2.8)
  • Thyroid gland(2.7)
  • Blood(2.5)
  • Intestine(2.5)
  • Liver(2.5)
  • Bone marrow(2.3)
  • Muscle(2.3)
  • Skin(2.2)
  • Lymph node(2)
  • Spleen(2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with AMD1: view

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues , mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for AMD1 Gene

Orthologs for AMD1 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for AMD1 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia AMD1 34 35
  • 99.9 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Amd2 16 35
  • 98 (a)
Amd1 34 35
  • 95.91 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia AMD1 34 35
  • 97.6 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia AMD1 34 35
  • 97.21 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Amd1 34
  • 95.18 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia AMD1 35
  • 91 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia AMD1 35
  • 70 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves AMD1 34 35
  • 89.26 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia AMD1 35
  • 85 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia amd1 34
  • 83.13 (n)
Str.665 34
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia amd1-prov 34
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii amd1 34 35
  • 78.89 (n)
zgc55614 34
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta SamDC 36 34 35
  • 56.25 (n)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP009619 34
  • 39.13 (n)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea smd-1 34 35
  • 49.54 (n)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0C14410g 34
  • 47.75 (n)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes SPE2 34 35 37
  • 46.28 (n)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_ABL061C 34
  • 45.29 (n)
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons AT5G15950 34
  • 50.06 (n)
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os09g0424300 34
  • 48.28 (n)
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU01083 34
  • 49.49 (n)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes spe2 34
  • 48.89 (n)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.1643 35
  • 46 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.9738 34
Species where no ortholog for AMD1 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for AMD1 Gene

Gene Tree for AMD1 (if available)
Gene Tree for AMD1 (if available)

Paralogs for AMD1 Gene

(1) SIMAP similar genes for AMD1 Gene using alignment to 4 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with AMD1: view

No data available for Paralogs for AMD1 Gene

Variants for AMD1 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for AMD1 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 06 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs1000063460 -- 110,843,775(+) GTACC(A/G)GTGGG intron-variant
rs1000068511 -- 110,884,913(+) GATGA(C/G)TTAAG intron-variant
rs1000068626 -- 110,813,041(+) ATCCT(A/G)AGAGG intron-variant, upstream-variant-2KB
rs1000077249 -- 110,882,252(+) AGCAC(G/T)TTGTC intron-variant
rs1000077809 -- 110,823,937(+) AATGT(A/G)GTGAA intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for AMD1 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv2677721 CNV deletion 23128226
esv3610368 CNV loss 21293372
esv3610369 CNV gain 21293372
nsv1032572 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1137137 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv819336 CNV gain 19587683
nsv830773 CNV loss 17160897
nsv965751 CNV duplication 23825009
nsv965752 CNV duplication 23825009
nsv965753 CNV duplication 23825009

Variation tolerance for AMD1 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 27% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.66; 14.14% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for AMD1 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for AMD1 Gene

Disorders for AMD1 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(9) MalaCards diseases for AMD1 Gene - From: DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
sleeping sickness
  • african sleeping sickness
rh isoimmunization
  • rh incompatibility affecting management of mother
foodborne botulism
  • wound botulism
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search AMD1 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for AMD1

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with AMD1: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for AMD1 Gene

Publications for AMD1 Gene

  1. The crystal structure of human S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase at 2.25-A resolution reveals a novel fold. (PMID: 10378277) Ekstrom J.L. … Ealick S.E. (Structure 1999) 3 4 22 64
  2. Mechanistic studies of the processing of human S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase proenzyme. Isolation of an ester intermediate. (PMID: 10574985) Xiong H. … Pegg A.E. (J. Biol. Chem. 1999) 3 4 22 64
  3. Amino acid residues necessary for putrescine stimulation of human S- adenosylmethionine decarboxylase proenzyme processing and catalytic activity. (PMID: 1917972) Stanley B.A. … Pegg A.E. (J. Biol. Chem. 1991) 3 4 22 64
  4. A candidate gene study of folate-associated one carbon metabolism genes and colorectal cancer risk. (PMID: 20615890) Levine A.J. … Haile R.W. (Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 2010) 3 46 64
  5. Role of the sulfonium center in determining the ligand specificity of human s-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase. (PMID: 19527050) Bale S. … Ealick S.E. (Biochemistry 2009) 3 22 64

Products for AMD1 Gene

Sources for AMD1 Gene

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