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ALDH2 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 74
GCID: GC12P112205

Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 2 Family (Mitochondrial)

  See ALDH2-related diseases

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
About This Section

Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 2 Family (Mitochondrial)1 2     Acetaldehyde Dehydrogenase 22
ALDH-E22 3     Aldehyde Dehydrogenase, Mitochondrial2
ALDHI2 3     Liver Mitochondrial ALDH2
ALDM2 3     Nucleus-Encoded Mitochondrial Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 22
ALDH Class 22 3     EC 1.2.18
EC 8     

External Ids:    HGNC: 4041   Entrez Gene: 2172   Ensembl: ENSG000001112757   OMIM: 1006505   UniProtKB: P050913   

Export aliases for ALDH2 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifiers: GC12P111101 GC12P111726 GC12P111987 GC12P110616 GC12P110667 GC12P109217

(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
About This Section

Entrez Gene summary for ALDH2 Gene:
This protein belongs to the aldehyde dehydrogenase family of proteins. Aldehyde dehydrogenase is the second enzyme
of the major oxidative pathway of alcohol metabolism. Two major liver isoforms of aldehyde dehydrogenase,
cytosolic and mitochondrial, can be distinguished by their electrophoretic mobilities, kinetic properties, and
subcellular localizations. Most Caucasians have two major isozymes, while approximately 50% of Orientals have the
cytosolic isozyme but not the mitochondrial isozyme. A remarkably higher frequency of acute alcohol intoxication
among Orientals than among Caucasians could be related to the absence of a catalytically active form of the
mitochondrial isozyme. The increased exposure to acetaldehyde in individuals with the catalytically inactive form
may also confer greater susceptibility to many types of cancer. This gene encodes a mitochondrial isoform, which
has a low Km for acetaldehydes, and is localized in mitochondrial matrix. Alternative splicing results in
multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms.(provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011)

GeneCards Summary for ALDH2 Gene:
ALDH2 (aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 family (mitochondrial)) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with ALDH2 include alcoholic neuropathy, and hangover. GO annotations related to this gene include electron carrier activity and aldehyde dehydrogenase [NAD(P)+] activity. An important paralog of this gene is ALDH1L2.

summary for ALDH2 Gene:
Aldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes oxidize aldehydes to generate carboxylic acids for use in the muscle and
heart. Numerous aldehyde dehydrogenase genes exist, of which ALDH2 is best known for its role in alcohol
oxidation. Over 550 aldehyde genes have been identified across different species, which can be split into
numerous families. There are 19 known human aldehyde dehydrogenase genes. ALDH2, a human mitochondrial
enzyme belonging to family 2, is responsible for breaking down acetaldehyde produced by ethanol. Inhibition
of aldehyde dehydrogenase therefore results in the build-up of acetaldehyde, a toxic metabolite which is
thought to be responsible for 'hangover' symptoms.

Gene Wiki entry for ALDH2 Gene

(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
About This Section

RefSeq DNA sequence at NCBI GenBank:
NC_000012.11  NC_018923.2  NT_029419.13  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the ALDH2 gene promoter:
         PPAR-alpha   PPAR-gamma1   Sp1   p53   FOXJ2 (long isoform)   FOXJ2   PPAR-gamma2   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmids (see all 2): ALDH2 promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for ALDH2

DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat ALDH2

Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 12q24.2   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  12q24.12   HGNC cytogenetic band: 12q24.12

ALDH2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
ALDH2 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 12         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC12P112205:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

112,204,691 bp from pter      End:
112,247,789 bp from pter
43,099 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, antibodies-online, and/or GeneTex,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, antibodies-online, and/or GeneTex.)
About This Section

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: ALDH2_HUMAN, P05091 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Aldehyde dehydrogenase, mitochondrial precursor  
Size: 517 amino acids; 56381 Da
Subunit: Homotetramer
Sequence caution: Sequence=AAA62825.1; Type=Frameshift; Positions=424, 444, 448, 461; Sequence=CAA68290.1;
Type=Frameshift; Positions=Several; Sequence=CAA68290.1; Type=Miscellaneous discrepancy;
Selected PDB 3D structures from and Proteopedia for ALDH2 (see all 24):
1CW3 (3D)        1NZW (3D)        1NZX (3D)        1NZZ (3D)        1O00 (3D)        1O01 (3D)    
Secondary accessions: B4DW54 E7EUE5 Q03639 Q6IB13 Q6IV71
Alternative splicing: 2 isoforms:  P05091-1   P05091-2   (No experimental confirmation available)

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for ALDH2: NX_P05091

Explore proteomics data for ALDH2 at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Modification sites at neXtProt
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Selected DME Specific Peptides for ALDH2 (P05091) (see all 36)

    See ALDH2 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins (2 alternative transcripts): 
    NP_000681.2  NP_001191818.1  

    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000403349   ENSP00000261733   ENSP00000448179   ENSP00000474669  
    Reactome Protein details: P05091

    ALDH2 Human Recombinant Protein Products:

    Browse Purified and Recombinant Proteins at EMD Millipore
    Browse R&D Systems for human recombinant proteins
    Browse recombinant and purified proteins available from Enzo Life Sciences
    OriGene Purified Protein for ALDH2
    OriGene Protein Over-expression Lysate for ALDH2
    OriGene MassSpec for ALDH2
    OriGene Custom Protein Services for ALDH2
    GenScript Custom Purified and Recombinant Proteins Services for ALDH2
    Novus Biologicals ALDH2 Proteins
    Novus Biologicals ALDH2 Lysates
    Browse Sino Biological Recombinant Proteins
    Browse Sino Biological Cell Lysates
    ProSpec Recombinant Protein for ALDH2
    Browse Proteins at Cloud-Clone Corp.

    Search eBioscience for Proteins for ALDH2 

    antibodies-online proteins for ALDH2 (15 products) 

    antibodies-online peptides for ALDH2

    Search GeneTex for Proteins for ALDH2 

    ALDH2 Antibody Products:

    Browse EMD Millipore's Extensive Line of Mono- and Polyclonal Antibodies
    Browse R&D Systems for Antibodies
    OriGene Antibodies for ALDH2
    OriGene Custom Antibody Services for ALDH2
    Novus Biologicals ALDH2 Antibodies
    Abcam antibodies for ALDH2
    Browse Antibodies at Cloud-Clone Corp.
    ThermoFisher Antibody for ALDH2
    antibodies-online antibodies for ALDH2 (85 products) 

    GeneTex Antibodies for ALDH2:  
                        ALDH2 Antibodies

    ALDH2 Assay Products:

    Browse Kits and Assays available from EMD Millipore
    OriGene Custom Assay Services for ALDH2
    Browse R&D Systems for biochemical assays
    GenScript Custom Assay Services for ALDH2
    Browse Enzo Life Sciences for kits & assays
    Browse ELISAs at Cloud-Clone Corp.
    Browse CLIAs at Cloud-Clone Corp.
    Search eBioscience for ELISAs for ALDH2 
    antibodies-online kits for ALDH2 (14 products) 

    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GenesLikeMe)
    About This Section

    HGNC Gene Families:
    ALDH: Aldehyde dehydrogenases

    5 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR016163 Ald_DH_C
     IPR016162 Ald_DH_N
     IPR016161 Ald_DH/histidinol_DH
     IPR015590 Aldehyde_DH_dom
     IPR016160 Ald_DH_CS

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P05091

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P05091

    2 Blocks protein domains:
    IPB001484 Pyrokinin
    IPB002086 Aldehyde dehydrogenase

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: ALDH2_HUMAN, P05091
    Similarity: Belongs to the aldehyde dehydrogenase family

    Find genes that share domains with ALDH2           About GenesLikeMe

    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, genOway, and/or Taconic Biosciences, CRISPR knockouts from OriGene, transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene, Sets of similar genes according to GenesLikeMe)
    About This Section

    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: ALDH2_HUMAN, P05091
    Catalytic activity: An aldehyde + NAD(+) + H(2)O = a carboxylate + NADH

         Genatlas biochemistry entry for ALDH2:
    aldehyde dehydrogenase 2,mitochondrial,E2 isoform

         Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB): EC 2 EC 1.2.12

         Gene Ontology (GO): 4 molecular function terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0004029aldehyde dehydrogenase (NAD) activity EXP--
    GO:0004030aldehyde dehydrogenase [NAD(P)+] activity TAS8903321
    GO:0009055electron carrier activity TAS8903321
    GO:0016491oxidoreductase activity ----
    Find genes that share ontologies with ALDH2           About GenesLikeMe

         15 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 3 alleles(MGI details for Aldh2):
     behavior/neurological  cellular  growth/size/body  hematopoietic system  homeostasis/metabolism 
     immune system  integument  limbs/digits/tail  mortality/aging  nervous system 
     other  reproductive system  skeleton  tumorigenesis  vision/eye 

    Find genes that share phenotypes with ALDH2           About GenesLikeMe

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-out Aldh2tm1Kaw for ALDH2

       genOway: Develop your customized and physiologically relevant rodent model for ALDH2

        Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for ALDH2: (see all 2
                        Aldh2 - 10721 - TTG

    CRISPR Knockouts: 
       OriGene CRISPR knockouts for ALDH2

    miRTarBase miRNAs that target ALDH2:
    hsa-mir-615-3p (MIRT039939), hsa-mir-16-5p (MIRT031438), hsa-mir-1 (MIRT023536), hsa-mir-335-5p (MIRT016754)

    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat ALDH2 using miScript Target Protectors
    Search for qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate ALDH2
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidALDH2 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for ALDH2
    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat ALDH2

    OriGene clones in human, mouse for ALDH2 (see all 7)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for ALDH2
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector (see all 2): ALDH2 (NM_000690)
    Sino Biological Human cDNA Clone for ALDH2
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat ALDH2

    Cell Line
    GenScript Custom overexpressing Cell Line Services for ALDH2
    Browse ESI BIO Cell Lines and PureStem Progenitors for ALDH2 
    In Situ Assay

    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for ALDH2

    Flow Cytometry

    eBioscience FlowRNA Probe Sets ( VA1-12333) for ALDH2 

    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene, Sets of similar genes according to GenesLikeMe)
    About This Section

    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    ALDH2_HUMAN, P05091: Mitochondrion matrix
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 


    Gene Ontology (GO): 2 cellular component terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005759mitochondrial matrix TAS--
    GO:0070062extracellular vesicular exosome IDA19056867

    Find genes that share ontologies with ALDH2           About GenesLikeMe

    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GenesLikeMe, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene, Sets of similar genes according to GenesLikeMe)
    About This Section

    SuperPaths for ALDH2 About   (see all 22)  
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Cytochrome P450 - arranged by substrate type
    Phase 1 - Functionalization of compounds0.75
    Fatty Acid Omega Oxidation0.00
    Ethanol oxidation0.00
    2Tryptophan metabolism
    Tryptophan metabolism0.46
    Tryptophan metabolism0.46
    Metabolic pathways0.38
    4beta-Alanine metabolism (KEGG)
    phenylethylamine degradation I0.00
    beta-Alanine metabolism
    5Transmission across Chemical Synapses
    Transmission across Chemical Synapses0.72
    Neurotransmitter Clearance In The Synaptic Cleft0.00
    Neuronal System0.68

    Find genes that share SuperPaths with ALDH2           About GenesLikeMe

    Pathways by source                                   See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways

    1 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) Pathway for ALDH2
        Retinol metabolism

    Selected BioSystems Pathways for ALDH2 (see all 13)
        oxidative ethanol degradation III
    ethanol degradation II
    ethanol degradation IV
    serotonin degradation
    noradrenaline and adrenaline degradation

    2 Reactome Pathways for ALDH2
        Metabolism of serotonin
    Ethanol oxidation

    2 PharmGKB Pathways for ALDH2
        Cyclophosphamide Pathway, Pharmacodynamics
    Ifosfamide Pathway, Pharmacodynamics

    Selected Kegg Pathways  (Kegg details for ALDH2) (see all 14):
        Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis
    Pentose and glucuronate interconversions
    Ascorbate and aldarate metabolism
    Fatty acid degradation
    Valine, leucine and isoleucine degradation

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: ALDH2_HUMAN, P05091
    Pathway: Alcohol metabolism; ethanol degradation; acetate from ethanol: step 2/2

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including ALDH2: 

              Fatty Acid Metabolism in human mouse rat
              Amino Acid Metabolism II in human mouse rat
              Drug Metabolism: Phase I Enzymes in human mouse rat
              Stem Cells in human mouse rat
              Molecular Toxicology PathwayFinder 384HT in human mouse rat


        GeneGlobe Interaction Network for ALDH2

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    Selected Interacting proteins for ALDH2 (P050912, 3 ENSP000002617334) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 331)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    C14orf1Q9UKR52, 3MINT-63389 I2D: score=5 
    SLC35F6Q8N3572, 3MINT-63388 I2D: score=5 
    UNC119Q134322, 3MINT-63385 I2D: score=5 
    CRMP1Q141942, 3MINT-63386 I2D: score=4 
    IGSF21Q96ID52, 3MINT-63387 I2D: score=4 
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected biological process terms (see all 10):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005975carbohydrate metabolic process TAS8903321
    GO:0006066alcohol metabolic process TAS1306115
    GO:0006068ethanol catabolic process IEA--
    GO:0006069ethanol oxidation TAS--
    GO:0006805xenobiotic metabolic process TAS--

    Find genes that share ontologies with ALDH2           About GenesLikeMe

    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB, Sets of similar genes according to GenesLikeMe)
    About This Section

    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Compounds for ALDH2 available from Tocris Bioscience    About this table
    CompoundAction CAS #
    WIN 18446ALDH1a2 inhibitor[1477-57-2]
    Alda 1ALDH2 activator; cardioprotective[349438-38-6]

    Selected HMDB Compounds for ALDH2 (see all 43)    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
    (S)-Methylmalonic acid semialdehyde(S)-Methylmalonate semialdehyde (see all 3)99043-16-0--
    2-Methyl-3-oxopropanoic acid2-Methyl-3-oxopropanoate (see all 7)6236-08-4--
    2-Propyn-1-al ----
    20-Oxo-leukotriene E420-oxo-LTE(,4) (see all 3)----
    20-oxo-leukotriene B420-carboxyleukotriene B4 ----
    3-Aminopropionaldehyde3-Aminopropanal (see all 3)352-92-1--
    3-Butyn-1-al 52844-23-2--
    3a,7a-Dihydroxy-5b-cholestan-26-al3a,7a-Dihydroxy-5b-cholestan-26-al;3alpha,7alpha-dihydroxy-5beta-cholestan-27-al;5beta-cholestane-3alpha,7alpha-diol-27-al;5beta-cholestan-27-al-3alpha,7alpha-diol ----
    3a,7a-Dihydroxycoprostanic acid3a,7a-Dihydroxy-5b-cholestan-26-oate (see all 14)17974-66-2--
    4-Acetamidobutanoic acidN-Acetyl-4-aminobutanoate (see all 11)3025-96-5--

    10 DrugBank Compounds for ALDH2    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #TypeActionsPubMed Ids
    Daidzin4',7-Dihydroxyisoflavone (see all 8)552-66-9target--17139284 17016423 10592235
    Nicotinamide-Adenine-Dinucleotide-- 53-84-9target--17139284 17016423 10592235
    Crotonaldehyde-- --target--17139284 17016423
    DisulfiramDisulfuram (see all 16)97-77-8targetinhibitor17220694 16051882
    GuanidineAminomethanamidine (see all 9)113-00-8target--17139284 17016423
    NADHbeta-DPNH (see all 18)606-68-8target--17488809 16961761
    Amyl NitriteAmyl nitrosum (see all 6)110-46-3enzymesubstrate20543077
    Benzyl alcohol(Hydroxymethyl)benzene (see all 10)100-51-6enzymesubstrate7645026
    Nitric Oxide-- 10102-43-9enzymeinhibitor16242127
    NitroglycerinGlyceryl trinitrate (see all 7)55-63-0enzymesubstrate20543077

    Selected Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for ALDH2 gene (see all 61)    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    acetaldehyde 93.7 268 16365683 (5), 18616675 (4), 16403513 (4), 14722101 (4) (see all 99)
    daidzin 75.3 28 8433985 (3), 11563931 (3), 9050837 (3), 18613661 (3) (see all 9)
    ethanol 75.2 116 19144977 (4), 16316071 (3), 10826103 (3), 8512495 (3) (see all 58)
    propionaldehyde 67.3 2 15703303 (1), 17655326 (1)
    nitroglycerin 63.4 83 17585900 (5), 16051882 (5), 18272654 (3), 16440063 (3) (see all 21)
    retinaldehyde 62 1 10559215 (1)
    aldophosphamide 61.2 2 1610409 (2)
    rsai 58.1 2 15318112 (1), 11696658 (1)
    disulfiram 56.1 8 17980785 (2), 9605433 (2), 9354647 (2), 16051882 (1) (see all 5)
    betaine aldehyde 54.7 1 1527093 (1)

    Find genes that share compounds with ALDH2           About GenesLikeMe

    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
    About This Section

    REFSEQ mRNAs for ALDH2 gene (2 alternative transcripts): 
    NM_000690.3  NM_001204889.1  

    Unigene Cluster for ALDH2:

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 family (mitochondrial)
    Hs.604551  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_000690
    4 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000416293 ENST00000261733(uc001tst.3 uc010syi.2) ENST00000548536
    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat ALDH2 using miScript Target Protectors
    Search for qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate ALDH2
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidALDH2 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for ALDH2
    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat ALDH2
    OriGene clones in human, mouse for ALDH2 (see all 7)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for ALDH2
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector (see all 2): ALDH2 (NM_000690)
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat ALDH2
    OriGene qPCR primer pairs and template standards for ALDH2
    OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human, mouse for ALDH2
    Pre-validated RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat ALDH2
      QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat ALDH2
      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat ALDH2
    Flow Cytometry

    eBioscience FlowRNA Probe Sets ( VA1-12333) for ALDH2 

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AK223373.1 AK301375.1 AK314856.1 AY621070.1 BC002967.1 BC071839.1 CR456991.1 K03001.1 
    M26760.1 M54931.1 S80262.1 X05409.1 Y00109.1 

    24 DOTS entries:

    DT.100825560  DT.219231  DT.100825566  DT.100825563  DT.100030509  DT.100825574  DT.92458180  DT.95159151 
    DT.100825577  DT.121177828  DT.92458189  DT.95159142  DT.95159145  DT.100825568  DT.121177818  DT.121177839 
    DT.92458178  DT.95159116  DT.100825562  DT.121177767  DT.121177793  DT.95159148  DT.92018440  DT.92458173 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 651):

    BC015056 BG696274 AI056873 AI460073 AA969786 AW188884 AV650553 AI186384 
    AA419072 T08954 AA243179 BI834562 BQ631709 BP871792 CA424936 BG056829 
    BM765982 CR617194 AI632521 BM784372 BM664828 BU151478 BU849300 BQ362166 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    4 Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for ALDH2    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10a · 10b ^ 11 ^ 12 ^ 13 ^ 14a · 14b · 14c
    SP2:              -                                                                                                         
    SP3:              -                 -     -     -                                                                           
    SP4:                                                                                            -                           

    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for ALDH2

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GenesLikeMe, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
    About This Section

    ALDH2 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    ALDH2 Expression
    About this image

    ALDH2 expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 17) fully expand
     Brain (Nervous System)    fully expand to see all 7 entries
             Adult Endothelial Cells Blood Brain Barrier
             Cerebral Cortex
     Neural Tube (Nervous System)    fully expand to see all 3 entries
     Blood (Hematopoietic System)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             Monocytes Peripheral Blood
     NULL (Uncategorized)
             Adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction and adipocytes (HiQCell)
     Testis (Reproductive System)
             Leydig Cells Testis Interstitium
    ALDH2 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    ALDH2 Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.604551
        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including ALDH2: 
              Fatty Acid Metabolism in human mouse rat
              Amino Acid Metabolism II in human mouse rat
              Drug Metabolism: Phase I Enzymes in human mouse rat
              Stem Cells in human mouse rat
              Molecular Toxicology PathwayFinder 384HT in human mouse rat

    OriGene qPCR primer pairs and template standards for ALDH2
    OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human, mouse for ALDH2
    Pre-validated RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat ALDH2
    QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat ALDH2
    QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat ALDH2
    In Situ
    Assay Products:

    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for ALDH2

    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
    About This Section

    This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

    Orthologs for ALDH2 gene from Selected species (see all 24)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    Gene Description Human
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Aldh21 , 5 aldehyde dehydrogenase 2, mitochondrial1, 5 86.82(n)1
      5 (61.86 cM)5
    116691  NM_009656.31  NP_033786.11 
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves ALDH21 aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 family (mitochondrial) 76.55(n)
      416880  XM_415171.4  XP_415171.3 
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia --
    Uncharacterized protein
    1 → many
    tropical clawed frog
    (Xenopus tropicalis)
    Amphibia aldh21 aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 family (mitochondrial) 72.81(n)
      448267  NM_001004907.1  NP_001004907.1 
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii AY398308.12   -- 76.43(n)    AY398308.1 
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta CG37523
    aldehyde dehydrogenase (NAD+)3
    Aldehyde dehydrogenase1
    342561  NM_135441.21  NP_609285.11 
    (Caenorhabditis elegans)
    Secernentea alh-11 alh-1 61.75(n)
      175691  NM_065680.5  NP_498081.2 
    baker's yeast
    (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
    Saccharomycetes ALD5(YER073W)4
    Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase, involved in regulation more4
    8568041, 4  NP_010996.21  NP_010996.14 
    thale cress
    (Arabidopsis thaliana)
    eudicotyledons ALDH2B41 ALDH2B4 58.88(n)
      823955  NM_114669.3  NP_190383.1 
    (Zea mays)
    Liliopsida AY106673.12   -- 73.81(n)    AY106673.1 

    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for ALDH2 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for ALDH2 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to Build 68,Sets of similar genes according to GenesLikeMe)
    About This Section

    Paralogs for ALDH2 gene
    ALDH1L22  ALDH1A12  ENSG000002577672  ALDH1A22  ALDH1B12  ALDH7A12  ALDH6A12  ALDH8A12  
    ALDH9A12  ALDH1A32  ALDH1L12  
    13 SIMAP similar genes for ALDH2 using alignment to 8 protein entries:     ALDH2_HUMAN (see all proteins):
    ALDH1A2    ALDH1A1    ALDH1B1    ALDH1A3    DKFZp686G1675    ALDH1L1
    ALDH9A1    ALDH1L2    ALDH8A1    ALDH5A1    ALDH6A1    ALDH7A1

    Find genes that share paralogs with ALDH2           About GenesLikeMe

    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, and 4UniProtKB, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
    About This Section

    Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    ALDH2_HUMAN, P05091: Genetic variation in ALDH2 is responsible for individual differences in responses to drinking
    alcohol [MIM:610251]. Allele ALDH2*2 is associated with a very high incidence of acute alcohol intoxication in
    Orientals and South American Indians, as compared to Caucasians

    Selected SNPs for ALDH2 (see all 840)    About this table                                 

    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    Chr 12 posSequence#AA
    C,F,Hdrug-response1112037845(+) ACACTG/AAAGTG 4 /K /E mis1 ese326Minor allele frequency- A:0.12MN CA NS EA NA 2426
    C,F--111998816(+) GCCTCA/GCCTTC 2 -- us2k12Minor allele frequency- G:0.09WA 120
    --111998866(+) CTAAT-/TGTG  
    2 -- us2k10--------
    C--111998867(+) TAATT-/G/GTGTGTGT
    4 -- us2k1 cds10--------
    --111998962(+) GGTCTC/TGAACT 2 -- us2k10--------
    --111998987(+) ATCTAA/CCCGCC 2 -- us2k10--------
    --111998990(+) TACCCA/GCCTCA 2 -- us2k10--------
    --111999047(+) AGCCTA/CATTTC 2 -- us2k10--------
    --111999278(+) TGGCAC/TGGTGG 2 -- us2k10--------
    --111999335(+) CACCTA/GAGGTC 2 -- us2k10--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for ALDH2 (112204691 - 112247789 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 4 variations for ALDH2:    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    nsv515716CNV Gain19592680
    nsv470317CNV Gain18288195
    dgv1492n71CNV Gain21882294
    nsv455715CNV Gain19166990

    Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD): ALDH2
    Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB): ALDH2

    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing ALDH2

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB, Sets of similar genes according to GenesLikeMe)
    About This Section

    OMIM gene information: 100650   
    OMIM disorders: 610251  
    16 diseases for ALDH2:    
    About MalaCards
    alcoholic neuropathy    hangover    alcohol sensitivity, acute    sublingual nitroglycerin poor response to
    esophageal cancer, alcohol-related    alcohol dependence    fetal alcohol syndrome    esophageal cancer
    pancreatitis    liver cirrhosis    antisocial personality disorder    alcoholic liver cirrhosis
    alcohol dependence, protection against    alcohol abuse    gout    esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    5 inferred disease relationships from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for ALDH2:
    Alcohol dependence     Esophageal cancer     Substance abuse     Liver disease
    Squamous cell carcinoma

    Find genes that share disorders with ALDH2           About GenesLikeMe

    Selected Novoseek inferred disease relationships for ALDH2 gene (see all 56)    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    alcoholism 83.4 127 7625477 (5), 10803776 (4), 1492799 (4), 7573775 (3) (see all 59)
    liver diseases alcoholic 66.3 20 11410736 (5), 15519646 (2), 8986242 (1), 8591846 (1) (see all 10)
    pancreatitis alcoholic 60.7 7 11117576 (2), 8985275 (1), 8986224 (1), 10235286 (1) (see all 5)
    alcohol abuse 56.6 2 19251111 (1)
    alcoholic cirrhosis 54.8 7 12824748 (1), 15220553 (1), 8845660 (1), 11748356 (1) (see all 5)
    alcoholic neuropathy 52.6 3 15182962 (2), 15542751 (1)
    macrocytosis 51.1 2 16759795 (1), 17295873 (1)
    smoking habit 47.2 9 15714130 (3), 18216179 (2), 8903472 (2), 17207821 (1)
    carcinoma squamous cell 43.5 18 16759795 (2), 16639733 (2), 16499490 (2), 18322963 (2) (see all 12)
    genetic susceptibility 41.6 1 19449376 (1)

    Genatlas disease: ALDH2
    facial flushing reaction to alcohol

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): ALDH2
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: ALDH2 (303 documents)

    Export disorders for ALDH2 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
    About This Section

    PubMed articles for ALDH2 gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 699) (see top 10):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with ALDH2)

    1. Cloning of cDNAs for human aldehyde dehydrogenases 1 and 2. (PubMed id 2987944)1, 2, 3 Hsu L.C.... Yoshida A. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1985)
    2. Molecular abnormality and cDNA cloning of human aldehyde dehydrogenases. (PubMed id 4015823)1, 2, 3 Yoshida A.... Tani K. (Alcohol 1985)
    3. Meta-analysis of three diabetes population studies: association of inactive ALDH2 genotype with maternal inheritance of diabetes. (PubMed id 15563966)1, 4, 9 Murata C....Suzuki Y. (Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. 2004)
    4. Association between personality traits and ALDH2 polymorphism in Japanese male alcoholics. (PubMed id 19298328)1, 4, 9 Kimura M....Kashima H. (Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. 2009)
    5. Genetic association between aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) variation and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) among non-drinkers in two large population samples in Japan. (PubMed id 18776700)1, 4, 9 Wada M....Kato T. (J. Atheroscler. Thromb. 2008)
    6. Aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 genotypes and HLA haplotypes in Japanese patients with esophageal cancer. (PubMed id 12168074)1, 4, 9 Watanabe S....Kuriyama S. (Oncol. Rep. 2002)
    7. Salivary acetaldehyde concentration according to alcoholic beverage consumed and aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 genotype. (PubMed id 18616675)1, 4, 9 Yokoyama A....Yokoyama T. (Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. 2008)
    8. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 and beta3-adrenergic receptor gene polymorphisms: their association with elevated liver enzymes and metabolic syndrome. (PubMed id 14506613)1, 4, 9 Murata C....Okazaki I. (Metab. Clin. Exp. 2003)
    9. Genetic polymorphisms in cytochrome P4502E1, alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases and the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Gansu Chinese males. (PubMed id 18322963)1, 4, 9 Guo Y.M....Guo Q.H. (World J. Gastroenterol. 2008)
    10. Interactive effects of lifetime alcohol consumption and alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase polymorphisms on esophageal cancer risks. (PubMed id 17036331)1, 4, 9 Chen Y.J....Wu M.T. (Int. J. Cancer 2006)
    11. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 genotypes in Japanese females. (PubMed id 16499490)1, 4, 9 Yokoyama A....Watanabe H. (Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. 2006)
    12. ALDH2 and CYP2E1 genotypes, urinary acetaldehyde excretion and the health consequences in moderate alcohol consumers. (PubMed id 16365683)1, 4, 9 Yamada Y....Honda R. (J. Hum. Genet. 2006)
    13. Gene-environment interaction between an aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) polymorphism and alcohol consumption for the risk of esophageal cancer. (PubMed id 11375898)1, 4, 9 Matsuo K....Tajima K. (Carcinogenesis 2001)
    14. Absence of association on aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) polymorphism with Mongolian Alzheimer patients. (PubMed id 19914339)1, 4, 9 Zhou S....Ma X. (Neurosci. Lett. 2010)
    15. MAOA-uVNTR polymorphism may modify the protective effect of ALDH2 gene against alcohol dependence in antisocial personality disorder. (PubMed id 19302089)1, 4, 9 Lee S.Y....Lu R.B. (Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. 2009)
    16. Associations of ALDH2 and ADH1B genotypes with alcohol-related phenotypes in Asian young adults. (PubMed id 19298323)1, 4, 9 Hendershot C.S....Larimer M.E. (Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. 2009)
    17. Association of ALDH2 polymorphism with sensitivity to acetaldehyde-induced micronuclei and facial flushing after alcohol intake. (PubMed id 15840430)1, 4, 9 Kim J.S....Chung H.W. (Toxicology 2005)
    18. ALDH2/ADH2 polymorphism associated with vasculopathy and neuropathy in type 2 diabetes. (PubMed id 15318096)1, 4, 9 Suzuki Y....Matsuoka K. (Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. 2004)
    19. Influence of NQO1, ALDH2, and CYP2E1 genetic polymorphisms, smoking, and alcohol drinking on the risk of lung cancer in Koreans. (PubMed id 18798003)1, 4, 9 Eom S.Y....Kim H. (amp 2009)
    20. [Genetic polymorphisms of alcohol dehydrogenase-2 and aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 associated with the susceptibility on esophageal cancer]. (PubMed id 19799139)1, 4, 9 Ding J.H....Yao G.H. (Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2009)
    21. Genetic modulation of ADH1B and ALDH2 polymorphisms with regard to alcohol and tobacco consumption for younger aged esophageal squamous cell carcinoma diagnosis. (PubMed id 19449376)1, 4, 9 Lee C.H....Wu M.T. (Int. J. Cancer 2009)
    22. Carcinogenetic impact of ADH1B and ALDH2 genes on squamous cell carcinoma risk of the esophagus with regard to the consumption of alcohol, tobacco and betel quid. (PubMed id 18033686)1, 4, 9 Lee C.H....Wu M.T. (Int. J. Cancer 2008)
    23. Ethnic differences in level of response to alcohol between Chinese Americans and Korean Americans. (PubMed id 18299763)1, 4, 9 Duranceaux N.C....Wall T.L. (J Stud Alcohol Drugs 2008)
    24. Influence of ALDH2 genetic polymorphisms on aciclovir pharmacokinetics following oral administration of valaciclovir in Japanese end-stage renal disease patients. (PubMed id 18974607)1, 4, 9 Hara K....Nagashima S. (Drug Metab. Pharmacokinet. 2008)
    25. Association of alcohol dehydrogenase 2 and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 genotypes with fasting plasma glucose levels in Japanese male and female workers. (PubMed id 18216179)1, 4, 9 Dakeishi M....Iwata T. (Alcohol Alcohol. 2008)
    26. Alcohol dehydrogenase-2 and aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 genotypes, alcohol drinking and the risk of primary hepatocellular carcinoma in a Chinese population. (PubMed id 18439068)1, 4, 9 Ding J....Chang J. (Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev. 2008)
    27. Effects of variation at the ALDH2 locus on alcohol metabolism, sensitivity, consumption, and dependence in Europeans. (PubMed id 16792555)1, 4, 9 Dickson P.A....Birley A.J. (Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. 2006)
    28. Gene-environmental interactions between alcohol-drinking behavior and ALDH2 and CYP2E1 polymorphisms and their impact on micronuclei frequency in human lymphocytes. (PubMed id 16126235)1, 4, 9 Ishikawa H....Yokoyama K. (Mutat. Res. 2006)
    29. Relationship between genetic polymorphisms of alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma risk in males. (PubMed id 16127737)1, 4, 9 Wu C.F....Wu M.T. (World J. Gastroenterol. 2005)
    30. [Effects of genetic polymorphisms of ethanol-metabolizing enzymes on alcohol drinking behaviors]. (PubMed id 12824748)1, 4, 9 Kee J.Y....Chae H.B. (Taehan Kan Hakhoe Chi 2003)
    31. Multiple cancers associated with esophageal and oropharyngolaryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and the aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 genotype in male Japanese drinkers. (PubMed id 12223435)1, 4, 9 Yokoyama A....Tachimori Y. (amp 2002)
    32. Genetic polymorphisms of alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases and glutathione S-transferase M1 and drinking, smoking, and diet in Japanese men with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. (PubMed id 12419833)1, 4, 9 Yokoyama A....Yoshimizu H. (Carcinogenesis 2002)
    33. ALDH2 genetic polymorphism and the risk of type II diabetes mellitus in CAD patients. (PubMed id 19876063)1, 4, 9 Xu F....Zhang Y. (Hypertens. Res. 2010)
    34. [Relationship between susceptibility of formaldehyde metabolism and genetic polymorphisms of ALDH2 and cytochrome P4502E1]. (PubMed id 19115622)1, 4, 9 Cheng X.M....Shao H. (Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2008)
    35. Polymorphisms of alcohol dehydrogenase 2 and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 and colorectal cancer risk in Chinese males. (PubMed id 18763293)1, 4, 9 Gao C.M....Tajima K. (World J. Gastroenterol. 2008)
    36. Roles of the genetic variation of alcohol-metabolizing enzymes on biomarkers in trauma patients with excessive alcohol intake at emergency department. (PubMed id 18078815)1, 4, 9 Tseng Y.M....Lee J.H. ( international journal of clinical chemistry 2008)
    37. Susceptibility to lung cancer and genetic polymorphisms in the alcohol metabolite-related enzymes alcohol dehydrogenase 3, aldehyde dehydrogenase 2, and cytochrome P450 2E1 in the Japanese population. (PubMed id 17559142)1, 4, 9 Minegishi Y....Esumi H. (Cancer 2007)
    38. Genetic polymorphisms of ADH2 and ALDH2 association with esophageal cancer risk in southwest China. (PubMed id 17963305)1, 4, 9 Yang S.J....Yang C.X. (World J. Gastroenterol. 2007)
    39. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of the ALDH2 gene in six Indian populations. (PubMed id 17952709)1, 4, 9 Bhaskar L.V....Rao V.R. (Ann. Hum. Biol. 2007)
    40. A Glu487Lys polymorphism in the gene for mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 is associated with myocardial infarction in elderly Korean men. (PubMed id 17459359)1, 4, 9 Jo S.A....Jo I. ( international journal of clinical chemistry 2007)
    41. Dietary selenium intake, aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 and X-ray repair cross-complementing 1 genetic polymorphisms, and the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. (PubMed id 16639733)1, 4, 9 Cai L....Zhang Z.F. (Cancer 2006)
    42. Esophageal cancer risk by ALDH2 and ADH2 polymorphisms and alcohol consumption: exploration of gene-environment and gene-gene interactions. (PubMed id 16235983)1, 4, 9 Yang C.X....Tajima K. (Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev. 2005)
    43. [Polymorphism of alcohol metabolizing-related enzyme genes and its correlation with drinking-behaviors in 201 cases of Chinese Han healthy population]. (PubMed id 15842823)1, 4, 9 Cao X.R. and Wu D.S. (Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2005)
    44. Genetic polymorphisms of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2, cytochrome p450 2E1 for liver cancer risk in HCV antibody-positive japanese patients and the variations of CYP2E1 mRNA expression levels in the liver due to its polymorphism. (PubMed id 12940444)1, 4, 9 Kato S....Naito Z. (Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 2003)
    45. Mean corpuscular volume and the aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 genotype in male Japanese workers. (PubMed id 14506399)1, 4, 9 Yokoyama M....Nakamura H. (Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. 2003)
    46. XRCC1, CYP2E1 and ALDH2 genetic polymorphisms and sister chromatid exchange frequency alterations amongst vinyl chloride monomer-exposed polyvinyl chloride workers. (PubMed id 12739102)1, 4, 9 Wong R.H....Cheng T.J. (Arch. Toxicol. 2003)
    47. Effects of ALDH2 gene polymorphisms and alcohol-drinking behavior on micronuclei frequency in non-smokers. (PubMed id 14568296)1, 4, 9 Ishikawa H....Yokoyama K. (Mutat. Res. 2003)
    48. Relationships between cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, the ALDH2 genotype and adenomatous types of colorectal polyps in male self-defense force officials. (PubMed id 11210104)1, 4, 9 Takeshita T....Kono S. (J Epidemiol 2000)
    49. Alcohol dehydrogenase-2 and aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 genotypes, alcohol drinking and the risk for esophageal cancer in a Chinese population. (PubMed id 20010786)1, 4, 9 Ding J.H....Yao G.H. (J. Hum. Genet. 2010)
    50. A novel polymorphism rs1329149 of CYP2E1 and a known polymorphism rs671 of ALDH2 of alcohol metabolizing enzymes are associated with colorectal cancer in a southwestern Chinese population. (PubMed id 19706845)1, 4, 9 Yang H....Cao J. (amp 2009)
    51. Polymorphisms of alcohol dehydrogenase-2 and aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 and esophageal cancer risk in Southeast Chinese males. (PubMed id 19452585)1, 4, 9 Ding J.H....Yao G.H. (World J. Gastroenterol. 2009)
    52. ALDH2 promoter polymorphism has no effect on the risk for alcoholism. (PubMed id 16624836)1, 4, 9 Kimura M....Higuchi S. (Alcohol Alcohol. 2006)
    53. Influence of alcohol consumption and gene polymorphisms of ADH2 and ALDH2 on hepatocellular carcinoma in a Japanese population. (PubMed id 16187278)1, 4, 9 Sakamoto T....Tanaka K. (Int. J. Cancer 2006)
    54. Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) Glu504Lys polymorphism contributes to the variation in efficacy of sublingual nitroglycerin. (PubMed id 16440063)1, 4, 9 Li Y....Jin L. (J. Clin. Invest. 2006)
    55. Effects of dietary intake and genetic factors on hypermethylation of the hMLH1 gene promoter in gastric cancer. (PubMed id 15991278)1, 4, 9 Nan H.M....Kim H. (World J. Gastroenterol. 2005)
    56. Assessment of association between mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase polymorphism and Alzheimer's disease in an older Korean population. (PubMed id 15123334)1, 4, 9 Kim J.M....Yoon J.S. (Neurobiol. Aging 2004)
    57. Do the ethanol metabolizing enzymes modify the relationship between alcohol consumption and blood pressure? (PubMed id 12777946)1, 4, 9 Saito K....Tanaka H. (J. Hypertens. 2003)
    58. Protective association of genetic variation in alcohol dehydrogenase with alcohol dependence in Native American Mission Indians. (PubMed id 12505800)1, 4, 9 Wall T.L....Ehlers C.L. (Am J Psychiatry 2003)
    59. An investigation of associations between alcohol use disorder and polymorphisms on ALDH2, BDNF, 5-HTTLPR, and MTHFR genes in older Korean men. (PubMed id 19637400)1, 4, 9 Shin S....Yoon J.S. (Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2010)
    60. Alcohol dehydrogenase 1B and Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 Polymorphisms in Uzbekistan. (PubMed id 19469618)1, 4, 9 Ahn K.S....Hamajima N. (Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev. 2009)
    61. SPINK1, ADH2, and ALDH2 gene variants and alcoholic chronic pancreatitis in Japan. (PubMed id 18336671)1, 4, 9 Shimosegawa T....Masamune A. (J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2008)
    62. Evidence for involvement of calcitonin gene-related peptide in nitroglycerin response and association with mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) Glu504Lys polymorphism. (PubMed id 18772068)1, 4, 9 Guo R....Li Y.J. (J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 2008)
    63. The effect of genetic polymorphisms in the vinyl chloride metabolic pathway on mutagenic risk. (PubMed id 17384900)1, 4, 9 Schindler J....Brandt-Rauf P.W. (J. Hum. Genet. 2007)
    64. Diplotype trend regression analysis of the ADH gene cluster and the ALDH2 gene: multiple significant associations with alcohol dependence. (PubMed id 16685648)1, 4, 9 Luo X....Gelernter J. (Am. J. Hum. Genet. 2006)
    65. Meta-analyses of ALDH2 and ADH1B with alcohol dependence in Asians. (PubMed id 16822169)1, 4, 9 Luczak S.E....Wall T.L. (Psychol Bull 2006)
    66. Associations of ALDH2 and ADH1B genotypes with response to alcohol in Asian Americans. (PubMed id 15957670)1, 4, 9 Cook T.A....Wall T.L. (J. Stud. Alcohol 2005)
    67. Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase polymorphism is not associated with incidence of Alzheimer's disease. (PubMed id 16250071)1, 4, 9 Shin I.S....Yoon J.S. (Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2005)
    68. Alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase polymorphisms in men with type I and Type II alcoholism. (PubMed id 15863807)1, 4, 9 Chai Y.G....Choi I.G. (Am J Psychiatry 2005)
    69. Association of aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 polymorphism with alcoholic polyneuropathy in humans. (PubMed id 15182962)1, 4, 9 Masaki T....Higuchi S. (Neurosci. Lett. 2004)
    70. Role of alcohol and genetic polymorphisms of CYP2E1 and ALDH2 in breast cancer development. (PubMed id 12563175)1, 4, 9 Choi J.Y....Kang D. (Pharmacogenetics 2003)
    71. Alcohol dehydrogenase-2 and aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 genotypes and male alcohol use disorders in Khon Kaen, north-east Thailand. (PubMed id 12519453)1, 4, 9 Osaka R....Fukuda K. (Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci. 2003)
    72. Polymorphisms for vinyl chloride metabolism in French vinyl chloride workers. (PubMed id 12705718)1, 4, 9 Li Y....Brandt-Rauf P.W. (Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2003)
    73. A case-control study of association between life-style, alcohol dehydrogenase 2 and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 genotype and idiopathic osteonecrosis of the femoral head. (PubMed id 14768474)1, 4, 9 Sakata R. (Kurume Med J 2003)
    74. Genotype of ethanol metabolizing enzyme genes by oligonucleotide microarray in alcoholic liver disease in Chinese people. (PubMed id 12173598)1, 4, 9 Yu C....Yue M. (Chin. Med. J. 2002)
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    343. SET overexpression decreases cell detoxification efficiency: ALDH2 and GSTP1 are downregulated, DDR is impaired and DNA damage accumulates. (PubMed id 23106910)1 Almeida L.O....Leopoldino A.M. (FEBS J. 2012)
    344. COMT and ALDH2 polymorphisms moderate associations of implicit drinking motives with alcohol use. (PubMed id 21309949)1 Hendershot C.S....Hutchison K.E. (Addict Biol 2012)
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    347. Acetylation-dependent regulation of mitochondrial ALDH2 activation by SIRT3 mediates acute ethanol-induced eNOS activation. (PubMed id 22155639)1 Xue L....Chen Y. (FEBS Lett. 2012)
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    362. Interaction between ALDH2*1*1 and DRD2/ANKK1 TaqI A1A1 genes may be associated with antisocial personality disorder not co-morbid with alcoholism. (PubMed id 21070510)1 Lu R.B....Ko H.C. (Addict Biol 2012)
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    364. ADH and ALDH polymorphisms and alcohol dependence in Mexican and Native Americans. (PubMed id 22931071)1 Ehlers C.L....Gizer I.R. (Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 2012)
    365. Dysplastic lesions in inflammatory bowel disease show increased positivity for the stem cell marker aldehyde dehydrogenase. (PubMed id 21820149)1 Toll A.D....Palazzo J.P. (Hum. Pathol. 2012)
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    368. Heavy binge drinking may increase risk of stroke in nonalcoholic hypertensives carrying variant ALDH2*2 gene allele. (PubMed id 22879089)1 Lai C.L....Peng G.S. (Acta Neurol Taiwan 2012)
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    376. Modification of the relationship between urinary 8-OHdG and hippuric acid concentration by GSTM1, GSTT1, and ALDH2 genotypes. (PubMed id 20488846)1 Kim Y.D....Kim H. (amp 2011)
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    620. Species variations in cutaneous alcohol dehydrogenases and aldehyde dehydrogenases may impact on toxicological assessments of alcohols and aldehydes. (PubMed id 12499113)9 Cheung C....Smith Pease C.K. (Toxicology 2003)
    621. The ADH3*2 and CYP2E1 c2 alleles increase the risk of alcoholism in Mexican American men. (PubMed id 12710951)9 Konishi T....Wan Y.J. (Exp. Mol. Pathol. 2003)
    622. Synthesis of daidzin analogues as potential agents for alcohol abuse. (PubMed id 12927869)9 Gao G.Y....Keung W.M. (amp 2003)
    623. Population distribution of aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 genetic polymorphism: implications for risk assessment. (PubMed id 12473414)9 Ginsberg G....Sonawane B. (Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 2002)
    624. Why can't Chinese Han drink alcohol? Hepatitis B virus infection and the evolution of acetaldehyde dehydrogenase deficiency. (PubMed id 12208210)9 Lin Y.P. and Cheng T.J. (Med. Hypotheses 2002)
    625. The effects of low Km aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) phenotype on drinking behavior in Japanese university students. (PubMed id 12380847)9 Sobue I....Morimoto K. (J. Stud. Alcohol 2002)
    626. Alcohol and retinoids. (PubMed id 11391073)9 Crabb D.W....Bode C. (Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. 2001)
    627. ADH2 and alcohol-related phenotypes in Ashkenazic Jewish American college students. (PubMed id 11545539)9 Shea S.H....Li T.K. (Behav. Genet. 2001)
    628. Genetic dissection of retinoid dehydrogenases. (PubMed id 11306068)9 Duester G. (Chem. Biol. Interact. 2001)
    629. Order and disorder in mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase. (PubMed id 11306026)9 Hurley T.D....Breen H. (Chem. Biol. Interact. 2001)
    630. Alcohol and cancer. (PubMed id 11391063)9 Seitz H.K....Wang X.D. (Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. 2001)
    631. The ALDH2 genotype, alcohol intake, and liver-function biomarkers among Japanese male workers. (PubMed id 10942105)9 Takeshita T....Morimoto K. (Hum. Genet. 2000)
    632. Polymorphisms of human aldehyde dehydrogenases. Consequences for drug metabolism and disease. (PubMed id 10971205)9 Vasiliou V. and Pappa A. (Pharmacology 2000)
    633. Deficiency in mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase increases the risk for late-onset Alzheimer's disease in the Japanese population. (PubMed id 10873585)9 Kamino K....Ohta S. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2000)
    634. Genetic polymorphism of enzymes involved in xenobiotic metabolism and the risk of colorectal cancer. (PubMed id 11059519)9 Kiyohara C. (J Epidemiol 2000)
    635. Accumulation of hemoglobin-associated acetaldehyde with habitual alcohol drinking in the atypical ALDH2 genotype. (PubMed id 10656185)9 Takeshita T. and Morimoto K. (Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. 2000)
    636. Cooperativity in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide binding induced by mutations of arginine 475 located at the subunit interface in the human liver mitochondrial class 2 aldehyde dehydrogenase. (PubMed id 10819999)9 Wei B....Weiner H. (Biochemistry 2000)
    637. [Biomarkers of gentotoxic risk and metabolic polymorphism]. (PubMed id 11189784)9 Pavanello S. and Clonfero E. (Med Lav 2000)
    638. Metabolism of retinaldehyde and other aldehydes in soluble extracts of human liver and kidney. (PubMed id 10559215)9 Ambroziak W....Pietruszko R. (J. Biol. Chem. 1999)
    639. Blood and urinary levels of ethanol, acetaldehyde, and C4 compounds such as diacetyl, acetoin, and 2,3-butanediol in normal male students after ethanol ingestion. (PubMed id 10064379)9 Otsuka M....Ohmori S. (Alcohol 1999)
    640. Evidence for ethanol oxidation by Kupffer cells. (PubMed id 10235287)9 Nakamura Y....Ishii H. (Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. 1999)
    641. An examination of ALDH2 genotypes, alcohol metabolism and the flushing response in Native Americans. (PubMed id 10091951)9 Gill K....Deitrich R.A. (J. Stud. Alcohol 1999)
    642. Evaluation of the self-rating of the effects of alcohol form in Asian Americans with aldehyde dehydrogenase polymorphisms. (PubMed id 10606490)9 Wall T.L....Schuckit M.A. (J. Stud. Alcohol 1999)
    643. Activity of the human aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 promoter is influenced by the balance between activation by hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 and repression by perosixome proliferator activated receptor delta, chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor, and apolipoprotein regulatory protein-1. (PubMed id 10352676)9 Pinaire J....Crabb D. (Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 1999)
    644. Genetic polymorphisms of tobacco- and alcohol-related metabolizing enzymes and oral cavity cancer. (PubMed id 10521794)9 Katoh T....Kawamoto T. (Int. J. Cancer 1999)
    645. Genotype difference of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 gene in alcohol drinkers influences the incidence of Japanese colorectal cancer patients. (PubMed id 10470282)9 Murata M....Morimoto K. (Jpn. J. Cancer Res. 1999)

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    Entrez Gene: 217 HGNC: 404 AceView: ALDH2andACAD10 Ensembl:ENSG00000111275 euGenes: HUgn217
    ECgene: ALDH2 Kegg: 217 H-InvDB: ALDH2

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