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Aliases for ALAS2 Gene

Aliases for ALAS2 Gene

  • 5'-Aminolevulinate Synthase 2 2
  • 5-Aminolevulinate Synthase 2 2 3 5
  • Aminolevulinate, Delta-, Synthase 2 2 3
  • Delta-Aminolevulinate Synthase 2 3 4
  • 5-Aminolevulinic Acid Synthase 2 3 4
  • Delta-ALA Synthase 2 3 4
  • EC 4 63
  • ALAS-E 3 4
  • ALASE 3 4
  • ASB 3 4
  • Aminolevulinate, Delta-, Synthase 2 (Sideroblastic/Hypochromic Anemia) 2
  • Sideroblastic/Hypochromic Anemia 2
  • Delta-ALA Synthetase 3
  • SIDBA1 3
  • XLDPP 3
  • XLEPP 3
  • ANH1 3
  • XLSA 3

External Ids for ALAS2 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for ALAS2 Gene

  • ASB

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for ALAS2 Gene

  • GC0XM051887
  • GC0XM052973
  • GC0XM053640
  • GC0XM054002
  • GC0XM054918
  • GC0XM055053
  • GC0XM052086

Summaries for ALAS2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for ALAS2 Gene

  • The product of this gene specifies an erythroid-specific mitochondrially located enzyme. The encoded protein catalyzes the first step in the heme biosynthetic pathway. Defects in this gene cause X-linked pyridoxine-responsive sideroblastic anemia. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for ALAS2 Gene

ALAS2 (5'-Aminolevulinate Synthase 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with ALAS2 include Anemia, Sideroblastic, X-Linked and Protoporphyria, Erythropoietic, X-Linked. Among its related pathways are Porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism and Metabolism. GO annotations related to this gene include pyridoxal phosphate binding and glycine binding. An important paralog of this gene is GCAT.

Gene Wiki entry for ALAS2 Gene

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for ALAS2 Gene

Genomics for ALAS2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for ALAS2 Gene

Enhancers for ALAS2 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Score Enhancer Sources TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Other Gene Targets for Enhancer

Enhancers around ALAS2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for ALAS2 Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

ENSRs around ALAS2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for ALAS2 Gene

55,009,055 bp from pter
55,031,064 bp from pter
22,010 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for ALAS2 Gene

Genes around ALAS2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
ALAS2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for ALAS2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for ALAS2 Gene

Proteins for ALAS2 Gene

  • Protein details for ALAS2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    5-aminolevulinate synthase, erythroid-specific, mitochondrial
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A8K3F0
    • A8K6C4
    • Q13735
    • Q5JZF5
    • Q8N6H3

    Protein attributes for ALAS2 Gene

    587 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    64633 Da
    Name=pyridoxal 5-phosphate; Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:597326;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer. Interacts with SUCLA2.
    • There are two delta-ALA synthases in vertebrates: an erythroid- specific form and one (housekeeping) which is expressed in all tissues.
    • Sequence=CAA39795.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally extended.; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Alternative splice isoforms for ALAS2 Gene


neXtProt entry for ALAS2 Gene

Proteomics data for ALAS2 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for ALAS2 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for ALAS2 Gene

Domains & Families for ALAS2 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the class-II pyridoxal-phosphate-dependent aminotransferase family.
  • Belongs to the class-II pyridoxal-phosphate-dependent aminotransferase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with ALAS2: view

No data available for Gene Families for ALAS2 Gene

Function for ALAS2 Gene

Molecular function for ALAS2 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
aminolevulinate,delta-,synthase 2,erythroid,mitochondrial,pyridoxal dependent,catalyzing the first step of porphyrin biosynthesis,with a transcription factor binding site
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Succinyl-CoA + glycine = 5-aminolevulinate + CoA + CO(2).

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for ALAS2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for ALAS2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003870 5-aminolevulinate synthase activity IEA,TAS --
GO:0016740 transferase activity IEA --
GO:0030170 pyridoxal phosphate binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ALAS2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with ALAS2: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for ALAS2 Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for ALAS2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for ALAS2:

Animal Model Products

miRNA for ALAS2 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target ALAS2

No data available for Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for ALAS2 Gene

Localization for ALAS2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ALAS2 Gene

Mitochondrion matrix.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for ALAS2 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for ALAS2 gene
Compartment Confidence
mitochondrion 5
cytosol 2
extracellular 2
endoplasmic reticulum 1

No data available for Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for ALAS2 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for ALAS2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with ALAS2: view

Pathways by source for ALAS2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot P22557-HEM0_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Porphyrin-containing compound metabolism; protoporphyrin-IX biosynthesis; 5-aminolevulinate from glycine: step 1/1.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for ALAS2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006778 porphyrin-containing compound metabolic process IEA --
GO:0006782 protoporphyrinogen IX biosynthetic process IEA --
GO:0006879 cellular iron ion homeostasis ISS --
GO:0030218 erythrocyte differentiation NAS 2050125
GO:0032364 oxygen homeostasis NAS 16234850
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ALAS2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for ALAS2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for ALAS2 Gene

(18) Drugs for ALAS2 Gene - From: DrugBank, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Glycine Approved Nutra Full agonist, Agonist, Target Endogenous potentiator, co-transmitter 197
Aminolevulinic acid Approved Pharma 149
Succinyl-CoA Experimental Pharma 0
heme Pharma Agonist 0
Coenzyme A Nutra 0

(11) Additional Compounds for ALAS2 Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
carbon dioxide
  • Carbon oxide
  • Carbon-12 dioxide
  • Carbonic acid anhydride
  • Carbonic acid gas
  • Carbonic anhydride
  • Armco iron
  • Carbonyl iron
  • FE
  • Ferrovac e
  • Hematite
  • Formyl coenzyme A
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with ALAS2: view

Transcripts for ALAS2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for ALAS2 Gene

Aminolevulinate, delta-, synthase 2:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for ALAS2 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7a · 7b ^ 8a · 8b · 8c · 8d · 8e ^ 9a · 9b ^ 10a · 10b ^ 11 ^ 12 ^ 13
SP1: - - -
SP2: - - -
SP4: - -
SP5: - - -
SP6: - - - -
SP7: - - - - - -
SP8: - - - -
SP9: - - - - -
SP10: - - - - -

Relevant External Links for ALAS2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for ALAS2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for ALAS2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for ALAS2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Whole Blood (x51.5).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for ALAS2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (58.1) and Fetal Liver (10.9).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for ALAS2 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for ALAS2 Gene Hs.522666

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for ALAS2 Gene

Tissue specificity: Erythroid specific.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with ALAS2: view

Protein tissue co-expression partners for ALAS2 Gene

Primer Products

Orthologs for ALAS2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for ALAS2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia ALAS2 35
  • 91.03 (n)
  • 92.67 (a)
ALAS2 36
  • 93 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia ALAS2 35
  • 91.02 (n)
  • 92.98 (a)
ALAS2 36
  • 90 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Alas2 35
  • 87.45 (n)
  • 90.12 (a)
Alas2 16
Alas2 36
  • 90 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia ALAS2 35
  • 92.12 (n)
  • 90.36 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Alas2 35
  • 86.37 (n)
  • 88.76 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia ALAS2 36
  • 80 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia ALAS2 36
  • 74 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia ALAS2 36
  • 64 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia alas2 35
  • 69.59 (n)
  • 69.88 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii alas2 35
  • 64.54 (n)
  • 68.32 (a)
alas2 36
  • 66 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Alas 37
  • 63 (a)
Alas 35
  • 59.5 (n)
  • 58.25 (a)
Alas 36
  • 53 (a)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP003184 35
  • 57.86 (n)
  • 55.51 (a)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_ABL104C 35
  • 52.97 (n)
  • 47.62 (a)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0C15059g 35
  • 53.6 (n)
  • 48.24 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes HEM1 35
  • 52.09 (n)
  • 46.73 (a)
HEM1 36
  • 36 (a)
HEM1 38
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU06189 35
  • 59.6 (n)
  • 54.11 (a)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes hem1 35
  • 53.03 (n)
  • 50.64 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.8623 36
  • 52 (a)
Species with no ortholog for ALAS2:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for ALAS2 Gene

Gene Tree for ALAS2 (if available)
Gene Tree for ALAS2 (if available)

Paralogs for ALAS2 Gene

Paralogs for ALAS2 Gene

(2) SIMAP similar genes for ALAS2 Gene using alignment to 4 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with ALAS2: view

Variants for ALAS2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for ALAS2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 0X pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
VAR_000562 Anemia, sideroblastic, X-linked (XLSA)
VAR_000563 Anemia, sideroblastic, X-linked (XLSA)
VAR_000564 Anemia, sideroblastic, X-linked (XLSA)
VAR_012334 Anemia, sideroblastic, X-linked (XLSA)
VAR_012335 Anemia, sideroblastic, X-linked (XLSA)

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for ALAS2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv435891 CNV Deletion 17901297
esv2740175 CNV Deletion 23290073

Variation tolerance for ALAS2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 70.1% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.03; 21.15% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for ALAS2 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ALAS2 Gene

Disorders for ALAS2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(20) MalaCards diseases for ALAS2 Gene - From: OMIM, ClinVar, GeneTests, Orphanet, Swiss-Prot, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
anemia, sideroblastic, x-linked
  • x-linked sideroblastic anemia
protoporphyria, erythropoietic, x-linked
  • x-linked erythropoietic protoporphyria
x-linked protoporphyria
  • xlp
sideroblastic anemia
  • anemia sideroblastic
pyridoxine-responsive sideroblastic anemia
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search ALAS2 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • Anemia, sideroblastic, X-linked (XLSA) [MIM:300751]: A form of sideroblastic anemia that shows a variable hematologic response to pharmacologic doses of pyridoxine. Sideroblastic anemia is characterized by anemia of varying severity, hypochromic peripheral erythrocytes, systemic iron overload secondary to chronic ineffective erythropoiesis, and the presence of bone marrow ringed sideroblasts. Sideroblasts are characterized by iron-loaded mitochondria clustered around the nucleus. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:10029606, ECO:0000269 PubMed:10577279, ECO:0000269 PubMed:12031592, ECO:0000269 PubMed:12393718, ECO:0000269 PubMed:1570328, ECO:0000269 PubMed:19731322, ECO:0000269 PubMed:21252495, ECO:0000269 PubMed:21309041, ECO:0000269 PubMed:8107717, ECO:0000269 PubMed:9858242}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
  • Erythropoietic protoporphyria, X-linked dominant (XLDPT) [MIM:300752]: A form of porphyria. Porphyrias are inherited defects in the biosynthesis of heme, resulting in the accumulation and increased excretion of porphyrins or porphyrin precursors. They are classified as erythropoietic or hepatic, depending on whether the enzyme deficiency occurs in red blood cells or in the liver. XLDPT is characterized biochemically by a high proportion of zinc-protoporphyrin in erythrocytes, in which a mismatch between protoporphyrin production and the heme requirement of differentiating erythroid cells leads to overproduction of protoporphyrin in amounts sufficient to cause photosensitivity and liver disease. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:18760763}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry. Gain of function mutations in ALS2 are responsible for XLDPT, but they can also be a possible aggravating factor in congenital erythropoietic porphyria and other erythropoietic disorders caused by mutations in other genes (PubMed:21309041). {ECO:0000269 PubMed:21309041}.

Relevant External Links for ALAS2

Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with ALAS2: view

No data available for Genatlas for ALAS2 Gene

Publications for ALAS2 Gene

  1. The major splice variant of human 5-aminolevulinate synthase-2 contributes significantly to erythroid heme biosynthesis. (PMID: 14643893) Cox T.C. … May B.K. (Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 2004) 3 4 23 67
  2. Assignment of human erythroid delta-aminolevulinate synthase (ALAS2) to a distal subregion of band Xp11.21 by PCR analysis of somatic cell hybrids containing X; autosome translocations. (PMID: 1577484) Cotter P.D. … Bishop D.F. (Genomics 1992) 2 3 23
  3. Systematic molecular genetic analysis of congenital sideroblastic anemia: evidence for genetic heterogeneity and identification of novel mutations. (PMID: 19731322) Bergmann A.K. … Neufeld E.J. (Pediatr Blood Cancer 2010) 3 23
  4. Hypoxia induces erythroid-specific 5-aminolevulinate synthase expression in human erythroid cells through transforming growth factor-beta signaling. (PMID: 19187226) Kaneko K. … Shibahara S. (FEBS J. 2009) 3 23
  5. Sodium butyrate activates erythroid-specific 5-aminolevulinate synthase gene through Sp1 elements at its promoter. (PMID: 18555711) Han L. … Lu J. (Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 2008) 3 23

Products for ALAS2 Gene

Sources for ALAS2 Gene