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Aliases for AKT2 Gene

Aliases for AKT2 Gene

  • AKT Serine/Threonine Kinase 2 2 3 5
  • V-Akt Murine Thymoma Viral Oncogene Homolog 2 2 3
  • Protein Kinase B Beta 3 4
  • Protein Kinase Akt-2 3 4
  • RAC-PK-Beta 3 4
  • EC 2.7.11.1 4 61
  • PKB Beta 3 4
  • Putative V-Akt Murine Thymoma Viral Oncoprotein 2 3
  • RAC-Beta Serine/Threonine-Protein Kinase 3
  • Murine Thymoma Viral (V-Akt) Homolog-2 3
  • Rac Protein Kinase Beta 3
  • EC 2.7.11 61
  • RAC-BETA 3
  • PKBBETA 3
  • HIHGHH 3
  • PRKBB 3
  • PKBB 3

External Ids for AKT2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for AKT2 Gene

  • GC19M041377
  • GC19M041129
  • GC19M045414
  • GC19M045431
  • GC19M045430
  • GC19M040736
  • GC19M037171

Summaries for AKT2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for AKT2 Gene

  • This gene is a putative oncogene encoding a protein belonging to a subfamily of serine/threonine kinases containing SH2-like (Src homology 2-like) domains. The gene was shown to be amplified and overexpressed in 2 of 8 ovarian carcinoma cell lines and 2 of 15 primary ovarian tumors. Overexpression contributes to the malignant phenotype of a subset of human ductal pancreatic cancers. The encoded protein is a general protein kinase capable of phophorylating several known proteins. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CIViC summary for AKT2 Gene

GeneCards Summary for AKT2 Gene

AKT2 (AKT Serine/Threonine Kinase 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with AKT2 include Hypoinsulinemic Hypoglycemia With Hemihypertrophy and Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent. Among its related pathways are ICos-ICosL Pathway in T-Helper Cell and Development IGF-1 receptor signaling. GO annotations related to this gene include transferase activity, transferring phosphorus-containing groups and protein tyrosine kinase activity. An important paralog of this gene is AKT1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for AKT2 Gene

  • AKT2 is one of 3 closely related serine/threonine-protein kinases (AKT1, AKT2 and AKT3) called the AKT kinase, and which regulate many processes including metabolism, proliferation, cell survival, growth and angiogenesis. This is mediated through serine and/or threonine phosphorylation of a range of downstream substrates. Over 100 substrate candidates have been reported so far, but for most of them, no isoform specificity has been reported. AKT is responsible of the regulation of glucose uptake by mediating insulin-induced translocation of the SLC2A4/GLUT4 glucose transporter to the cell surface. Phosphorylation of PTPN1 at Ser-50 negatively modulates its phosphatase activity preventing dephosphorylation of the insulin receptor and the attenuation of insulin signaling. Phosphorylation of TBC1D4 triggers the binding of this effector to inhibitory 14-3-3 proteins, which is required for insulin-stimulated glucose transport. AKT regulates also the storage of glucose in the form of glycogen by phosphorylating GSK3A at Ser-21 and GSK3B at Ser-9, resulting in inhibition of its kinase activity. Phosphorylation of GSK3 isoforms by AKT is also thought to be one mechanism by which cell proliferation is driven. AKT regulates also cell survival via the phosphorylation of MAP3K5 (apoptosis signal-related kinase). Phosphorylation of Ser-83 decreases MAP3K5 kinase activity stimulated by oxidative stress and thereby prevents apoptosis. AKT mediates insulin-stimulated protein synthesis by phosphorylating TSC2 at Ser-939 and Thr-1462, thereby activating mTORC1 signaling and leading to both phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 and in activation of RPS6KB1. AKT is involved in the phosphorylation of members of the FOXO factors (Forkhead family of transcription factors), leading to binding of 14-3-3 proteins and cytoplasmic localization. In particular, FOXO1 is phosphorylated at Thr-24, Ser-256 and Ser-319. FOXO3 and FOXO4 are phosphorylated on equivalent sites. AKT has an important role in the regulation of NF-kappa-B-dependent gene transcription and positively regulates the activity of CREB1 (cyclic AMP (cAMP)-response element binding protein). The phosphorylation of CREB1 induces the binding of accessory proteins that are necessary for the transcription of pro-survival genes such as BCL2 and MCL1. AKT phosphorylates Ser-454 on ATP citrate lyase (ACLY), thereby potentially regulating ACLY activity and fatty acid synthesis. Activates the 3B isoform of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE3B) via phosphorylation of Ser-273, resulting in reduced cyclic AMP levels and inhibition of lipolysis. Phosphorylates PIKFYVE on Ser-318, which results in increased PI(3)P-5 activity. The Rho GTPase-activating protein DLC1 is another substrate and its phosphorylation is implicated in the regulation cell proliferation and cell growth. AKT plays a role as key modulator of the AKT-mTOR signaling pathway controlling the tempo of the process of newborn neurons integration during adult neurogenesis, including correct neuron positioning, dendritic development and synapse formation. Signals downstream of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI(3)K) to mediate the effects of various growth factors such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), insulin and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). AKT mediates the antiapoptotic effects of IGF-I. Essential for the SPATA13-mediated regulation of cell migration and adhesion assembly and disassembly. May be involved in the regulation of the placental development.

  • One of the few specific substrates of AKT2 identified recently is PITX2. Phosphorylation of PITX2 impairs its association with the CCND1 mRNA-stabilizing complex thus shortening the half-life of CCND1. AKT2 seems also to be the principal isoform responsible of the regulation of glucose uptake. Phosphorylates C2CD5 on Ser-197 during insulin-stimulated adipocytes. AKT2 is also specifically involved in skeletal muscle differentiation, one of its substrates in this process being ANKRD2. Down-regulation by RNA interference reduces the expression of the phosphorylated form of BAD, resulting in the induction of caspase-dependent apoptosis. Phosphorylates CLK2 on Thr-343.

Tocris Summary for AKT2 Gene

  • Akt (Protein kinase B, PKB) is a serine/threonine kinase that plays a key in regulating cell survival, insulin signaling, angiogenesis and tumor formation. Akt is a downstream mediator of the PI 3-K pathway, which results in the recruitment of Akt to the plasma membrane.

Gene Wiki entry for AKT2 Gene

No data available for PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for AKT2 Gene

Genomics for AKT2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for AKT2 Gene


Promoters for AKT2 Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters
ENSR00000109505 436 1801 HDGF PKNOX1 FOXA2 ARNT AGO1 WRNIP1 ARID4B SIN3A ZNF2 YY1

Genomic Location for AKT2 Gene

Chromosome:
19
Start:
40,230,317 bp from pter
End:
40,285,536 bp from pter
Size:
55,220 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for AKT2 Gene

Genes around AKT2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
AKT2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for AKT2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for AKT2 Gene

Proteins for AKT2 Gene

  • Protein details for AKT2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P31751-AKT2_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    RAC-beta serine/threonine-protein kinase
    Protein Accession:
    P31751
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B2RBD8
    • Q05BV0
    • Q0VAN0
    • Q0VAN1
    • Q68GC0

    Protein attributes for AKT2 Gene

    Size:
    481 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    55769 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts with BTBD10 (By similarity). Interacts with KCTD20 (By similarity). Interacts (via PH domain) with MTCP1, TCL1A AND TCL1B. Interacts with CLK2, PBH2 and TRAF6. Interacts (when phosphorylated) with CLIP3, the interaction promotes cell membrane localization (PubMed:19139280). Interacts with WDFY2 (via WD repeats 1-3) (PubMed:16792529).

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for AKT2 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for AKT2 Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for AKT2 Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for AKT2 Gene

P31751:
  • CQLMKTERP
  • TPPDRYD
  • YYAMKIL
  • AEIVSAL
  • GTPEYLAPE
  • RAVDWWGLGV
  • DGSFIGYKE
  • HPFLTAL
  • HFPQFSYSAS
  • NGGELFFHL
  • LFELILME
  • IKITDFGL
  • RFYGAEI
  • KEVIIAKDEVAHT
  • PLNNFSVA
  • NLMLDKD
  • HPFLTALKY
  • LQWTTVIERTF
  • YLAPEVL
  • RDIKLEN
  • PPFKPQVTSE
  • GVVMYEM
  • PEAKSLL
  • YLKLLGKGTFGKVILV
  • YAMKILRK
  • IKITDFG
  • LDKDGHIK
  • GLLKKDPKQRLGGG
  • LFFHLSRERVF
  • DFGLCKE
  • DTRYFDDEFTAQSIT
  • DRLCFVM
  • KRGEYIK

Post-translational modifications for AKT2 Gene

  • O-GlcNAcylation at Thr-306 and Thr-313 inhibits activating phosphorylation at Thr-309 via disrupting the interaction between AKT and PDK1.
  • Phosphorylation on Thr-309 and Ser-474 is required for full activity.
  • Ubiquitinated; undergoes both Lys-48- and Lys-63-linked polyubiquitination. TRAF6-induced Lys-63-linked AKT2 ubiquitination. When fully phosphorylated and translocated into the nucleus, undergoes Lys-48-polyubiquitination catalyzed by TTC3, leading to its degradation by the proteasome.
  • Ubiquitination at Lys30 and Lys378
  • Glycosylation at posLast=128128, Ser131, posLast=306306, and Thr313
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Assay Products

  • Cloud-Clone Corp Assay Kits for AKT2

Domains & Families for AKT2 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P31751

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

AKT2_HUMAN :
  • Binding of the PH domain to phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PI(3,4,5)P3) following phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase alpha (PIK3CA) activity results in its targeting to the plasma membrane.
  • Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. AGC Ser/Thr protein kinase family. RAC subfamily.
Domain:
  • Binding of the PH domain to phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PI(3,4,5)P3) following phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase alpha (PIK3CA) activity results in its targeting to the plasma membrane.
Family:
  • Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. AGC Ser/Thr protein kinase family. RAC subfamily.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with AKT2: view

Function for AKT2 Gene

Molecular function for AKT2 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
V-akt murine thymoma viral oncogen homolog 2,general mediator of cell survival induced by insulin growth factor 1,AKT2 and others,activated by phosphatidylinositol 3-
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot BiophysicochemicalProperties:
Kinetic parameters: KM=358.4 uM for ATP (for purified and in vitro activated AKT2) {ECO:0000269 PubMed:16540465}; KM=3.4 uM for peptide substrate (for purified and in vitro activated AKT2) {ECO:0000269 PubMed:16540465}; KM=564 uM for ATP (for recombinant myristoylated AKT2 expressed and immunoprecipitated from Rat-1 cells) {ECO:0000269 PubMed:16540465}; KM=2.3 uM for peptide substrate (for recombinant myristoylated AKT2 expressed and immunoprecipitated from Rat-1 cells) {ECO:0000269 PubMed:16540465};
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
ATP + a protein = ADP + a phosphoprotein.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
Two specific sites, one in the kinase domain (Thr-309) and the other in the C-terminal regulatory region (Ser-474), need to be phosphorylated for its full activation. Aminofurazans are potent AKT2 inhibitors.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
AKT2 is one of 3 closely related serine/threonine-protein kinases (AKT1, AKT2 and AKT3) called the AKT kinase, and which regulate many processes including metabolism, proliferation, cell survival, growth and angiogenesis. This is mediated through serine and/or threonine phosphorylation of a range of downstream substrates. Over 100 substrate candidates have been reported so far, but for most of them, no isoform specificity has been reported. AKT is responsible of the regulation of glucose uptake by mediating insulin-induced translocation of the SLC2A4/GLUT4 glucose transporter to the cell surface. Phosphorylation of PTPN1 at Ser-50 negatively modulates its phosphatase activity preventing dephosphorylation of the insulin receptor and the attenuation of insulin signaling. Phosphorylation of TBC1D4 triggers the binding of this effector to inhibitory 14-3-3 proteins, which is required for insulin-stimulated glucose transport. AKT regulates also the storage of glucose in the form of glycogen by phosphorylating GSK3A at Ser-21 and GSK3B at Ser-9, resulting in inhibition of its kinase activity. Phosphorylation of GSK3 isoforms by AKT is also thought to be one mechanism by which cell proliferation is driven. AKT regulates also cell survival via the phosphorylation of MAP3K5 (apoptosis signal-related kinase). Phosphorylation of Ser-83 decreases MAP3K5 kinase activity stimulated by oxidative stress and thereby prevents apoptosis. AKT mediates insulin-stimulated protein synthesis by phosphorylating TSC2 at Ser-939 and Thr-1462, thereby activating mTORC1 signaling and leading to both phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 and in activation of RPS6KB1. AKT is involved in the phosphorylation of members of the FOXO factors (Forkhead family of transcription factors), leading to binding of 14-3-3 proteins and cytoplasmic localization. In particular, FOXO1 is phosphorylated at Thr-24, Ser-256 and Ser-319. FOXO3 and FOXO4 are phosphorylated on equivalent sites. AKT has an important role in the regulation of NF-kappa-B-dependent gene transcription and positively regulates the activity of CREB1 (cyclic AMP (cAMP)-response element binding protein). The phosphorylation of CREB1 induces the binding of accessory proteins that are necessary for the transcription of pro-survival genes such as BCL2 and MCL1. AKT phosphorylates Ser-454 on ATP citrate lyase (ACLY), thereby potentially regulating ACLY activity and fatty acid synthesis. Activates the 3B isoform of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE3B) via phosphorylation of Ser-273, resulting in reduced cyclic AMP levels and inhibition of lipolysis. Phosphorylates PIKFYVE on Ser-318, which results in increased PI(3)P-5 activity. The Rho GTPase-activating protein DLC1 is another substrate and its phosphorylation is implicated in the regulation cell proliferation and cell growth. AKT plays a role as key modulator of the AKT-mTOR signaling pathway controlling the tempo of the process of newborn neurons integration during adult neurogenesis, including correct neuron positioning, dendritic development and synapse formation. Signals downstream of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI(3)K) to mediate the effects of various growth factors such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), insulin and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). AKT mediates the antiapoptotic effects of IGF-I. Essential for the SPATA13-mediated regulation of cell migration and adhesion assembly and disassembly. May be involved in the regulation of the placental development.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
One of the few specific substrates of AKT2 identified recently is PITX2. Phosphorylation of PITX2 impairs its association with the CCND1 mRNA-stabilizing complex thus shortening the half-life of CCND1. AKT2 seems also to be the principal isoform responsible of the regulation of glucose uptake. Phosphorylates C2CD5 on Ser-197 during insulin-stimulated adipocytes. AKT2 is also specifically involved in skeletal muscle differentiation, one of its substrates in this process being ANKRD2. Down-regulation by RNA interference reduces the expression of the phosphorylated form of BAD, resulting in the induction of caspase-dependent apoptosis. Phosphorylates CLK2 on Thr-343.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for AKT2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for AKT2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004672 protein kinase activity IEA --
GO:0004674 protein serine/threonine kinase activity TAS 21432781
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 10490823
GO:0005524 ATP binding IDA 16540465
GO:0016301 kinase activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with AKT2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with AKT2: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for AKT2 Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for AKT2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for AKT2:

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for AKT2

No data available for Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for AKT2 Gene

Localization for AKT2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for AKT2 Gene

Cytoplasm. Nucleus. Cell membrane; Peripheral membrane protein. Early endosome. Note=Localizes within both nucleus and cytoplasm of proliferative primary myoblasts and mostly within the nucleus of differentiated primary myoblasts. By virtue of the N-terminal PH domain, is recruited to sites of the plasma membrane containing increased PI(3,4,5)P3 or PI(3,4)P2, cell membrane targeting is also facilitared by interaction with CLIP3. Colocalizes with WDFY2 in early endosomes (By similarity). {ECO:0000250 UniProtKB:Q60823}.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for AKT2 gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
nucleus 5
cytosol 5
endosome 3
mitochondrion 2
peroxisome 2
extracellular 1
cytoskeleton 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for AKT2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005634 nucleus TAS 21432781
GO:0005654 nucleoplasm TAS --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA --
GO:0005768 endosome IEA --
GO:0005769 early endosome IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with AKT2: view

Pathways & Interactions for AKT2 Gene

SuperPathway Contained pathways
1 RET signaling
2 Regulation of lipid metabolism Insulin signaling-generic cascades
3 Common Cytokine Receptor Gamma-Chain Family Signaling Pathways
4 Glioma
.47
.41
5 Development HGF signaling pathway
genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with AKT2: view

Pathways by source for AKT2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for AKT2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001934 positive regulation of protein phosphorylation ISS --
GO:0005975 carbohydrate metabolic process IEA --
GO:0005977 glycogen metabolic process IEA --
GO:0005978 glycogen biosynthetic process IEA --
GO:0006006 glucose metabolic process IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with AKT2: view

Drugs & Compounds for AKT2 Gene

(70) Drugs for AKT2 Gene - From: DrugBank, ClinicalTrials, ApexBio, DGIdb, HMDB, Tocris, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Paclitaxel Approved, Vet_approved Pharma Tubulin and Bcl2 inhibitor, Taxanes 2864
Anastrozole Approved, Investigational Pharma Aromatase inhibitor, Aromatase Inhibitors, Hormone therapy, Potent aromatase (CYP19) inhibitor 279
Carboplatin Approved Pharma Antitumor agent that forms platinum-DNA adducts., Platinum 2050
Everolimus Approved Pharma mTOR inhibitor, mTOR Inhibitors, Kinase Inhibitors, Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors 1940
Sirolimus Approved, Investigational Pharma Kinase Inhibitors, Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors 1940

(7) Additional Compounds for AKT2 Gene - From: Novoseek, Tocris, and HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
ADP
  • Adenosindiphosphorsaeure
  • Adenosine 5'-pyrophosphate
  • Adenosine diphosphate
  • Adenosine pyrophosphate
  • Adenosine-5'-diphosphate
Full agonist, Agonist 58-64-0
API-1
36707-00-3
API-2
35943-35-2

(5) Tocris Compounds for AKT2 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
API-1 Selective Akt/PKB inhibitor. Antitumor 36707-00-3
API-2 Selective inhibitor of Akt/PKB signaling. Antitumor and antiviral 35943-35-2
FPA 124 Akt/PKB inhibitor 902779-59-3
PHT 427 Dual Akt and PDK1 inhibitor; antitumor 1191951-57-1
SC 79 Akt activator 305834-79-1

(31) ApexBio Compounds for AKT2 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
10-DEBC hydrochloride Selective Akt/PKB inhibitor 925681-41-0
3CAI 28755-03-5
A-674563 Akt1/PKA/CDK2 inhibitor,potent and selective 552325-73-2
Afuresertib 1047644-62-1
AKT inhibitor VIII Allosteric Akt kinase inhibitor 612847-09-3
AKT Kinase Inhibitor 842148-40-7
AKT/mTOR Set I
AT13148 Multi-AGC kinase inhibitor,ATP-competitive 1056901-62-2
AT7867 Akt1/2/3 and p70S6K/PKA inhibitor 857531-00-1
AZD5363 AKT inhibitor,pyrrolopyrimidine derived 1143532-39-1
BX795 PDK1 inhibitor 702675-74-9
CCT128930 AKT inhibitor 885499-61-6
CH5424802 ALK inhibitor,potent and ATP-competitive 1256580-46-7
FPA 124 902779-59-3
GDC-0068 (RG7440) Pan-AKT inhibitor,highly selective 1001264-89-6
GSK1838705A IGF-IR/IR/ALK inhibitor, ATP-competitive 1116235-97-2
GSK2141795 1047634-65-0
GSK2141795 hydrochloride 1047635-80-2
GSK690693 Pan-AKT inhibitor,ATP-competitive and potent 937174-76-0
Isobavachalcone Diverse biological activity compound 20784-50-3
Miltefosine PI3K/Akt inhibitor 58066-85-6
MK-2206 dihydrochloride Akt1/2/3 inhibitor 1032350-13-2
Palomid 529 PI3K/Akt/mTOR inhibitor 914913-88-5
Perifosine Akt inhibitor 157716-52-4
PHT-427 Akt and PDPK1 inhibitor 1191951-57-1
PIT 1 53501-41-0
SC 66 871361-88-5
SC 79 Akt activator 305834-79-1
TAE684 (NVP-TAE684) ALK inhibitor,potent and selective 761439-42-3
TIC10 Potent Akt/ERK inhibitor 41276-02-2
Triciribine Akt inhibitor,highly selective 35943-35-2
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with AKT2: view

Drug Products

Transcripts for AKT2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for AKT2 Gene

V-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 2:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for AKT2

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for AKT2 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10a · 10b · 10c ^ 11a · 11b ^ 12a · 12b · 12c · 12d ^ 13 ^ 14a · 14b ^ 15a · 15b ^ 16 ^ 17 ^
SP1: - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP2: - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP3: - - - - -
SP4:
SP5: - - - - - - - - -
SP6: - - - -
SP7:
SP8:
SP9:
SP10:
SP11:
SP12: - - - - - - - - -
SP13: - - - - - - - -
SP14: -
SP15:
SP16:

ExUns: 18a · 18b ^ 19 ^ 20a · 20b · 20c ^ 21 ^ 22 ^ 23a · 23b ^ 24a · 24b · 24c ^ 25
SP1: - - - -
SP2: -
SP3:
SP4: - - -
SP5:
SP6:
SP7:
SP8:
SP9: -
SP10: - -
SP11: - - -
SP12:
SP13:
SP14:
SP15:
SP16:

Relevant External Links for AKT2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
AKT2
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
AKT2

Expression for AKT2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for AKT2 Gene

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for AKT2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Cervix (16.1), Lymph node (11.9), and Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (7.5).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for AKT2 Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for AKT2 Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of AKT2 Gene:

AKT2

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for AKT2 Gene:

Hs.631535

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for AKT2 Gene:

P31751-AKT2_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Expressed in all cell types so far analyzed.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for AKT2 Gene

  • Nervous system(4.7)
  • Liver(4.5)
  • Muscle(3.4)
  • Lung(3.2)
  • Pancreas(2.9)
  • Intestine(2.8)
  • Heart(2.6)
  • Thyroid gland(2.5)
  • Skin(2.4)
  • Eye(2.3)
  • Kidney(2.3)
  • Lymph node(2.2)
  • Blood(2.1)
  • Bone marrow(2)
  • Stomach(2)

Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for AKT2 Gene

Germ Layers:
  • ectoderm
  • endoderm
  • mesoderm
Systems:
  • cardiovascular
  • digestive
  • endocrine
  • immune
  • integumentary
  • nervous
  • reproductive
  • respiratory
  • skeletal muscle
  • skeleton
  • urinary
Organs:
Head and neck:
  • brain
  • ear
  • eye
  • face
  • forehead
  • head
  • jaw
  • mandible
  • maxilla
  • mouth
  • neck
  • skull
Thorax:
  • breast
  • chest wall
  • clavicle
  • heart
  • lung
  • rib
  • rib cage
  • scapula
  • sternum
Abdomen:
  • intestine
  • kidney
  • large intestine
  • liver
  • pancreas
  • small intestine
  • stomach
Pelvis:
  • ovary
  • pelvis
  • uterus
Limb:
  • ankle
  • arm
  • digit
  • elbow
  • femur
  • fibula
  • finger
  • foot
  • forearm
  • hand
  • hip
  • humerus
  • knee
  • lower limb
  • radius
  • shin
  • shoulder
  • thigh
  • tibia
  • toe
  • ulna
  • upper limb
  • wrist
General:
  • blood
  • blood vessel
  • peripheral nerve
  • peripheral nervous system
  • skin
  • spinal column
  • vertebrae
  • white blood cell
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with AKT2: view

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery and mRNA differential expression in normal tissues for AKT2 Gene

Orthologs for AKT2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for AKT2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia AKT2 34 35
  • 99.17 (n)
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia AKT2 34 35
  • 92.38 (n)
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia AKT2 34 35
  • 91.89 (n)
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Akt2 34
  • 90.85 (n)
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Akt2 34 16 35
  • 90.51 (n)
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia AKT2 35
  • 83 (a)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia AKT2 35
  • 76 (a)
OneToOne
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia AKT2 35
  • 93 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia akt2 34
  • 73.67 (n)
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii akt2l 35
  • 76 (a)
OneToMany
akt2 34 35
  • 75.3 (n)
Dr.11393 34
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP002161 34
  • 67.31 (n)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Akt1 36 34 35
  • 62.45 (n)
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea akt-1 36 35
  • 53 (a)
akt-2 35
  • 48 (a)
ManyToMany
F28C10.3 36
  • 35 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes SCH9 35 37
  • 22 (a)
OneToMany
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.9149 35
  • 60 (a)
OneToMany
Species where no ortholog for AKT2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for AKT2 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for AKT2 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for AKT2 (if available)

Paralogs for AKT2 Gene

Paralogs for AKT2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with AKT2: view

Variants for AKT2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for AKT2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 19 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs121434593 Pathogenic, Diabetes mellitus, non-insulin-dependent (NIDDM) [MIM:125853] 40,237,979(-) ATACC(A/G)CGACA reference, missense
rs387906659 Pathogenic, Hypoinsulinemic hypoglycemia with hemihypertrophy (HIHGHH) [MIM:240900] 40,257,052(-) CAGGT(A/G/T)AATAC reference, missense, stop-gained, utr-variant-5-prime
rs3730258 Likely benign 40,241,929(-) CGTGC(C/T)CCGGG intron-variant
rs587780277 Uncertain significance 40,236,356(-) GATGG(A/C)CACAT intron-variant, reference, synonymous-codon
rs587780278 Uncertain significance 40,236,257(-) CCTGA(A/G)GTGTC intron-variant, reference, synonymous-codon

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for AKT2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv3530n100 CNV loss 25217958
esv1005660 CNV deletion 20482838
esv1037738 CNV deletion 17803354
esv2718561 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2718563 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2758761 CNV gain 17122850
esv3644344 CNV gain 21293372
esv3644345 CNV gain 21293372
nsv1057052 CNV loss 25217958
nsv1059094 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1062755 CNV loss 25217958
nsv1160618 CNV deletion 26073780

Variation tolerance for AKT2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 7.89% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.61; 13.20% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for AKT2 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
AKT2
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
AKT2

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for AKT2 Gene

Disorders for AKT2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(18) MalaCards diseases for AKT2 Gene - From: OMIM, ClinVar, GeneTests, Orphanet, Swiss-Prot, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
hypoinsulinemic hypoglycemia with hemihypertrophy
  • hypoinsulinemic hypoglycemia and body hemihypertrophy
diabetes mellitus, noninsulin-dependent
  • diabetes, type 2
familial partial lipodystrophy due to akt2 mutations
  • akt2-related familial partial lipodystrophy
thymoma
  • thymus neoplasms
hemihypertrophy
  • hemihyperplasia, isolated
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search AKT2 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

AKT2_HUMAN
  • Diabetes mellitus, non-insulin-dependent (NIDDM) [MIM:125853]: A multifactorial disorder of glucose homeostasis caused by a lack of sensitivity to the bodys own insulin. Affected individuals usually have an obese body habitus and manifestations of a metabolic syndrome characterized by diabetes, insulin resistance, hypertension and hypertriglyceridemia. The disease results in long-term complications that affect the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and blood vessels. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:15166380, ECO:0000269 PubMed:19164855}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
  • Hypoinsulinemic hypoglycemia with hemihypertrophy (HIHGHH) [MIM:240900]: A disorder characterized by hypoglycemia, low insulin levels, low serum levels of ketone bodies and branched-chain amino acids, left-sided hemihypertrophy, neonatal macrosomia, reduced consciousness and hypoglycemic seizures. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:21979934}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
  • Note=Defects in AKT2 are a cause of susceptibility to breast cancer (BC). AKT2 promotes metastasis of tumor cells without affecting the latency of tumor development. With AKT3, plays also a pivotal role in the biology of glioblastoma.

Relevant External Links for AKT2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
AKT2
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
AKT2
Tumor Gene Database (TGDB):
AKT2
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
AKT2
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with AKT2: view

No data available for Genatlas for AKT2 Gene

Publications for AKT2 Gene

  1. AKT2, a putative oncogene encoding a member of a subfamily of protein-serine/threonine kinases, is amplified in human ovarian carcinomas. (PMID: 1409633) Cheng J.Q. … Testa J.R. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1992) 2 3 4 22 64
  2. Akt2 and Akt3 play a pivotal role in malignant gliomas. (PMID: 20167810) Mure H. … Nagahiro S. (Neuro-oncol. 2010) 3 4 22 64
  3. MEK1 and AKT2 mutations in Japanese lung cancer. (PMID: 20354455) Sasaki H. … Fujii Y. (J Thorac Oncol 2010) 3 22 46 64
  4. Genetic variations in the PI3K/PTEN/AKT/mTOR pathway are associated with clinical outcomes in esophageal cancer patients treated with chemoradiotherapy. (PMID: 19164214) Hildebrandt M.A. … Wu X. (J. Clin. Oncol. 2009) 3 22 46 64
  5. Akt2 Gene common allelic variants in insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome. (PMID: 17576055) Tassi V. … Trischitta V. (Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2008) 3 22 46 64

Products for AKT2 Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for AKT2

Sources for AKT2 Gene

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