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AKT1 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 78
GCID: GC14M105235

V-Akt Murine Thymoma Viral Oncogene Homolog 1

  See AKT1-related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
V-Akt Murine Thymoma Viral Oncogene Homolog 11 2     AKT2
Protein Kinase B Alpha2 3     PKB-ALPHA2
Proto-Oncogene C-Akt2 3     PRKBA2
PKB2 3     RAC-ALPHA2
RAC2 3     Rac Protein Kinase Alpha2
RAC-PK-alpha2 3     RAC-Alpha Serine/Threonine-Protein Kinase2
PKB Alpha2 3     Protein Kinase B3
EC 2.7.11.13 8     EC 2.7.118
CWS62 5     

External Ids:    HGNC: 3911   Entrez Gene: 2072   Ensembl: ENSG000001422087   OMIM: 1647305   UniProtKB: P317493   

Export aliases for AKT1 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC14M102614 GC14M099226 GC14M103207 GC14M104361 GC14M085432


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for AKT1 Gene:
The serine-threonine protein kinase encoded by the AKT1 gene is catalytically inactive in serum-starved primary
and immortalized fibroblasts. AKT1 and the related AKT2 are activated by platelet-derived growth factor. The
activation is rapid and specific, and it is abrogated by mutations in the pleckstrin homology domain of AKT1. It
was shown that the activation occurs through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. In the developing nervous system AKT
is a critical mediator of growth factor-induced neuronal survival. Survival factors can suppress apoptosis in a
transcription-independent manner by activating the serine/threonine kinase AKT1, which then phosphorylates and
inactivates components of the apoptotic machinery. Mutations in this gene have been associated with the Proteus
syndrome. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. (provided by RefSeq,
Jul 2011)

GeneCards Summary for AKT1 Gene:
AKT1 (v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with AKT1 include proteus syndrome, and cowden syndrome 6. GO annotations related to this gene include enzyme binding and identical protein binding. An important paralog of this gene is GRK7.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: AKT1_HUMAN, P31749
Function: AKT1 is one of 3 closely related serine/threonine-protein kinases (AKT1, AKT2 and AKT3) called the AKT
kinase, and which regulate many processes including metabolism, proliferation, cell survival, growth and
angiogenesis. This is mediated through serine and/or threonine phosphorylation of a range of downstream
substrates. Over 100 substrate candidates have been reported so far, but for most of them, no isoform specificity
has been reported. AKT is responsible of the regulation of glucose uptake by mediating insulin-induced
translocation of the SLC2A4/GLUT4 glucose transporter to the cell surface. Phosphorylation of PTPN1 at 'Ser-50'
negatively modulates its phosphatase activity preventing dephosphorylation of the insulin receptor and the
attenuation of insulin signaling. Phosphorylation of TBC1D4 triggers the binding of this effector to inhibitory
14-3-3 proteins, which is required for insulin-stimulated glucose transport. AKT regulates also the storage of
glucose in the form of glycogen by phosphorylating GSK3A at 'Ser-21' and GSK3B at 'Ser-9', resulting in
inhibition of its kinase activity. Phosphorylation of GSK3 isoforms by AKT is also thought to be one mechanism by
which cell proliferation is driven. AKT regulates also cell survival via the phosphorylation of MAP3K5 (apoptosis
signal-related kinase). Phosphorylation of 'Ser-83' decreases MAP3K5 kinase activity stimulated by oxidative
stress and thereby prevents apoptosis. AKT mediates insulin-stimulated protein synthesis by phosphorylating TSC2
at 'Ser-939' and 'Thr-1462', thereby activating mTORC1 signaling and leading to both phosphorylation of 4E-BP1
and in activation of RPS6KB1. AKT is involved in the phosphorylation of members of the FOXO factors (Forkhead
family of transcription factors), leading to binding of 14-3-3 proteins and cytoplasmic localization. In
particular, FOXO1 is phosphorylated at 'Thr-24', 'Ser-256' and 'Ser-319'. FOXO3 and FOXO4 are phosphorylated on
equivalent sites. AKT has an important role in the regulation of NF-kappa-B-dependent gene transcription and
positively regulates the activity of CREB1 (cyclic AMP (cAMP)-response element binding protein). The
phosphorylation of CREB1 induces the binding of accessory proteins that are necessary for the transcription of
pro-survival genes such as BCL2 and MCL1. AKT phosphorylates 'Ser-454' on ATP citrate lyase (ACLY), thereby
potentially regulating ACLY activity and fatty acid synthesis. Activates the 3B isoform of cyclic nucleotide
phosphodiesterase (PDE3B) via phosphorylation of 'Ser-273', resulting in reduced cyclic AMP levels and inhibition
of lipolysis. Phosphorylates PIKFYVE on 'Ser-318', which results in increased PI(3)P-5 activity. The Rho
GTPase-activating protein DLC1 is another substrate and its phosphorylation is implicated in the regulation cell
proliferation and cell growth. AKT plays a role as key modulator of the AKT-mTOR signaling pathway controlling
the tempo of the process of newborn neurons integration during adult neurogenesis, including correct neuron
positioning, dendritic development and synapse formation. Signals downstream of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase
(PI(3)K) to mediate the effects of various growth factors such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF),
epidermal growth factor (EGF), insulin and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). AKT mediates the antiapoptotic
effects of IGF-I. Essential for the SPATA13-mediated regulation of cell migration and adhesion assembly and
disassembly. May be involved in the regulation of the placental development. Phosphorylates STK4/MST1 at
'Thr-120' and 'Thr-387' leading to inhibition of its: kinase activity, nuclear translocation, autophosphorylation
and ability to phosphorylate FOXO3. Phosphorylates STK3/MST2 at 'Thr-117' and 'Thr-384' leading to inhibition of
its: cleavage, kinase activity, autophosphorylation at Thr-180, binding to RASSF1 and nuclear translocation.
Phosphorylates SRPK2 and enhances its kinase activity towards SRSF2 and ACIN1 and promotes its nuclear
translocation. Phosphorylates RAF1 at 'Ser-259' and negatively regulates its activity. Phosphorylation of BAD
stimulates its pro-apoptotic activity. Phosphorylates KAT6A at 'Thr-369' and this phosphorylation inhibits the
interaction of KAT6A with PML and negatively regulates its acetylation activity towards p53/TP53
Function: AKT1-specific substrates have been recently identified, including palladin (PALLD), which
phosphorylation modulates cytoskeletal organization and cell motility; prohibitin (PHB), playing an important
role in cell metabolism and proliferation; and CDKN1A, for which phosphorylation at 'Thr-145' induces its release
from CDK2 and cytoplasmic relocalization. These recent findings indicate that the AKT1 isoform has a more
specific role in cell motility and proliferation. Phosphorylates CLK2 thereby controlling cell survival to
ionizing radiation

summary for AKT1 Gene:
Akt (Protein kinase B, PKB) is a serine/threonine kinase that plays a key in regulating cell survival,
insulin signaling, angiogenesis and tumor formation. Akt is a downstream mediator of the PI 3-K pathway,
resulting in the recruitment of Akt to the plasma membrane via the PH (plexstrin homology domain) of Akt.
Akt is fully activated by phosphorylation at two key sites: Ser308 (phosphorylated by PDK1) and Thr478
(phosphorylated by mTOR and DNA-PK). Akt can then phosphorylated a wide range of substrates including
transcription factors (e.g. FOXO1), kinases (GSK-3, Raf-1, ASK, Chk1) and other proteins with important
signaling roles (e.g. Bad, MDM2). There are three isoforms of Akt; Akt 1, 2 and 3 (also known as PKBalpha,
beta and gamma).

Gene Wiki entry for AKT1 Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence at NCBI GenBank:
NC_000014.8  NT_026437.13  NC_018925.2  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the AKT1 gene promoter:
         CREB   deltaCREB   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmids (see all 2): AKT1 promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for AKT1

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat AKT1


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 14q32.32   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  14q32.33   HGNC cytogenetic band: 14q32.32-q32.33

AKT1 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
AKT1 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 14         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC14M105235:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
105,235,686 bp from pter      End:
105,262,088 bp from pter
Size:
26,403 bases      Orientation:
minus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, antibodies-online, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: AKT1_HUMAN, P31749 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: RAC-alpha serine/threonine-protein kinase  
Size: 480 amino acids; 55686 Da
Subunit: Interacts (via the C-terminus) with CCDC88A (via its C-terminus). Interacts with GRB10; the interaction
leads to GRB10 phosphorylation thus promoting YWHAE-binding (By similarity). Interacts with AGAP2 (isoform
2/PIKE-A); the interaction occurs in the presence of guanine nucleotides. Interacts with AKTIP. Interacts (via PH
domain) with MTCP1, TCL1A AND TCL1B. Interacts with CDKN1B; the interaction phosphorylates CDKN1B promoting
14-3-3 binding and cell-cycle progression. Interacts with MAP3K5 and TRAF6. Interacts with BAD, PPP2R5B, STK3 and
STK4. Interacts (via PH domain) with SIRT1. Interacts with SRPK2 in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. Interacts
with RAF1. Interacts with TRIM13; the interaction ubiquitinates AKT1 leading to its proteasomal degradation.
Interacts with TNK2 and CLK2. Interacts (via the C-terminus) with THEM4 (via its C-terminus). Interacts with and
phosphorylated by PDPK1
Caution: In light of strong homologies in the primary amino acid sequence, the 3 AKT kinases were long surmised to
play redundant and overlapping roles. More recent studies has brought into question the redundancy within AKT
kinase isoforms and instead pointed to isoform specific functions in different cellular events and diseases. AKT1
is more specifically involved in cellular survival pathways, by inhibiting apoptotic processes; whereas AKT2 is
more specific for the insulin receptor signaling pathway. Moreover, while AKT1 and AKT2 are often implicated in
many aspects of cellular transformation, the 2 isoforms act in a complementary opposing manner. The role of AKT3
is less clear, though it appears to be predominantly expressed in brain
Selected PDB 3D structures from and Proteopedia for AKT1 (see all 21):
1H10 (3D)        1UNP (3D)        1UNQ (3D)        1UNR (3D)        2UVM (3D)        2UZR (3D)    
Secondary accessions: B2RAM5 Q9BWB6

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for AKT1: NX_P31749

Explore proteomics data for AKT1 at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • O-GlcNAcylation at Thr-305 and Thr-312 inhibits activating phosphorylation at Thr-308 via disrupting the
    interaction between AKT1 and PDPK1. O-GlcNAcylation at Ser-473 also probably interferes with phosphorylation at
    this site1
  • Phosphorylation on Thr-308, Ser-473 and Tyr-474 is required for full activity. Activated TNK2 phosphorylates it on
    Tyr-176 resulting in its binding to the anionic plasma membrane phospholipid PA. This phosphorylated form
    localizes to the cell membrane, where it is targeted by PDPK1 and PDPK2 for further phosphorylations on Thr-308
    and Ser-473 leading to its activation. Ser-473 phosphorylation by mTORC2 favors Thr-308 phosphorylation by PDPK1.
    Phosphorylated at Thr-308 and Ser-473 by IKBKE and TBK1. Ser-473 phosphorylation is enhanced by interaction with
    AGAP2 isoform 2 (PIKE-A). Ser-473 phosphorylation is enhanced in focal cortical dysplasias with Taylor-type
    balloon cells. Ser-473 phosphorylation is enhanced by signaling through activated FLT3. Dephosphorylated at
    Thr-308 and Ser-473 by PP2A phosphatase. The phosphorylated form of PPP2R5B is required for bridging AKT1 with
    PP2A phosphatase1
  • Ubiquitinated via 'Lys-48'-linked polyubiquitination by ZNRF1, leading to its degradation by the proteasome (By
    similarity). Ubiquitinated; undergoes both 'Lys-48'- and 'Lys-63'-linked polyubiquitination. TRAF6-induced
    'Lys-63'-linked AKT1 ubiquitination is critical for phosphorylation and activation. When ubiquitinated, it
    translocates to the plasma membrane, where it becomes phosphorylated. When fully phosphorylated and translocated
    into the nucleus, undergoes 'Lys-48'-polyubiquitination catalyzed by TTC3, leading to its degradation by the
    proteasome. Also ubiquitinated by TRIM13 leading to its proteasomal degradation. Phosphorylated, undergoes
    'Lys-48'-linked polyubiquitination preferentially at Lys-284 catalyzed by MUL1, leading to its proteasomal
    degradation1
  • Acetylated on Lys-14 and Lys-20 by the histone acetyltransferases EP300 and KAT2B. Acetylation results in reduced
    phosphorylation and inhibition of activity. Deacetylated at Lys-14 and Lys-20 by SIRT1. SIRT1-mediated
    deacetylation relieves the inhibition1
  • Ubiquitination2 at Lys8, Lys30, Lys39, Lys276
  • Glycosylation2 at Ser126, Ser129, Thr305, Thr312, Ser473
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Selected DME Specific Peptides for AKT1 (P31749) (see all 35)
     VVYRDLK  YYAMKIL  GVVMYEM  AEIVSAL 


    See AKT1 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins (3 alternative transcripts): 
    NP_001014431.1  NP_001014432.1  NP_005154.2  

    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000451828   ENSP00000384293   ENSP00000270202   ENSP00000385326   ENSP00000450688  
     ENSP00000451470   ENSP00000450681   ENSP00000443897   ENSP00000451166   ENSP00000451290  
     ENSP00000451824  
    Reactome Protein details: P31749

    AKT1 Human Recombinant Protein Products:

    EMD Millipore Purified and/or Recombinant AKT1 Protein
    R&D Systems Recombinant & Natural Proteins for AKT1
    Enzo Life Sciences proteins for AKT1
    OriGene Purified Proteins for AKT1
    OriGene Protein Over-expression Lysate for AKT1
    OriGene MassSpec for AKT1
    OriGene Custom Protein Services for AKT1
    GenScript Custom Purified and Recombinant Proteins Services for AKT1
    Novus Biologicals AKT1 Proteins
    Novus Biologicals AKT1 Lysates
    Sino Biological Recombinant Protein for AKT1
    Sino Biological Cell Lysate for AKT1
    Browse ProSpec Recombinant Proteins
    Browse Proteins at Cloud-Clone Corp.

     
    Search eBioscience for Proteins for AKT1 

     
    antibodies-online proteins for AKT1 (35 products) 

     
    antibodies-online peptides for AKT1

    AKT1 Antibody Products:

    EMD Millipore Mono- and Polyclonal Antibodies for the study of AKT1
    R&D Systems Antibodies for AKT1
    Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for AKT1 
    OriGene Antibodies for AKT1
    OriGene Custom Antibody Services for AKT1
    Novus Biologicals AKT1 Antibodies
    Abcam antibodies for AKT1 (P31751, P31749)
    Browse Antibodies at Cloud-Clone Corp.
    ThermoFisher Antibody for AKT1
    LSBio Antibodies in human, mouse, rat for AKT1
    antibodies-online antibodies for AKT1 (966 products) 

    AKT1 Assay Products:

    EMD Millipore Kits and Assays for the Analysis of AKT1
    OriGene Custom Assay Services for AKT1
    R&D Systems ELISAs for AKT1         (see all)
    GenScript AKT1-Activity-based Kinase Assay for Compound Screening
    Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Sandwich ELISA Kits for AKT1
    Enzo Life Sciences assays for AKT1
    Browse ELISAs at Cloud-Clone Corp.
    Browse CLIAs at Cloud-Clone Corp.
    eBioscience ELISAs for AKT1: (see all 2
                        AKT Activation InstantOne ELISA 96 tests
    antibodies-online kits for AKT1 (29 products) 


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
    About This Section

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    HGNC Gene Families:
    PLEKH: Pleckstrin homology (PH) domain containing

    IUPHAR Guide to PHARMACOLOGY protein family classification: v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1
    Protein kinase B

    Selected InterPro protein domains (see all 9):
     IPR017441 Protein_kinase_ATP_BS
     IPR002290 Ser/Thr_dual-sp_kinase_dom
     IPR011009 Kinase-like_dom
     IPR017892 Pkinase_C
     IPR001849 Pleckstrin_homology

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P31749

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P31749

    2 Blocks protein domains:
    IPB000961 Protein kinase C-terminal domain
    IPB001849 Pleckstrin-like


    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: AKT1_HUMAN, P31749
    Domain: Binding of the PH domain to phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PI(3,4,5)P3) following
    phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase alpha (PIK3CA) activity results in its targeting to the plasma membrane. The PH
    domain mediates interaction with TNK2 and Tyr-176 is also essential for this interaction
    Domain: The AGC-kinase C-terminal mediates interaction with THEM4
    Similarity: Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. AGC Ser/Thr protein kinase family. RAC subfamily
    Similarity: Contains 1 AGC-kinase C-terminal domain
    Similarity: Contains 1 PH domain
    Similarity: Contains 1 protein kinase domain


    Find genes that share domains with AKT1           About GenesLikeMe


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: AKT1_HUMAN, P31749
    Function: AKT1 is one of 3 closely related serine/threonine-protein kinases (AKT1, AKT2 and AKT3) called the AKT
    kinase, and which regulate many processes including metabolism, proliferation, cell survival, growth and
    angiogenesis. This is mediated through serine and/or threonine phosphorylation of a range of downstream
    substrates. Over 100 substrate candidates have been reported so far, but for most of them, no isoform specificity
    has been reported. AKT is responsible of the regulation of glucose uptake by mediating insulin-induced
    translocation of the SLC2A4/GLUT4 glucose transporter to the cell surface. Phosphorylation of PTPN1 at 'Ser-50'
    negatively modulates its phosphatase activity preventing dephosphorylation of the insulin receptor and the
    attenuation of insulin signaling. Phosphorylation of TBC1D4 triggers the binding of this effector to inhibitory
    14-3-3 proteins, which is required for insulin-stimulated glucose transport. AKT regulates also the storage of
    glucose in the form of glycogen by phosphorylating GSK3A at 'Ser-21' and GSK3B at 'Ser-9', resulting in
    inhibition of its kinase activity. Phosphorylation of GSK3 isoforms by AKT is also thought to be one mechanism by
    which cell proliferation is driven. AKT regulates also cell survival via the phosphorylation of MAP3K5 (apoptosis
    signal-related kinase). Phosphorylation of 'Ser-83' decreases MAP3K5 kinase activity stimulated by oxidative
    stress and thereby prevents apoptosis. AKT mediates insulin-stimulated protein synthesis by phosphorylating TSC2
    at 'Ser-939' and 'Thr-1462', thereby activating mTORC1 signaling and leading to both phosphorylation of 4E-BP1
    and in activation of RPS6KB1. AKT is involved in the phosphorylation of members of the FOXO factors (Forkhead
    family of transcription factors), leading to binding of 14-3-3 proteins and cytoplasmic localization. In
    particular, FOXO1 is phosphorylated at 'Thr-24', 'Ser-256' and 'Ser-319'. FOXO3 and FOXO4 are phosphorylated on
    equivalent sites. AKT has an important role in the regulation of NF-kappa-B-dependent gene transcription and
    positively regulates the activity of CREB1 (cyclic AMP (cAMP)-response element binding protein). The
    phosphorylation of CREB1 induces the binding of accessory proteins that are necessary for the transcription of
    pro-survival genes such as BCL2 and MCL1. AKT phosphorylates 'Ser-454' on ATP citrate lyase (ACLY), thereby
    potentially regulating ACLY activity and fatty acid synthesis. Activates the 3B isoform of cyclic nucleotide
    phosphodiesterase (PDE3B) via phosphorylation of 'Ser-273', resulting in reduced cyclic AMP levels and inhibition
    of lipolysis. Phosphorylates PIKFYVE on 'Ser-318', which results in increased PI(3)P-5 activity. The Rho
    GTPase-activating protein DLC1 is another substrate and its phosphorylation is implicated in the regulation cell
    proliferation and cell growth. AKT plays a role as key modulator of the AKT-mTOR signaling pathway controlling
    the tempo of the process of newborn neurons integration during adult neurogenesis, including correct neuron
    positioning, dendritic development and synapse formation. Signals downstream of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase
    (PI(3)K) to mediate the effects of various growth factors such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF),
    epidermal growth factor (EGF), insulin and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). AKT mediates the antiapoptotic
    effects of IGF-I. Essential for the SPATA13-mediated regulation of cell migration and adhesion assembly and
    disassembly. May be involved in the regulation of the placental development. Phosphorylates STK4/MST1 at
    'Thr-120' and 'Thr-387' leading to inhibition of its: kinase activity, nuclear translocation, autophosphorylation
    and ability to phosphorylate FOXO3. Phosphorylates STK3/MST2 at 'Thr-117' and 'Thr-384' leading to inhibition of
    its: cleavage, kinase activity, autophosphorylation at Thr-180, binding to RASSF1 and nuclear translocation.
    Phosphorylates SRPK2 and enhances its kinase activity towards SRSF2 and ACIN1 and promotes its nuclear
    translocation. Phosphorylates RAF1 at 'Ser-259' and negatively regulates its activity. Phosphorylation of BAD
    stimulates its pro-apoptotic activity. Phosphorylates KAT6A at 'Thr-369' and this phosphorylation inhibits the
    interaction of KAT6A with PML and negatively regulates its acetylation activity towards p53/TP53
    Function: AKT1-specific substrates have been recently identified, including palladin (PALLD), which
    phosphorylation modulates cytoskeletal organization and cell motility; prohibitin (PHB), playing an important
    role in cell metabolism and proliferation; and CDKN1A, for which phosphorylation at 'Thr-145' induces its release
    from CDK2 and cytoplasmic relocalization. These recent findings indicate that the AKT1 isoform has a more
    specific role in cell motility and proliferation. Phosphorylates CLK2 thereby controlling cell survival to
    ionizing radiation
    Catalytic activity: ATP + a protein = ADP + a phosphoprotein
    Enzyme regulation: Three specific sites, one in the kinase domain (Thr-308) and the two other ones in the
    C-terminal regulatory region (Ser-473 and Tyr-474), need to be phosphorylated for its full activation. Inhibited
    by pyrrolopyrimidine inhibitors like aniline triazole and spiroindoline
    Biophysicochemical properties: Kinetic parameters: KM=52.8 uM for ATP (for purified and in vitro activated AKT1);
    KM=0.5 uM for peptide substrate (for purified and in vitro activated AKT1); KM=143.3 uM for ATP (for recombinant
    myristoylated AKT1 expressed and immunoprecipitated from Rat-1 cells); KM=2.9 uM for peptide substrate (for
    recombinant myristoylated AKT1 expressed and immunoprecipitated from Rat-1 cells);

         Genatlas biochemistry entry for AKT1:
    V-akt murine thymoma viral oncogen homolog 1,general mediator of cell survival induced by insulin growth factor
    1,AKT1 and others activated by phosphadidylinositol 3-kinase in the antiapoptotic PIK3 pathway,phosphorylating
    and inactivating components of the apoptotic machinery including BAD,CASP9 and the transcription factor FKHRL1

         Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB): EC 2.7.11.11 2 EC 2.7.112

         Gene Ontology (GO): 15 molecular function terms (see first 5):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0004672protein kinase activity TAS10570282
    GO:0004674protein serine/threonine kinase activity TAS--
    GO:0004713protein tyrosine kinase activity ----
    GO:0005080protein kinase C binding IEA--
    GO:0005515protein binding IPI11154276
    GO:0005524ATP binding IDA16540465
    GO:0005547phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate binding IDA19203586
    GO:0016301kinase activity IDA14749367
    GO:0016772transferase activity, transferring phosphorus-containing groups ----
    GO:0019899enzyme binding ISS--
    GO:0019901protein kinase binding ----
    GO:0030235nitric-oxide synthase regulator activity IMP10376603
    GO:0042802identical protein binding IPI7891724
    GO:0043325phosphatidylinositol-3,4-bisphosphate binding IDA19203586
    GO:007188914-3-3 protein binding IPI10102273
         
    Find genes that share ontologies with AKT1           About GenesLikeMe


    Phenotypes:
         6 GenomeRNAi human phenotypes for AKT1:
     Decreased p24 protein expressi  Decreased viability after Chla  Decreased viability with TRAIL  Increases Tamoxifen sensitivit 
     Weaker migration  Wnt reporter downregulated 

         Selected MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 7 alleles(MGI details for Akt1) (see all 20):
     adipose tissue  behavior/neurological  cardiovascular system  cellular  embryogenesis 
     endocrine/exocrine gland  growth/size/body  hematopoietic system  homeostasis/metabolism  immune system 
     integument  liver/biliary system  mortality/aging  muscle  nervous system 

    Find genes that share phenotypes with AKT1           About GenesLikeMe

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-outs for AKT1: Akt1tm1Nhy Akt1tm1Mbb Akt1tm2.1Mbb

       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for AKT1
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Contact us about creating complex and humanized mouse models for AKT1

       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for AKT1
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for AKT1

    miRNA
    Products:
        
    miRTarBase miRNAs that target AKT1:
    hsa-mir-302b-3p (MIRT007172), hsa-mir-451a (MIRT005740), hsa-mir-143-3p (MIRT007179), hsa-mir-302c-3p (MIRT007173), hsa-mir-193b-3p (MIRT041236), hsa-mir-185-5p (MIRT004701), hsa-mir-149-3p (MIRT005355), hsa-mir-26b-5p (MIRT029530), hsa-mir-125b-5p (MIRT004363), hsa-mir-302a-3p (MIRT007171), hsa-mir-302d-3p (MIRT007174)

    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat AKT1 using miScript Target Protectors
    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate AKT1 (see all 21):
    hsa-miR-520e hsa-miR-302d hsa-miR-374a hsa-miR-302e hsa-miR-520a-3p hsa-miR-633 hsa-miR-372 hsa-miR-520d-3p
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidAKT1 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
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    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat AKT1

    Gene Editing
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    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector (see all 3): AKT1 (NM_005163)
    Sino Biological Human cDNA Clone for AKT1
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for AKT1
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat AKT1
    Addgene plasmids for AKT1 

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    eBioscience FlowRNA Probe Sets ( VA1-12111) for AKT1 


    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
    About This Section

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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    AKT1_HUMAN, P31749: Cytoplasm. Nucleus. Cell membrane. Note=Nucleus after activation by integrin-linked protein
    kinase 1 (ILK1). Nuclear translocation is enhanced by interaction with TCL1A. Phosphorylation on Tyr-176 by TNK2
    results in its localization to the cell membrane where it is targeted for further phosphorylations on Thr-308 and
    Ser-473 leading to its activation and the activated form translocates to the nucleus
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    cytosol5
    nucleus5
    plasma membrane5
    cytoskeleton4
    extracellular3
    mitochondrion3
    endoplasmic reticulum2
    endosome2
    lysosome2
    peroxisome2
    vacuole2
    golgi apparatus1

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected cellular component terms (see all 8):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005634nucleus TAS--
    GO:0005654nucleoplasm TAS--
    GO:0005737cytoplasm TAS--
    GO:0005819spindle IEA--
    GO:0005829cytosol TAS--

    Find genes that share ontologies with AKT1           About GenesLikeMe


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
    About This Section

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    SuperPaths for AKT1 About   (see all 230)  
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathSelected contained pathways About (see all per SuperPath)
    1Immune response Fc epsilon RI pathway
    Immune response Fc epsilon RI pathway0.43
    VEGF signaling pathway0.39
    Immune response BCR pathway0.43
    VEGF - VEGF R2 Signaling Pathways0.35
    Fc epsilon RI signaling pathway0.41
    Fc-epsilon receptor I signaling in mast cells0.34
    2Translation Insulin regulation of translation
    Translation Insulin regulation of translation0.59
    Cell adhesion PLAU signaling0.35
    Regulation of lipid metabolism Insulin signaling generic cascades0.59
    Transcription PPAR Pathway0.34
    Transcription Receptor mediated HIF regulation0.51
    Development Growth hormone signaling via PI3K AKT and MAPK cascades0.34
    Translation Regulation activity of EIF20.47
    mTOR signaling pathway0.34
    3IL-9 Signaling Pathways
    IL-9 Signaling Pathways0.90
    IL-4 Signaling Pathways0.84
    IL-7 Signaling Pathways0.90
    IL-9 Signaling Pathway0.42
    IL-21 Signaling Pathways0.90
    IL-7 Signaling Pathway0.40
    Common Cytokine Receptor Gamma-Chain Family Signaling Pathways0.90
    Development Thrombopoietin regulated cell processes0.38
    4Development IGF 1 receptor signaling
    Development IGF RI signaling0.49
    Development IGF 1 receptor signaling0.48
    Signal transduction AKT signaling0.49
    Immune response IL 4 signaling pathway0.39
    5B cell receptor signaling pathway (KEGG)
    B cell receptor signaling pathway0.42
    T cell receptor signaling pathway0.38
    BCR signaling pathway0.42
    TCR Signaling Pathway0.36


    Find genes that share SuperPaths with AKT1           About GenesLikeMe

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways

    Selected R&D Systems Pathways for AKT1 (see all 12)
        IL-21 Signaling Pathways
    IL-2 Signaling Pathways
    IL-4 Signaling Pathways
    Adipocytokines & Insulin Signaling
    Akt Signaling Pathway

    Selected Downloadable PowerPoint Slides of GeneGlobe Pathway Central Maps for AKT1 (see all 90)
        Telomerase Components in Cell Signaling
    UVB-Induced MAPK Signaling
    Molecular Mechanisms of Cancer
    eIF2 Pathway
    ERK5 Signaling

    2 Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Pathways for AKT1
        PI3K / Akt Signaling
    Glucose / Energy Metabolism

    Selected Tocris Bioscience Pathways for AKT1 (see all 8)
        Akt Pathway
    Insulin Pathway
    Toll-like Receptor Pathway
    Apoptosis Pathway
    TGF-beta Pathway

    Selected GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) Pathways for AKT1 (see all 70)
        Development A2A receptor signaling
    Development CNTF receptor signaling
    Apoptosis and survival Anti-apoptotic action of membrane-bound ESR1
    Development EGFR signaling pathway
    Signal transduction AKT signaling

    Selected BioSystems Pathways for AKT1 (see all 109)
        MAPK signaling pathway
    MicroRNAs in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy
    Angiogenesis
    Focal Adhesion
    Apoptosis

    Selected Sino Biological Pathways for AKT1 (see all 6)
        TNF Signaling
    EGFR Signaling Pathway
    p53 Pathway
    VEGF Signaling
    Death Receptor Signaling

    Selected Reactome Pathways for AKT1 (see all 19)
        deactivation of the beta-catenin transactivating complex
    AKT phosphorylates targets in the nucleus
    AKT-mediated inactivation of FOXO1A
    Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) synthesis, recycling, salvage and regulation
    Downregulation of ERBB2:ERBB3 signaling

    5 PharmGKB Pathways for AKT1
        Anti-diabetic Drug Potassium Channel Inhibitors Pathway, Pharmacodynamics
    Celecoxib Pathway, Pharmacodynamics
    EGFR Inhibitor Pathway, Pharmacodynamics
    Sorafenib Pharmacodynamics
    VEGF Signaling Pathway

    Selected Kegg Pathways  (Kegg details for AKT1) (see all 55):
        MAPK signaling pathway
    ErbB signaling pathway
    Ras signaling pathway
    Rap1 signaling pathway
    Chemokine signaling pathway

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including AKT1 (see all 37): 
              Lung Cancer in human mouse rat
              Insulin Signaling Pathway in human mouse rat
              Prostate Cancer in human mouse rat
              Mitochondria in human mouse rat
              Breast Cancer in human mouse rat

    Interactions:

        GeneGlobe Interaction Network for AKT1

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    Selected Interacting proteins for AKT1 (P317491, 2, 3 ENSP000002702024) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 397)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    STK4Q130431, 2, 3, ENSP000003618924EBI-296087,EBI-367376 MINT-6175011 MINT-6175193 MINT-6175251 MINT-6175225 MINT-6174722 MINT-6175034 MINT-6175070 MINT-6175132 MINT-6175047 MINT-6175025 MINT-6175115 MINT-6175085 MINT-6175239 I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000361892
    SORBS2O948752, 3, ENSP000002847764MINT-61344 MINT-61469 MINT-61464 MINT-61466 MINT-61479 MINT-61468 MINT-61467 MINT-61463 MINT-61346 MINT-61345 MINT-61462 MINT-61465 I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000284776
    PLCG1P191741, 2, 3, ENSP000002440074EBI-296087,EBI-79387 MINT-7146749 MINT-7146647 MINT-7146716 MINT-7146688 MINT-7146767 MINT-7146702 MINT-7146731 MINT-7146671 MINT-7146657 I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000244007
    PPP1CAP621361, 2, 3, ENSP000003260314EBI-296087,EBI-357253 MINT-8291728 MINT-8291740 MINT-8291812 MINT-8291704 MINT-8291680 MINT-8291788 I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000326031
    PPP2CAP677751, 2, 3, ENSP000004184474EBI-296087,EBI-712311 MINT-8203971 MINT-8288050 MINT-8288043 MINT-74931 MINT-74941 I2D: score=4 STRING: ENSP00000418447
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected biological process terms (see all 109):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0000060protein import into nucleus, translocation IMP16280327
    GO:0001649osteoblast differentiation IEA--
    GO:0001893maternal placenta development IEA--
    GO:0001934positive regulation of protein phosphorylation IDA19057511
    GO:0001938positive regulation of endothelial cell proliferation IMP19850054

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    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
    About This Section

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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
    Selected ApexBio Compounds for AKT1 (see all 12)     About this table
    CompoundAction CAS #
    A-674563potent selective protein kinase B/Akt inhibitor[552325-73-2]
    AT7867potent ATP-competitive inhibitor of Akt1, Akt2 and Akt3[857531-00-1]
    AZD5363Orally bioavailable, selective and potent inhibitor of all PKB/AKT iso-forms[1143532-39-1]
    BX795Cell-permeable, ATP-competitive and reversible PDK1 inhibitor[702675-74-9]
    CCT128930novel potent ATP-competitive AKT inhibitor[885499-61-6]
    GDC-0068 (RG7440)Akt inhibitor[1001264-89-6]
    GSK690693Potent, ATP-competitive pan-Akt inhibitor[937174-76-0]
    MK-2206 dihydrochloridea highly selective non-ATP competitive allosteric Akt inhibitor[1032350-13-2]
    Palomid 529novel potent antitumour PI3K/Akt/mTOR inhibitor[914913-88-5]
    PerifosineAKT inhibitor[157716-52-4]

    Compounds for AKT1 available from Tocris Bioscience    About this table
    CompoundAction CAS #
    10-DEBC hydrochlorideSelective Akt/PKB inhibitor[201788-90-1]
    API-2Selective inhibitor of Akt/PKB signaling. Antitumor and antiviral[35943-35-2]
    FPA 124Akt/PKB inhibitor[902779-59-3]
    API-1Selective Akt/PKB inhibitor. Antitumor[36707-00-3]
    SC 79Akt activator[305834-79-1]

    3 HMDB Compounds for AKT1    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
    ADPadenosindiphosphorsaeure (see all 8)58-64-0--
    Adenosine triphosphate5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate) Adenosine (see all 24)56-65-5--
    SumatriptanImigran (see all 4)103628-46-2--

    5 DrugBank Compounds for AKT1    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #TypeActionsPubMed Ids
    Arsenic trioxideAcide Arsenieux [French] (see all 11)1327-53-3targetinducer16239170 12472888 15580309 12529330 15916724
    Inositol 1,3,4,5-Tetrakisphosphate-- --target--17139284 17016423
    5-(5-chloro-7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridine-- --target--10592235
    Adenosine triphosphate5'-ATP (see all 8)56-65-5target--17041888
    N-[2-(5-methyl-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)phenyl]-7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-amine-- --target--10592235

    1 IUPHAR Ligand for AKT1 (v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1)    About this table
    LigandTypeActionAffinityPubmed IDs
    GSK690693
    InhibitorInhibition18800763

    Selected Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for AKT1 gene (see all 125)    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    phosphatidylinositol 88.5 246 12551955 (5), 10578066 (5), 8645157 (3), 10671514 (3) (see all 99)
    phosphoinositide 83.7 125 10454216 (4), 10102683 (3), 9671484 (2), 15292195 (2) (see all 88)
    ly294002 83.6 78 15752900 (3), 15347471 (3), 16842970 (3), 10623881 (2) (see all 48)
    wortmannin 83.4 88 17380453 (3), 16458614 (2), 9346964 (2), 9755080 (2) (see all 62)
    threonine 78 116 10362672 (1), 10411946 (1), 10491192 (1), 11279265 (1) (see all 99)
    phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate 77.6 20 7738099 (1), 15107457 (1), 9228007 (1), 12421919 (1) (see all 18)
    serine 71.1 120 16780593 (3), 16141217 (2), 10362672 (1), 10411946 (1) (see all 99)
    rapamycin 70 48 10623881 (2), 17565979 (2), 10567225 (2), 17616691 (2) (see all 35)
    glycogen 69.9 112 11574400 (5), 10623881 (4), 9478990 (3), 10446195 (2) (see all 68)
    tyrosine 69.3 113 9593727 (3), 7616102 (3), 9415029 (3), 10623881 (2) (see all 79)

    4 PharmGKB related drug/compound annotations for AKT1 gene    About this table
    Drug/compound PharmGKB Annotation
    carboplatinCA  
    cisplatinCA  
    everolimus
    risperidoneCA  



    Find genes that share compounds with AKT1           About GenesLikeMe



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
    About This Section

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    REFSEQ mRNAs for AKT1 gene (3 alternative transcripts): 
    NM_001014431.1  NM_001014432.1  NM_005163.2  

    Unigene Cluster for AKT1:

    V-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1
    Hs.525622  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: AK122894
    18 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000554581(uc001ypk.3 uc001ypl.3) ENST00000407796 ENST00000349310(uc001ypm.3 uc001ypn.3)
    ENST00000553506 ENST00000557552(uc001ypj.3 uc010tyk.2) ENST00000402615(uc010axa.3)
    ENST00000555528 ENST00000555458 ENST00000554192 ENST00000544168 ENST00000554585
    ENST00000554848 ENST00000554826 ENST00000556836 ENST00000555380 ENST00000555926
    ENST00000557494 ENST00000553797
    miRNA
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    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate AKT1 (see all 21):
    hsa-miR-520e hsa-miR-302d hsa-miR-374a hsa-miR-302e hsa-miR-520a-3p hsa-miR-633 hsa-miR-372 hsa-miR-520d-3p
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    Inhib. RNA
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    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector (see all 3): AKT1 (NM_005163)
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    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat AKT1
    Addgene plasmids for AKT1 
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    OriGene qPCR primer pairs and template standards for AKT1
    OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human, mouse for AKT1
    Pre-validated RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat AKT1
      QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat AKT1
      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat AKT1
    Flow Cytometry
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    eBioscience FlowRNA Probe Sets ( VA1-12111) for AKT1 

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AB451242.1 AB451367.1 AK122894.1 AK299310.1 AK314256.1 BC000479.2 BC001737.1 BC063408.1 
    BC084538.1 BX648205.1 M63167.1 X61037.1 

    24 DOTS entries:

    DT.450038  DT.100059722  DT.100824191  DT.100059719  DT.95090241  DT.100733482  DT.120765970  DT.92461206 
    DT.100824190  DT.100824203  DT.102829546  DT.100824201  DT.75100119  DT.95341680  DT.100059721  DT.120765944 
    DT.95090231  DT.95090239  DT.95090245  DT.120765955  DT.120765973  DT.92461194  DT.92461227  DT.95124889 

    13 AceView cDNA sequences:

    BC001737 AK131465 BC000479 BX648205 CR611982 AK122894 AK094287 BX647722 
    AK127193 M63167 NM_005163 X61037 BC063408 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    Selected Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for AKT1 (see all 10)    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1 ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b · 5c ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7a · 7b ^ 8 ^ 9a · 9b · 9c ^ 10a · 10b · 10c ^ 11a · 11b ^ 12 ^ 13a · 13b ^ 14a · 14b ^ 15 ^
    SP1:                                                                                      -     -                                                               
    SP2:                                                                                      -     -                                                           -   
    SP3:                                                                                      -     -                                                               
    SP4:                                                                                -     -     -                                                               
    SP5:                                                                                                                                -                       -   

    ExUns: 16 ^ 17a · 17b ^ 18
    SP1:                        
    SP2:                        
    SP3:                        
    SP4:                        
    SP5:                        


    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for AKT1

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
    About This Section

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    AKT1 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: --
    AKT1 Expression
    About this image


    AKT1 expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 20) fully expand
     
     Brain (Nervous System)    fully expand to see all 4 entries
             Cerebral Cortex
     
     Ovary (Reproductive System)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             Ovarian Mesenchymal Stroma Cells Ovary Interstitium
             Oviduct
     
     Trophoblast (Extraembryonic Tissues)
             Trophoblast Cells Trophoblast
     
     Testis (Reproductive System)
             Leydig Cells Testis Interstitium
     
     Endothelium (Cardiovascular System)
             Angioblasts Embryonic Blood Islands
    AKT1 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    AKT1 Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.525622

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: AKT1_HUMAN, P31749
    Tissue specificity: Expressed in prostate cancer and levels increase from the normal to the malignant state (at
    protein level). Expressed in all human cell types so far analyzed. The Tyr-176 phosphorylated form shows a
    significant increase in expression in breast cancers during the progressive stages i.e. normal to hyperplasia
    (ADH), ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and lymph node metastatic (LNMM) stages

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including AKT1 (see all 37): 
              Lung Cancer in human mouse rat
              Insulin Signaling Pathway in human mouse rat
              Prostate Cancer in human mouse rat
              Mitochondria in human mouse rat
              Breast Cancer in human mouse rat

    Primer
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    Pre-validated RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat AKT1
    QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat AKT1
    QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat AKT1
    In Situ
    Assay Products:
     

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for AKT1

    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
    About This Section

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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

    Orthologs for AKT1 gene from Selected species (see all 16)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Akt11 , 5 thymoma viral proto-oncogene 11, 5 90.9(n)1
    98.33(a)1
      12 (61.20 cM)5
    116511  NM_009652.31  NP_033782.11 
     1126538215 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves AKT11 v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1 76.94(n)
    96.04(a)
      395928  NM_205055.1  NP_990386.1 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia AKT16
    v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1
    96(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    1(3696188-3809503)
    African clawed frog
    (Xenopus laevis)
    Amphibia AF317656.12   -- 76.92(n)    AF317656.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii LOC1003315151 RAC-alpha serine/threonine-protein kinase-like 74.93(n)
    82.84(a)
      100331515  XM_003200288.2  XP_003200336.2 
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta Akt13 anti-apoptosis protein serine/threonine
    kinase
    61(a)   89B6   --
    worm
    (Caenorhabditis elegans)
    Secernentea akt-11 , 3 PH (pleckstrin homology) domain,
    Protein kinase more3
    akt-11
    55(a)
    (best of 2)3
    57.05(n)1
    60.47(a)1
      V(10251544-10255039)3
    1794241  NM_001028475.21  NP_001023646.11 
    baker's yeast
    (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
    Saccharomycetes SCH96
    Protein kinase involved in transcriptional activat...
    24(a)
    1 → many
    VIII(509363-511837) YHR205W


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for AKT1 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for AKT1 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for AKT1 gene
    GRK72  RPS6KB12  GRK12  SGK32  GRK42  GRK62  C8orf44-SGK32  SGK22  
    ADRBK22  AKT32  SGK12  RPS6KB22  GRK52  ADRBK12  AKT22  
    Selected SIMAP similar genes for AKT1 using alignment to 7 protein entries:     AKT1_HUMAN (see all proteins) (see all similar genes):
    AKT2    AKT3    KIN27    PRKCH    PRKCZ    SGK2
    PRKACB    PRKCA    PKN2    PRKCE    PKN1    PRKACA
    PRKCI    RPS6KA2    DKFZp781N0293    SGK3    SGKL    MARK4

    Find genes that share paralogs with AKT1           About GenesLikeMe



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for AKT1 (see all 514)    About this table                                 

    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 14 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs1214345921,2,,4
    CProteus syndrome (PROTEUSS)4 pathogenic1105246551(-) TAGGGA/GAGTAC 6 K E mis10--------
    rs617612541,2
    C,F--105235233(-) GCCAAG/CGTCAT 3 -- ds50013Minor allele frequency- C:0.15NS WA 210
    rs1467312121,2
    --105235369(+) CTGGGG/TTGAAG 3 -- ds50010--------
    rs24988011,2
    C,F,A--105235558(-) CCCCAA/GCAGGT 3 -- ds50018Minor allele frequency- G:0.46NA NS CSA WA EA 451
    rs617612531,2
    C,F--105235640(-) GGAGGG/CAGTGG 3 -- ds50013Minor allele frequency- C:0.01NS WA 212
    rs1906051781,2
    --105235787(+) GTGGTA/GCAGCG 3 -- ut310--------
    rs1403207431,2
    --105235791(+) TGCAGC/TGGCAG 3 -- ut310--------
    rs1833602001,2
    --105235804(+) GCAGCA/GTCTGG 3 -- ut310--------
    rs178468291,2
    C,F--105235818(-) TCCACG/ACCTCC 3 -- ut31 ese35Minor allele frequency- A:0.13NS NA WA 254
    rs585652161,2
    C,F--105235824(+) GTGGAG/CGGGCC 3 -- ut314Minor allele frequency- C:0.25NS WA 208

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for AKT1 (105235686 - 105262088 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) Selected variations for AKT1 (see all 13):    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    esv2749227CNV Deletion23290073
    dgv2017n71CNV Loss21882294
    dgv2016n71CNV Loss21882294
    dgv2015n71CNV Loss21882294
    nsv517038CNV Loss19592680
    dgv2009n71CNV Loss21882294
    dgv2012n71CNV Loss21882294
    nsv470677CNV Loss18288195
    nsv456455CNV Loss19166990
    nsv902389CNV Loss21882294

    Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD): AKT1
    4 Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays for AKT1:
    Cosmic IdAA Change
    33765p.E17K
    36918p.E49K
    33765p.E17K
    48226p.F35L
    Selected Site Specific Cancer Mutation PCR Panels containing AKT1 (see all 19):
    Breast Cancer
    Receptor Tyrosine Kinase (RTK) (Panel II)
    Cancer Comprehensive Panel 384HT
    Lung Cancer
    KIT Pathway
    4 Copy Number PCR Panels containing AKT1:
    Oncogenes & Tumor Suppressor Genes 384HC
    Breast Cancer
    Lung Cancer
    Kinases & Phosphatases
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing AKT1
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for AKT1

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 164730   
    OMIM disorders: 114480  114500  167000  181500  176920  615109  
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: AKT1_HUMAN, P31749
  • Breast cancer (BC) [MIM:114480]: A common malignancy originating from breast epithelial tissue. Breast
    neoplasms can be distinguished by their histologic pattern. Invasive ductal carcinoma is by far the most common
    type. Breast cancer is etiologically and genetically heterogeneous. Important genetic factors have been indicated
    by familial occurrence and bilateral involvement. Mutations at more than one locus can be involved in different
    families or even in the same case. Note=Disease susceptibility is associated with variations affecting the gene
    represented in this entry
  • Colorectal cancer (CRC) [MIM:114500]: A complex disease characterized by malignant lesions arising from
    the inner wall of the large intestine (the colon) and the rectum. Genetic alterations are often associated with
    progression from premalignant lesion (adenoma) to invasive adenocarcinoma. Risk factors for cancer of the colon
    and rectum include colon polyps, long-standing ulcerative colitis, and genetic family history. Note=The gene
    represented in this entry may be involved in disease pathogenesis
  • Note=Genetic variations in AKT1 may play a role in susceptibility to ovarian cancer
  • Proteus syndrome (PROTEUSS) [MIM:176920]: A highly variable, severe disorder of asymmetric and
    disproportionate overgrowth of body parts, connective tissue nevi, epidermal nevi, dysregulated adipose tissue,
    and vascular malformations. Many features of Proteus syndrome overlap with other overgrowth syndromes. Note=The
    disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry
  • Cowden syndrome 6 (CWS6) [MIM:615109]: A form of Cowden syndrome, a hamartomatous polyposis syndrome with
    age-related penetrance. Cowden syndrome is characterized by hamartomatous lesions affecting derivatives of
    ectodermal, mesodermal and endodermal layers, macrocephaly, facial trichilemmomas (benign tumors of the hair
    follicle infundibulum), acral keratoses, papillomatous papules, and elevated risk for development of several
    types of malignancy, particularly breast carcinoma in women and thyroid carcinoma in both men and women. Colon
    cancer and renal cell carcinoma have also been reported. Hamartomas can be found in virtually every organ, but
    most commonly in the skin, gastrointestinal tract, breast and thyroid. Note=The disease is caused by mutations
    affecting the gene represented in this entry

  • Selected diseases for AKT1 (see all 28):    
    About MalaCards
    proteus syndrome    cowden syndrome 6    proteus syndrome, somatic    breast cancer, protection against
    breast cancer, lobular    anal squamous cell carcinoma    breast cancer, invasive ductal    breast cancer, early-onset
    cowden syndrome 1    polycystic kidney disease, autosomal dominant    breast cancer, somatic    thymoma
    serous cystadenocarcinoma    overnutrition    male breast cancer    ovarian cancer, somatic
    ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma    breast cancer susceptibility    mitral valve disease    nonepidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma

    Selected diseases from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for AKT1 (see all 29):
    Vascular disease     Breast cancer     Diabetes mellitus     Prostate cancer
    Malignant glioma     Lung cancer     Leukemia     Carcinoma
    Heart disease     Hyperglycemia     Hepatocellular carcinoma     Colorectal cancer
    Ovarian cancer     Melanoma     Pancreatic cancer     Lymphoma
    Brain disease     Neuroblastoma     Retinoblastoma     Thymoma

    Find genes that share disorders with AKT1           About GenesLikeMe

    Selected Novoseek inferred disease relationships for AKT1 gene (see all 84)    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    cancer 53.2 97 11571628 (5), 19216065 (3), 19876913 (3), 17611497 (3) (see all 66)
    insulin resistance 47.2 15 15634339 (2), 10373517 (1), 20101593 (1), 11274905 (1) (see all 14)
    wiskott-aldrich syndrome 47.1 7 15657136 (1), 10488099 (1), 18198193 (1), 11580754 (1) (see all 7)
    tumors 45 142 17027002 (4), 12191616 (4), 11593437 (4), 17639041 (4) (see all 80)
    glioblastoma 36.1 7 10958682 (2), 11439092 (1), 18250332 (1), 19234490 (1) (see all 5)
    breast cancer 34.4 50 16782806 (5), 16711509 (3), 18087195 (3), 16428439 (3) (see all 30)
    thymoma 29.8 12 16251502 (1), 15522255 (1), 17464696 (1), 17611497 (1) (see all 10)
    metastasis 27.4 17 19305425 (2), 15886842 (2), 19487299 (1), 20360004 (1) (see all 13)
    insulin sensitivity 27.2 2 18599621 (1), 18573875 (1)
    hyperinsulinemia 22.8 1 17513702 (1)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): AKT1
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: AKT1 (87 documents)
    Tumor Gene Database (TGDB): AKT1

    Export disorders for AKT1 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for AKT1 gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 3154):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with AKT1)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Isolation and characterization of the human AKT1 gene, identification of 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and their lack of association with Type II diabetes. (PubMed id 11508278)1, 2, 4, 9 Matsubara A....Permutt M.A. (Diabetologia 2001)
    2. Association of polymorphisms in AKT1 and EGFR with clinical outcome and toxicity in non-small cell lung cancer patients treated with gefitinib. (PubMed id 20159991)1, 4, 9 Giovannetti E....Tibaldi C. (Mol. Cancer Ther. 2010)
    3. Genetic variations in the PI3K/PTEN/AKT/mTOR pathway are associated with clinical outcomes in esophageal cancer patients treated with chemoradiotherapy. (PubMed id 19164214)1, 4, 9 Hildebrandt M.A....Wu X. (J. Clin. Oncol. 2009)
    4. Association of AKT1 gene polymorphisms with risk of schizophrenia and with response to antipsychotics in the Chinese population. (PubMed id 17915974)1, 4, 9 Xu M.Q....He L. (J Clin Psychiatry 2007)
    5. Association of AKT1 with schizophrenia confirmed in a Japanese population. (PubMed id 15522255)1, 4, 9 Ikeda M....Ozaki N. (Biol. Psychiatry 2004)
    6. Mutational profile of advanced primary and metastatic radioactive iodine-refractory thyroid cancers reveals distinct pathogenetic roles for BRAF, PIK3CA, and AKT1. (PubMed id 19487299)1, 4, 9 Ricarte-Filho J.C....Fagin J.A. (Cancer Res. 2009)
    7. The actin-bundling protein palladin is an Akt1-specific substrate that regulates breast cancer cell migration. (PubMed id 20471940)1, 2, 9 Chin Y.R. and Toker A. (Mol. Cell 2010)
    8. AKT1 Gene Polymorphisms and Obstetric Complications in the Patients with Schizophrenia. (PubMed id 20046382)1, 4, 9 Joo E.J....Kim Y.S. (Psychiatry Investig 2009)
    9. Association of AKT1 haplotype with the risk of schizophrenia in Iranian population. (PubMed id 16583435)1, 4, 9 Bajestan S.N....Osame M. (Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet. 2006)
    10. AKT1 polymorphisms are associated with tuberculosis in the Chinese population. (PubMed id 20141546)1, 4, 9 Wang X....Cheng X. (Int. J. Immunogenet. 2010)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
    About This Section

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    Entrez Gene: 207 HGNC: 391 AceView: AKT1 Ensembl:ENSG00000142208 euGenes: HUgn207
    ECgene: AKT1 Kegg: 207 H-InvDB: AKT1

    (According to HUGE)
    About This Section

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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    About This Section

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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for AKT1 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    ATLAS Chromosomes in Cancer entry for AKT1 Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for AKT1 gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving AKT1

    Licensable Technologies for AKT1 gene:
     Salk Institute: Protein Kinase B/AKT Modulators and Methods of Use Thereof
     Tufts University:  Regulation of Oncogenesis by Akt-Specific Isoforms
    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, eBioscience, antibodies-online, and/or others, Gene Editing from DNA2.0. Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Addgene, Cell lines from GenScript, and ESI BIO, Flow cytometery from eBioscience, PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or ApexBio, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Animal models from inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway)
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