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Aliases for AKR1C3 Gene

Aliases for AKR1C3 Gene

  • Aldo-Keto Reductase Family 1, Member C3 2 3
  • Prostaglandin F Synthase 2 3 4
  • DD3 3 4 6
  • Aldo-Keto Reductase Family 1, Member C3 (3-Alpha Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase, Type II) 2 3
  • Trans-1,2-Dihydrobenzene-1,2-Diol Dehydrogenase 3 4
  • Testosterone 17-Beta-Dehydrogenase 5 3 4
  • Chlordecone Reductase Homolog HAKRb 3 4
  • Dihydrodiol Dehydrogenase 3 3 4
  • Dihydrodiol Dehydrogenase X 2 3
  • 3-Alpha-HSD Type II, Brain 3 4
  • Indanol Dehydrogenase 3 4
  • HSD17B5 3 4
  • HA1753 3 4
  • HAKRB 3 6
  • PGFS 3 4
  • 3-Alpha Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase, Type II 3
  • Type IIb 3-Alpha Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase 3
  • 17-Beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 5 4
  • 3-Alpha-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 2 4
  • Hydroxysteroid (17-Beta) Dehydrogenase 5 2
  • Aldo-Keto Reductase Family 1 Member C3 3
  • 3-Alpha Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase 2
  • Dihydrodiol Dehydrogenase Type I 4
  • 3-Alpha-HSD Type 2 4
  • 17-Beta-HSD 5 4
  • EC 4
  • EC 4
  • EC 4
  • EC 4
  • EC 4
  • EC 4
  • EC 1.-.-.- 4
  • KIAA0119 4
  • EC 1.1.1 63
  • Type II 2
  • HluPGFS 3
  • HAKRe 3
  • DDH1 4
  • DD-3 4
  • DDX 3

External Ids for AKR1C3 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for AKR1C3 Gene

  • HSD17B5

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for AKR1C3 Gene

  • GC10P005184
  • GC10P005090
  • GC10P005126
  • GC10P005077

Summaries for AKR1C3 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for AKR1C3 Gene

  • This gene encodes a member of the aldo/keto reductase superfamily, which consists of more than 40 known enzymes and proteins. These enzymes catalyze the conversion of aldehydes and ketones to their corresponding alcohols by utilizing NADH and/or NADPH as cofactors. The enzymes display overlapping but distinct substrate specificity. This enzyme catalyzes the reduction of prostaglandin (PG) D2, PGH2 and phenanthrenequinone (PQ), and the oxidation of 9alpha,11beta-PGF2 to PGD2. It may play an important role in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases such as asthma, and may also have a role in controlling cell growth and/or differentiation. This gene shares high sequence identity with three other gene members and is clustered with those three genes at chromosome 10p15-p14. Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]

GeneCards Summary for AKR1C3 Gene

AKR1C3 (Aldo-Keto Reductase Family 1, Member C3) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with AKR1C3 include renal cell carcinoma, papillary and asthma. Among its related pathways are Signaling by GPCR and Disease. GO annotations related to this gene include retinol dehydrogenase activity and oxidoreductase activity, acting on NAD(P)H, quinone or similar compound as acceptor. An important paralog of this gene is AKR1B1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for AKR1C3 Gene

  • Catalyzes the conversion of aldehydes and ketones to alcohols. Catalyzes the reduction of prostaglandin (PG) D2, PGH2 and phenanthrenequinone (PQ) and the oxidation of 9-alpha,11-beta-PGF2 to PGD2. Functions as a bi-directional 3-alpha-, 17-beta- and 20-alpha HSD. Can interconvert active androgens, estrogens and progestins with their cognate inactive metabolites. Preferentially transforms androstenedione (4-dione) to testosterone

Gene Wiki entry for AKR1C3 Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for AKR1C3 Gene

Genomics for AKR1C3 Gene

Regulatory Elements for AKR1C3 Gene

Genomic Location for AKR1C3 Gene

5,035,354 bp from pter
5,107,686 bp from pter
72,333 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for AKR1C3 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for AKR1C3 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for AKR1C3 Gene

Proteins for AKR1C3 Gene

  • Protein details for AKR1C3 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C3
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A8K2V0
    • B4DL37
    • Q5T2L1
    • Q96DJ1
    • Q96KI8
    • Q99530
    • Q9UCX1
    • Q9UII3
    • Q9UKL9

    Protein attributes for AKR1C3 Gene

    323 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    36853 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available
    • Sequence=BAA04619.2; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally extended.; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for AKR1C3 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for AKR1C3 Gene


neXtProt entry for AKR1C3 Gene

Proteomics data for AKR1C3 Gene at MOPED

Selected DME Specific Peptides for AKR1C3 Gene

Post-translational modifications for AKR1C3 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for AKR1C3 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
Reactome Protein details:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibody Products

  • R&D Systems Antibodies for AKR1C3 (Aldo-keto Reductase 1C3/AKR1C3)

Domains for AKR1C3 Gene

Gene Families for AKR1C3 Gene

  • AKR :Aldo-keto reductases

Protein Domains for AKR1C3 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • P42330
  • Belongs to the aldo/keto reductase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with AKR1C3: view

Function for AKR1C3 Gene

Molecular function for AKR1C3 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry: aldo-keto reductase family 1,member C3 (3-alpha hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase,type II),with low affinity for dihydrotestosterone,expressed in brain,kidney,liver,placenta,testis
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot BiophysicochemicalProperties: Kinetic parameters: KM=142.1 uM for progesterone {ECO:0000269 PubMed:10557352}; KM=2.37 uM for 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone {ECO:0000269 PubMed:10557352}; KM=1.0 uM for androstanediol {ECO:0000269 PubMed:10557352}; Vmax=20.1 nmol/min/mg enzyme with progesterone as substrate {ECO:0000269 PubMed:10557352}; Vmax=1.8 nmol/min/mg enzyme with 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone as substrate {ECO:0000269 PubMed:10557352}; Vmax=4.4 nmol/min/mg enzyme with androstanediol as substrate {ECO:0000269 PubMed:10557352};
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity: Trans-1,2-dihydrobenzene-1,2-diol + NADP(+) = catechol + NADPH
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity: A 3-alpha-hydroxysteroid + NAD(P)(+) = a 3-oxosteroid + NAD(P)H
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity: (5Z,13E)-(15S)-9-alpha,11-alpha,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13-dienoate + NADP(+) = (5Z,13E)-(15S)-9-alpha,15-dihydroxy-11-oxoprosta-5,13-dienoate + NADPH
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity: Testosterone + NAD(+) = androstenedione + NADH
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity: Testosterone + NADP(+) = androst-4-ene-3,17-dione + NADPH
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity: Indan-1-ol + NAD(P)(+) = indanone + NAD(P)H
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation: Strongly inhibited by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) including flufenamic acid and indomethacin. Also inhibited by the flavinoid, rutin, and by selective serotonin inhibitors (SSRIs)
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Catalyzes the conversion of aldehydes and ketones to alcohols. Catalyzes the reduction of prostaglandin (PG) D2, PGH2 and phenanthrenequinone (PQ) and the oxidation of 9-alpha,11-beta-PGF2 to PGD2. Functions as a bi-directional 3-alpha-, 17-beta- and 20-alpha HSD. Can interconvert active androgens, estrogens and progestins with their cognate inactive metabolites. Preferentially transforms androstenedione (4-dione) to testosterone

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for AKR1C3 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001758 retinal dehydrogenase activity IDA 21851338
GO:0004032 alditol:NADP+ 1-oxidoreductase activity IDA 21232532
GO:0004033 aldo-keto reductase (NADP) activity TAS 9792917
GO:0004745 retinol dehydrogenase activity IDA 21851338
GO:0004958 prostaglandin F receptor activity --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with AKR1C3: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with AKR1C3: view

Animal Models for AKR1C3 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for AKR1C3:

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

miRNA for AKR1C3 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target AKR1C3

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for AKR1C3

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for AKR1C3 Gene

Localization for AKR1C3 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for AKR1C3 Gene


Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for AKR1C3 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for AKR1C3 gene
Compartment Confidence
nucleus 5
cytosol 4
cytoskeleton 1
mitochondrion 1
peroxisome 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for AKR1C3 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005622 intracellular IDA --
GO:0005634 nucleus IDA 18574251
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IDA 18574251
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
GO:0070062 extracellular exosome IDA 23376485
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with AKR1C3: view

Pathways for AKR1C3 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with AKR1C3: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for AKR1C3 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000060 protein import into nucleus, translocation IDA 21787718
GO:0001523 retinoid metabolic process TAS --
GO:0006693 prostaglandin metabolic process TAS 9792917
GO:0007186 G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway IDA 18508192
GO:0007584 response to nutrient IEP 19007764
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with AKR1C3: view

Compounds for AKR1C3 Gene

(17) HMDB Compounds for AKR1C3 Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number PubMed IDs
  • (5Z,13E,15S)-9alpha,11beta,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid
Not Available
  • 11-epi-Prostaglandin F2alpha
Not Available
  • (4)-Androsten-3,17-dione
  • (3R,5S,8R,9S,10S,13S,14S)-3-hydroxy-10,13-dimethyl-1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,11,12,14,15,16-tetradecahydrocyclopenta[a]phenanthren-17-one
Dimethyl sulfoxide
  • (methylsulfinyl)methane

(34) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for AKR1C3 Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
3alpha-hydroxysteroid 89.4 9
17beta-hydroxysteroid 86.8 12
dihydroprogesterone 84 2
5alpha-androstane-3alpha,17beta-diol 83.4 3
androstenedione 75.7 8

(2) PharmGKB related drug/compound annotations for AKR1C3 Gene

Drug/compound Annotation
docetaxel CA
doxorubicin CA
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with AKR1C3: view

Transcripts for AKR1C3 Gene

Unigene Clusters for AKR1C3 Gene

Aldo-keto reductase family 1, member C3:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for AKR1C3

Primer Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for AKR1C3 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10
SP1: -
SP3: - -

Relevant External Links for AKR1C3 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for AKR1C3 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for AKR1C3 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for AKR1C3 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver (6.6) and Colon - Transverse (5.3).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for AKR1C3 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for AKR1C3 Gene Hs.78183

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for AKR1C3 Gene

Tissue specificity: Expressed in many tissues including adrenal gland, brain, kidney, liver, lung, mammary gland, placenta, small intestine, colon, spleen, prostate and testis. The dominant HSD in prostate and mammary gland. In the prostate, higher levels in epithelial cells than in stromal cells. In the brain, expressed in medulla, spinal cord, frontotemporal lobes, thalamus, subthalamic nuclei and amygdala. Weaker expression in the hippocampus, substantia nigra and caudate.
genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with AKR1C3: view

In Situ Assay Products

Orthologs for AKR1C3 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for AKR1C3 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia AKR1C3 35
  • 99.17 (n)
  • 99.38 (a)
AKR1C3 36
  • 99 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 74 (a)
-- 36
  • 74 (a)
-- 36
  • 70 (a)
-- 36
  • 70 (a)
-- 36
  • 76 (a)
-- 36
  • 76 (a)
-- 36
  • 77 (a)
-- 36
  • 75 (a)
-- 36
  • 70 (a)
-- 36
  • 74 (a)
  • 76 (a)
AKR1C4 35
  • 81.53 (n)
  • 78.02 (a)
AKR1C4 36
  • 74 (a)
BT.63212 36
  • 78 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia AKR1C3 35
  • 72.2 (n)
  • 67.71 (a)
AKR1C3 36
  • 67 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Akr1c12 36
  • 67 (a)
Akr1c13 36
  • 65 (a)
Akr1c14 36
  • 69 (a)
Akr1c18 35
  • 79.46 (n)
  • 73.37 (a)
Akr1c18 16
Akr1c18 36
  • 73 (a)
Akr1c19 36
  • 72 (a)
Akr1c20 36
  • 76 (a)
Akr1c21 36
  • 72 (a)
Akr1c6 36
  • 76 (a)
Akr1cl 36
  • 71 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 60 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Akr1c3 35
  • 78.64 (n)
  • 71.21 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG6084 37
  • 50 (a)
CG10638 37
  • 42 (a)
CG6083 37
  • 42 (a)
BcDNA:GH10614 37
  • 40 (a)
CG9436 37
  • 40 (a)
CG2767 37
  • 36 (a)
CG12766 37
  • 42 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea T08H10.1 37
  • 37 (a)
C07D8.6 37
  • 37 (a)
Y39G8B.1b 37
  • 40 (a)
C01G5.5 37
  • 30 (a)
F53F1.2 37
  • 34 (a)
ZC443.1 37
  • 34 (a)
Y39G8B.2 37
  • 33 (a)
F53F1.3 37
  • 33 (a)
Y39G8B.1a 37
  • 40 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes -- 38
Species with no ortholog for AKR1C3:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • oppossum (Monodelphis domestica)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Evolution for AKR1C3 Gene

Gene Tree for AKR1C3 (if available)
Gene Tree for AKR1C3 (if available)

Paralogs for AKR1C3 Gene

Paralogs for AKR1C3 Gene

Selected SIMAP similar genes for AKR1C3 Gene using alignment to 4 proteins: Pseudogenes for AKR1C3 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with AKR1C3: view

Variants for AKR1C3 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for AKR1C3 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 10 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs2339 -- 5,105,933(+) CCAAG(G/T)CTGCA intron-variant
rs6581 -- 5,107,511(+) TGGAG(A/G)CTTTG utr-variant-3-prime
rs7741 -- 5,096,415(+) GTTCC(A/G)AGAAG synonymous-codon, reference
rs12387 -- 5,097,493(+) CTGAA(A/G/T)AAAGC synonymous-codon, reference, missense
rs12529 - 5,094,459(+) AAACA(C/G)CAGTG intron-variant, reference, missense

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for AKR1C3 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv894783 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv894792 CNV Gain 21882294
nsv466714 CNV Loss 19166990

Relevant External Links for AKR1C3 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for AKR1C3 Gene

Disorders for AKR1C3 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

MalaCards: The human disease database. (3) Diseases for AKR1C3 Gene including...

Search for AKR1C3 Gene in MalaCards »

(1) University of Copenhagen DISEASES for AKR1C3 Gene

(13) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for AKR1C3 Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
prostate cancer 44.6 11
endometrial cancer 42.4 3
hyperandrogenism 42.2 3
polycystic ovary syndrome 39.2 1
breast cancer 31.5 12

Relevant External Links for AKR1C3

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with AKR1C3: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for AKR1C3 Gene

Publications for AKR1C3 Gene

  1. Crystal structures of prostaglandin D(2) 11-ketoreductase (AKR1C3) in complex with the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs flufenamic acid and indomethacin. (PMID: 14996743) Lovering A.L. … White S.A. (Cancer Res. 2004) 3 4 23 25
  2. Structure-function aspects and inhibitor design of type 5 17beta- hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (AKR1C3). (PMID: 11165022) Penning T.M. … Palackal N. (Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 2001) 3 4 23
  3. Identification of a principal mRNA species for human 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase isoform (AKR1C3) that exhibits high prostaglandin D2 11-ketoreductase activity. (PMID: 9792917) Matsuura K. … Sakai S. (J. Biochem. 1998) 2 3 23
  4. cDNA cloning, expression and characterization of human prostaglandin F synthase. (PMID: 10622721) Suzuki-Yamamoto T. … Watanabe K. (FEBS Lett. 1999) 3 4 23
  5. Close kinship of human 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase gene with three aldo-keto reductase genes. (PMID: 10672042) Nishizawa M. … Ito S. (Genes Cells 2000) 3 4 23

Products for AKR1C3 Gene

Sources for AKR1C3 Gene

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