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AKR1C3 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 78
GCID: GC10P005077

Aldo-Keto Reductase Family 1, Member C3

(Previous names: hydroxysteroid (17-beta) dehydrogenase 5, aldo-keto reductase...)
(Previous symbol: HSD17B5)
  See related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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This gene clusters with an RNA gene
Subcategory (RNA class): lncRNA

Quality score for the ORGUL clustered with this gene is 3

Aliases
Aldo-Keto Reductase Family 1, Member C31 2     HAKRe2
HSD17B51 2 3     Aldo-Keto Reductase Family 1 Member C32
Prostaglandin F Synthase1 2 3     hluPGFS2
DD32 3 5     Type IIb 3-Alpha Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase2
Aldo-Keto Reductase Family 1, Member C3 (3-Alpha Hydroxysteroid
Dehydrogenase, Type II)1 2
     17-Beta-HSD 53
Dihydrodiol Dehydrogenase X1 2     17-Beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 53
Chlordecone Reductase Homolog HAKRb2 3     3-Alpha-HSD Type 23
Dihydrodiol Dehydrogenase 32 3     3-Alpha-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 23
Indanol Dehydrogenase2 3     DD-33
Testosterone 17-Beta-Dehydrogenase 52 3     DDH13
Trans-1,2-Dihydrobenzene-1,2-Diol Dehydrogenase2 3     EC 1.-.-.-3
3-Alpha-HSD Type II, Brain2 3     EC 1.1.1.1123
HA17532 3     EC 1.1.1.1883
PGFS2 3     EC 1.1.1.2393
HAKRB2 5     EC 1.1.1.3573
3-Alpha Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase1     EC 1.1.1.643
Hydroxysteroid (17-Beta) Dehydrogenase 51     EC 1.3.1.203
Type II1     KIAA01193
3-Alpha Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase, Type II2     Dihydrodiol Dehydrogenase Type I3
DDX2     EC 1.1.18

External Ids:    HGNC: 3861   Entrez Gene: 86442   Ensembl: ENSG000001961397   OMIM: 6039665   UniProtKB: P423303   
ORGUL members:         

Export aliases for AKR1C3 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC10P005184 GC10P005090 GC10P005126


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for AKR1C3 Gene:
This gene encodes a member of the aldo/keto reductase superfamily, which consists of more than 40 known enzymes
and proteins. These enzymes catalyze the conversion of aldehydes and ketones to their corresponding alcohols by
utilizing NADH and/or NADPH as cofactors. The enzymes display overlapping but distinct substrate specificity.
This enzyme catalyzes the reduction of prostaglandin (PG) D2, PGH2 and phenanthrenequinone (PQ), and the
oxidation of 9alpha,11beta-PGF2 to PGD2. It may play an important role in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases
such as asthma, and may also have a role in controlling cell growth and/or differentiation. This gene shares high
sequence identity with three other gene members and is clustered with those three genes at chromosome 10p15-p14.
Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. (provided by RefSeq, Dec
2011)

GeneCards Summary for AKR1C3 Gene:
AKR1C3 (aldo-keto reductase family 1, member C3) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with AKR1C3 include hyperandrogenism, and ovarian endometriosis. GO annotations related to this gene include oxidoreductase activity, acting on NAD(P)H, quinone or similar compound as acceptor and retinol dehydrogenase activity. An important paralog of this gene is AKR1C2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: AK1C3_HUMAN, P42330
Function: Catalyzes the conversion of aldehydes and ketones to alcohols. Catalyzes the reduction of prostaglandin
(PG) D2, PGH2 and phenanthrenequinone (PQ) and the oxidation of 9-alpha,11-beta-PGF2 to PGD2. Functions as a
bi-directional 3-alpha-, 17-beta- and 20-alpha HSD. Can interconvert active androgens, estrogens and progestins
with their cognate inactive metabolites. Preferentially transforms androstenedione (4-dione) to testosterone

Gene Wiki entry for AKR1C3 Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence:
NC_000010.11  NC_018921.2  NT_008705.17  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the AKR1C3 gene promoter:
         p53   Sp1   HNF-1   Cart-1   MRF-2   GATA-1   HNF-1A   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidAKR1C3 promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for AKR1C3

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat AKR1C3


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 10p15-p14   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  10p15.1   HGNC cytogenetic band: 10p15-p14

AKR1C3 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
AKR1C3 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 10         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC10P005077:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
5,077,546 bp from pter      End:
5,149,878 bp from pter
Size:
72,333 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp., Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: AK1C3_HUMAN, P42330 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C3  
Size: 323 amino acids; 36853 Da
Sequence caution: Sequence=BAA04619.2; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally extended;
Selected PDB 3D structures from and Proteopedia for AKR1C3 (see all 30):
1RY0 (3D)        1RY8 (3D)        1S1P (3D)        1S1R (3D)        1S2A (3D)        1S2C (3D)    
Secondary accessions: A8K2V0 Q5T2L1 Q96DJ1 Q96KI8 Q99530 Q9UCX1 Q9UII3 Q9UKL9

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for AKR1C3: NX_P42330

Explore proteomics data for AKR1C3 at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Modification sites at neXtProt
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • 2 DME Specific Peptides for AKR1C3 (P42330)
     EKCKDAGL  KSIGVSNFN 


    See AKR1C3 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins (3 alternative transcripts): 
    NP_001240837.1  NP_001240838.1  NP_003730.4  

    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000474188   ENSP00000474882   ENSP00000369927   ENSP00000401327  
    Reactome Protein details: P42330

    AKR1C3 Human Recombinant Protein Products:

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    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    HGNC Gene Families:
    AKR: Aldo-keto reductases

    IUPHAR Guide to PHARMACOLOGY protein family classification: AKR1C3
    Prostaglandin synthases

    4 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR001395 Aldo/ket_red
     IPR018170 Aldo/ket_reductase_CS
     IPR020471 Aldo/keto_reductase_subgr
     IPR023210 NADP_OxRdtase_dom

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P42330

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P42330

    1 Blocks protein domain: IPB001395 Aldo/keto reductase

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: AK1C3_HUMAN, P42330
    Similarity: Belongs to the aldo/keto reductase family


    AKR1C3 for domains           About GeneDecksing


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, and Vector BioLabs, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: AK1C3_HUMAN, P42330
    Function: Catalyzes the conversion of aldehydes and ketones to alcohols. Catalyzes the reduction of prostaglandin
    (PG) D2, PGH2 and phenanthrenequinone (PQ) and the oxidation of 9-alpha,11-beta-PGF2 to PGD2. Functions as a
    bi-directional 3-alpha-, 17-beta- and 20-alpha HSD. Can interconvert active androgens, estrogens and progestins
    with their cognate inactive metabolites. Preferentially transforms androstenedione (4-dione) to testosterone
    Catalytic activity: Trans-1,2-dihydrobenzene-1,2-diol + NADP(+) = catechol + NADPH
    Catalytic activity: A 3-alpha-hydroxysteroid + NAD(P)(+) = a 3-oxosteroid + NAD(P)H
    Catalytic activity: (5Z,13E)-(15S)-9-alpha,11-alpha,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13-dienoate + NADP(+) =
    (5Z,13E)-(15S)-9-alpha,15-dihydroxy-11-oxoprosta-5,13-dienoate + NADPH
    Catalytic activity: Testosterone + NAD(+) = androstenedione + NADH
    Catalytic activity: Testosterone + NADP(+) = androst-4-ene-3,17-dione + NADPH
    Catalytic activity: Indan-1-ol + NAD(P)(+) = indanone + NAD(P)H
    Enzyme regulation: Strongly inhibited by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) including flufenamic acid
    and indomethacin. Also inhibited by the flavinoid, rutin, and by selective serotonin inhibitors (SSRIs)
    Biophysicochemical properties: Kinetic parameters: KM=142.1 uM for progesterone; KM=2.37 uM for
    5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone; KM=1.0 uM for androstanediol; Vmax=20.1 nmol/min/mg enzyme with progesterone as
    substrate; Vmax=1.8 nmol/min/mg enzyme with 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone as substrate; Vmax=4.4 nmol/min/mg enzyme
    with androstanediol as substrate;

         Genatlas biochemistry entry for AKR1C3:
    aldo-keto reductase family 1,member C3 (3-alpha hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase,type II),with low affinity for
    dihydrotestosterone,expressed in brain,kidney,liver,placenta,testis

         Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB): EC 1.1.1.641 EC 1.3.1.201 EC 1.1.1.1121 EC 1.1.1.1881 EC 1.1.12 EC 1.1.1.2391 EC 1.-.-.-1 EC 1.1.1.3571

         Gene Ontology (GO): Selected molecular function terms (see all 21):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0001758retinal dehydrogenase activity IDA--
    GO:0004032alditol:NADP+ 1-oxidoreductase activity IDA--
    GO:0004033aldo-keto reductase (NADP) activity TAS9792917
    GO:0004745retinol dehydrogenase activity IDA--
    GO:0004958prostaglandin F receptor activity IDA18508192
         
    AKR1C3 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    Phenotypes:
         1 GenomeRNAi human phenotype for AKR1C3:
     Synthetic lethal with c-Myc af 

         4 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 2 alleles(MGI details for Akr1c18):
     behavior/neurological  hematopoietic system  homeostasis/metabolism  reproductive system 

    AKR1C3 for phenotypes           About GeneDecksing

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-out Akr1c18tm1Jni for AKR1C3

       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for AKR1C3
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Contact us about creating complex and humanized mouse models for AKR1C3

       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for AKR1C3
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for AKR1C3

    miRNA
    Products:
        
    miRTarBase miRNAs that target AKR1C3:
    hsa-mir-155-5p (MIRT020887), hsa-mir-98-5p (MIRT027720)

    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat AKR1C3 using miScript Target Protectors
    Search for qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate AKR1C3
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidAKR1C3 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
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    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat AKR1C3

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    Clone
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    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: AKR1C3 (NM_003739)
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    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for AKR1C3


    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    AK1C3_HUMAN, P42330: Cytoplasm
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    nucleus5
    cytosol4
    cytoskeleton1
    mitochondrion1
    peroxisome1

    Gene Ontology (GO): 4 cellular component terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005622intracellular IDA--
    GO:0005634nucleus IDA18574251
    GO:0005737cytoplasm IDA18574251
    GO:0005829cytosol TAS--

    AKR1C3 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for AKR1C3 About   (see all 15)  
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Arachidonic acid metabolism
    Arachidonic acid metabolism0.41
    Synthesis of Prostaglandins (PG) and Thromboxanes (TX)0.00
    Arachidonic acid metabolism0.40
    2Metabolism
    Metabolism0.38
    Metabolism of lipids and lipoproteins0.37
    Metabolic pathways0.38
    3Synthesis of bile acids and bile salts
    Synthesis of bile acids and bile salts0.88
    Synthesis of bile acids and bile salts via 24-hydroxycholesterol0.00
    Synthesis of bile acids and bile salts via 7alpha-hydroxycholesterol0.88
    Synthesis of bile acids and bile salts via 27-hydroxycholesterol0.00
    Bile acid and bile salt metabolism0.73
    4Diseases associated with visual transduction
    Visual phototransduction0.44
    Diseases associated with visual transduction0.43
    Retinoid metabolism and transport0.44
    5Biological oxidations
    metapathway biotransformation0.42
    Benzo(a)pyrene metabolism0.00

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways


    2 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) Pathways for AKR1C3
        Naphthalene metabolism
    Prostaglandin 2 biosynthesis and metabolism FM

    4 BioSystems Pathways for AKR1C3
        Benzo(a)pyrene metabolism
    superpathway of steroid hormone biosynthesis
    metapathway biotransformation
    androgen biosynthesis


    5 Reactome Pathways for AKR1C3
        Synthesis of bile acids and bile salts via 24-hydroxycholesterol
    Retinoid metabolism and transport
    Synthesis of bile acids and bile salts via 7alpha-hydroxycholesterol
    Synthesis of bile acids and bile salts via 27-hydroxycholesterol
    Synthesis of Prostaglandins (PG) and Thromboxanes (TX)

    3 PharmGKB Pathways for AKR1C3
        Celecoxib Pathway, Pharmacodynamics
    Doxorubicin Pathway (Cardiomyocyte Cell), Pharmacodynamics
    Doxorubicin Pathway, Pharmacokinetics

    4 Kegg Pathways  (Kegg details for AKR1C3):
        Steroid hormone biosynthesis
    Arachidonic acid metabolism
    Metabolic pathways
    Ovarian steroidogenesis


    AKR1C3 for pathways           About GeneDecksing

        Custom Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays for AKR1C3
    Interactions:

        Search GeneGlobe Interaction Network for AKR1C3

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 23)

    Selected Interacting proteins for AKR1C3 (P423302, 3 ENSP000003699274) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 27)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    UBE2WQ96B022, 3MINT-63740 I2D: score=5 
    ZHX1Q9UKY12, 3MINT-63743 I2D: score=5 
    LRIF1Q5T3J32, 3MINT-63741 I2D: score=4 
    MAGEA11P433642, 3, ENSP000003473584MINT-66510 I2D: score=5 STRING: ENSP00000347358
    ACIN1Q9UKV32, 3, ENSP000002627104MINT-63742 I2D: score=4 STRING: ENSP00000262710
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected biological process terms (see all 37):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0000060protein import into nucleus, translocation IDA--
    GO:0001523retinoid metabolic process TAS--
    GO:0006693prostaglandin metabolic process TAS9792917
    GO:0007186G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway IDA18508192
    GO:0007584response to nutrient IEP19007764

    AKR1C3 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Browse Tocris compounds for AKR1C3 (AK1C3)

    Selected HMDB Compounds for AKR1C3 (see all 17)    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
    Androstenedione(4)-Androsten-3,17-dione (see all 14)63-05-816735089
    11-Epi-PGF2a11-epi-Prostaglandin F2alpha (see all 4)----
    11b-PGF2a(5Z,13E,15S)-9alpha,11beta,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (see all 12)----
    Androsterone(3R,5S,8R,9S,10S,13S,14S)-3-hydroxy-10,13-dimethyl-1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,11,12,14,15,16-tetradecahydrocyclopenta[a]phenanthren-17-one (see all 28)53-41-8--
    Dimethyl sulfoxide(methylsulfinyl)methane;Dimethyl sulfoxide (see all 5)67-68-5--
    NAD3-Carbamoyl-1-D-ribofuranosylpyridinium hydroxide 5'-ester with adenosine 5'-pyrophosphate (see all 28)53-84-9--
    NADH1,4-Dihydronicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (see all 17)58-68-4--
    NADPAdenine-nicotinamide dinucleotide phosphate (see all 18)53-59-8--
    NADPH2'-(dihydrogen phosphate) 5'-(trihydrogen pyrophosphate) Adenosine 5'-ester with 1,4-dihydro-1-b-D-ribofuranosylnicotinamide (see all 23)53-57-6--
    Pyrocatechol1,2-Dihydroxybenzene (see all 20)120-80-9--

    9 DrugBank Compounds for AKR1C3    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #TypeActionsPubMed Ids
    NADHbeta-DPNH (see all 18)606-68-8target--17139284 2146972 17016423 6584048 2615366
    Flufenamic Acid-- 530-78-9target--17139284 14996743 17016423 10592235
    (5e,13e)-9,15-Dihydroxy-11-Oxoprosta-5,13-Dien-1-Oicacid-- 41598-07-6target--17139284 17016423 10592235
    2'-Monophosphoadenosine 5'-Diphosphoribose-- --target--17139284 17016423 10592235
    4-Androstenedione-- 63-05-8targetinducer17139284 17016423
    Rutin2-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-5,7-Dihydroxy-4-Oxo-4h-Chromen-3-Yl 6-O-(6-Deoxy-Alpha-L-Mannopyranosyl)-Beta-D-Glucopyranoside (see all 5)153-18-4target--17139284 17016423
    3-CARBOXAMIDO-1,3,5(10)-ESTRATRIEN-17(R)-SPIRO-2'(5',5'-DIMETHYL-6'OXO)TETRAHYDROPYRAN-- --target--10592235
    Bimatoprost-- 155206-00-1target--10592235
    DoxorubicinAdria (see all 4)23214-92-8enzymesubstrate18616992

    Selected Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for AKR1C3 gene (see all 34)    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    3alpha-hydroxysteroid 89.4 12 12893295 (3), 8172618 (1), 19007764 (1), 14979715 (1) (see all 7)
    17beta-hydroxysteroid 86.8 13 16337332 (2), 17583494 (2), 11165023 (2), 19366843 (1) (see all 9)
    dihydroprogesterone 84 2 15494612 (1), 20036328 (1)
    5alpha-androstane-3alpha,17beta-diol 83.4 3 15494612 (1), 16601286 (1), 13678667 (1)
    androstenedione 75.7 9 19336506 (2), 16735089 (1), 16510604 (1), 20036328 (1) (see all 7)
    9,10-phenanthrenequinone 74.9 17 19442656 (6), 17950253 (3), 10622721 (1)
    chlordecone 74.7 5 7789999 (2), 8172618 (1), 1922097 (1), 10619355 (1)
    pgd2 74.6 16 18508192 (6), 12543809 (2), 18390687 (1), 8316217 (1) (see all 9)
    estrone 71.5 7 1953709 (2), 16735089 (1), 2256510 (1), 7626483 (1) (see all 6)
    flufenamic acid 70.6 6 14996743 (2), 19007764 (1), 16183274 (1), 19442656 (1)

    2 PharmGKB related drug/compound annotations for AKR1C3 gene    About this table
    Drug/compound PharmGKB Annotation
    docetaxelCA  
    doxorubicinCA  



    AKR1C3 for compounds           About GeneDecksing



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for AKR1C3 gene (3 alternative transcripts): 
    NM_001253908.1  NM_001253909.1  NM_003739.5  

    Unigene Cluster for AKR1C3:

    Aldo-keto reductase family 1, member C3
    Hs.78183  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: BQ939577
    11 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000605781 ENST00000470862 ENST00000480822 ENST00000602997 ENST00000605149
    ENST00000380554(uc001ihr.3 uc021pml.1 uc001ihu.3) ENST00000480697(uc010qaq.1)
    ENST00000605322 ENST00000603312 ENST00000603484 ENST00000439082(uc010qap.2)

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    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AB018580.1 AF149416.2 AK290365.1 AK296701.1 AK296829.1 AK310940.1 AK315411.1 BC001479.2 
    BC019230.1 BT007286.1 D17793.1 DQ269985.1 S68288.1 

    20 DOTS entries:

    DT.219274  DT.95268589  DT.101959156  DT.121225269  DT.95087283  DT.100889716  DT.95252294  DT.121225136 
    DT.100889719  DT.100889733  DT.100889737  DT.100031707  DT.95268587  DT.100031710  DT.100889731  DT.121225273 
    DT.121225389  DT.121225394  DT.92462921  DT.92462938 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 577):

    NM_003739 BM761677 BM851330 BQ083142 BM825533 BM997678 BC019230 BM700409 
    BQ001671 AV656520 R27884 AI858236 AW613665 BU728999 CB139961 AA865655 
    BU617393 AI167684 AW069843 AA364931 H58396 AI824136 BM699337 CB115460 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    4 Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for AKR1C3    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10
    SP1:                                      -                                 
    SP2:                                                                        
    SP3:                    -     -                                             
    SP4:                                                                        


    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for AKR1C3

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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    AKR1C3 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: GAGAGCTTTG
    AKR1C3 Expression
    About this image


    AKR1C3 expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 9) fully expand
     
     Bone (Muscoskeletal System)    fully expand to see all 3 entries
             HyStem+TGFbeta3+GDF5-induced MEL2 cells
     
     Brain (Nervous System)    fully expand to see all 3 entries
             Cerebral Cortex
     
     Ovary (Reproductive System)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             Granulosa Cells Primary Follicle
     
     Cartilage (Muscoskeletal System)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             HyStem+TGFbeta3+GDF5-induced MEL2 cells
     
     Neural Crest (Gastrulation Derivatives)
             PureStem MEL2, NCr-fac Progenitor
    AKR1C3 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    AKR1C3 Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.78183

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: AK1C3_HUMAN, P42330
    Tissue specificity: Expressed in many tissues including adrenal gland, brain, kidney, liver, lung, mammary gland,
    placenta, small intestine, colon, spleen, prostate and testis. The dominant HSD in prostate and mammary gland. In
    the prostate, higher levels in epithelial cells than in stromal cells. In the brain, expressed in medulla, spinal
    cord, frontotemporal lobes, thalamus, subthalamic nuclei and amygdala. Weaker expression in the hippocampus,
    substantia nigra and caudate

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    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of human and mouse.

    Orthologs for AKR1C3 gene from Selected species (see all 9)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Akr1c181 , 5 aldo-keto reductase family 1, member C181, 5 79.46(n)1
    73.37(a)1
      13 (2.31 cM)5
    1053491  NM_134066.21  NP_598827.11 
     41326155 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for AKR1C3 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for AKR1C3 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for AKR1C3 gene
    AKR1C22  AKR1CL12  AKR1B102  AKR1A12  AKR1C42  AKR1E22  AKR1B152  AKR1B12  
    AKR1D12  AKR1C12  
    11 SIMAP similar genes for AKR1C3 using alignment to 4 protein entries:     AK1C3_HUMAN (see all proteins):
    AKR1C1    AKR1C4    AKR1C2    AKR1CL1    AKR1D1    AKR1B1
    AKR1B10    AKR1B15    AKR1E2    AKR1A1    LOC402299

    AKR1C3 for paralogs           About GeneDecksing


    2 Pseudogenes.org Pseudogenes for AKR1C3
    PGOHUM00000258456 PGOHUM00000251259


    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for AKR1C3 (see all 1779)    About this table    
    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 10 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs1125038311,2
    C,F--5089024(+) AGACCA/GGTAGT 1 -- us2k12Minor allele frequency- G:0.19CSA WA 120
    rs1425693271,2
    --5089035(+) GGCCCC/TGAATG 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1120474271,2
    C,F--5089068(+) GCATAC/TAAGAC 1 -- us2k12Minor allele frequency- T:0.19CSA WA 120
    rs1127709161,2
    C,F--5089073(+) CAAGAC/TAAAGG 1 -- us2k12Minor allele frequency- T:0.19CSA WA 120
    rs1163500111,2
    C,F--5089078(+) CAAAGG/AGACAG 1 -- us2k12Minor allele frequency- A:0.06WA NA 238
    rs1166595291,2
    C,F--5089143(+) CATGGG/AAAAGG 1 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- A:0.18WA 118
    rs1870791611,2
    --5089152(+) GGGGGC/TCTTTC 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1895175351,2
    --5089182(+) AGAGAA/GGGAAG 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1430719841,2
    C--5089277(+) TTCTAC/TGAACT 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs607291791,2
    C,F--5089335(+) GCATGG/ACCATT 1 -- us2k12Minor allele frequency- A:0.19CSA WA 120

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for AKR1C3 (5077546 - 5149878 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 3 variations for AKR1C3:    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    nsv894783CNV Loss21882294
    nsv466714CNV Loss19166990
    nsv894792CNV Gain21882294

    Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD): AKR1C3
    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing AKR1C3
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for AKR1C3

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 603966    OMIM disorders: --

    Selected diseases for AKR1C3 (see all 41):    
    About MalaCards
    hyperandrogenism    ovarian endometriosis    prostate disease    childhood leukemia
    polycystic ovary syndrome    asthma    adrenocortical carcinoma    cryptorchidism
    patent ductus arteriosus    endometriosis    small cell carcinoma    prostate cancer
    wilms tumor    choriocarcinoma    lung cancer susceptibility    malignant glioma
    non-hodgkin lymphoma    alcohol dependence    hodgkin's lymphoma    prostatitis

    1 disease from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for AKR1C3:
    Prostate cancer

    AKR1C3 for disorders           About GeneDecksing

    Selected Novoseek inferred disease relationships for AKR1C3 gene (see all 13)    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    prostate cancer 44.6 14 18508192 (3), 19489685 (2), 17220347 (1), 16337332 (1) (see all 8)
    endometrial cancer 42.4 4 16337332 (1), 19007764 (1), 19022235 (1)
    hyperandrogenism 42.2 3 19366843 (1), 17583494 (1), 16263811 (1)
    polycystic ovary syndrome 39.2 1 17940109 (1)
    breast cancer 31.5 19 19010312 (3), 19460435 (2), 19007764 (2), 16337332 (1) (see all 8)
    carcinoma ductal 31.2 4 16735089 (2), 19010312 (1)
    cancer 21.2 12 16337332 (1), 19007764 (1), 17720776 (1), 14996743 (1) (see all 8)
    myeloid leukemia 20.4 1 15475569 (1)
    breast carcinoma 16.7 4 16735089 (1), 19010312 (1), 15212687 (1)
    obesity 9.03 1 17302881 (1)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): AKR1C3
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: AKR1C3 (32 documents)

    Export disorders for AKR1C3 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for AKR1C3 gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 202):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with AKR1C3)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Crystal structures of prostaglandin D(2) 11-ketoreductase (AKR1C3) in complex with the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs flufenamic acid and indomethacin. (PubMed id 14996743)1, 2, 7, 9 Lovering A.L....White S.A. (Cancer Res. 2004)
    2. Substrate specificity, gene structure, and tissue-specific distribution of multiple human 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases. (PubMed id 7650035)1, 2, 3 Khanna M.... Cheng K.-C. (J. Biol. Chem. 1995)
    3. Crystal structure of human prostaglandin F synthase (AKR1C3). (PubMed id 14979715)1, 2, 9 Komoto J.... Takusagawa F. (Biochemistry 2004)
    4. cDNA cloning, expression and characterization of human prostaglandin F synthase. (PubMed id 10622721)1, 2, 9 Suzuki-Yamamoto T.... Watanabe K. (FEBS Lett. 1999)
    5. Maternal and offspring genetic variants of AKR1C3 and the risk of childhood leukemia. (PubMed id 18339682)1, 4, 9 Liu C.Y....Christiani D.C. (Carcinogenesis 2008)
    6. Structure-function aspects and inhibitor design of type 5 17beta- hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (AKR1C3). (PubMed id 11165022)1, 2, 9 Penning T.M.... Palackal N. (Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 2001)
    7. Identification of a principal mRNA species for human 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase isoform (AKR1C3) that exhibits high prostaglandin D2 11-ketoreductase activity. (PubMed id 9792917)1, 3, 9 Matsuura K....Sakai S. (J. Biochem. 1998)
    8. Nonreplication of the type 5 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase gene association with polycystic ovary syndrome. (PubMed id 17940109)1, 4, 9 Goodarzi M.O....Azziz R. (J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2008)
    9. Close kinship of human 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase gene with three aldo-keto reductase genes. (PubMed id 10672042)1, 2, 9 Nishizawa M.... Ito S. (Genes Cells 2000)
    10. Genetic variation in the progesterone receptor and metabolism pathways and hormone therapy in relation to breast cancer risk. (PubMed id 19846565)1, 4, 9 Reding K.W....Malone K.E. (Am. J. Epidemiol. 2009)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 8644 HGNC: 386 AceView: AKR1C3 Ensembl:ENSG00000196139 euGenes: HUgn8644
    ECgene: AKR1C3 Kegg: 8644 H-InvDB: AKR1C3

    (According to HUGE)
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    HUGE: KIAA0119

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    About This Section

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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for AKR1C3 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    ATLAS Chromosomes in Cancer entry for AKR1C3 Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for AKR1C3 gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving AKR1C3

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



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