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Aliases for AHSG Gene

Aliases for AHSG Gene

  • Alpha 2-HS Glycoprotein 2 3 5
  • Ba-Alpha-2-Glycoprotein 3 4
  • Alpha-2-Z-Globulin 3 4
  • Fetuin-A 3 4
  • FETUA 3 4
  • Alpha-2-HS-Glycoprotein 3
  • Fetuin A 2
  • A2HS 3
  • HSGA 3
  • AHS 3

External Ids for AHSG Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for AHSG Gene

  • GC03P183102
  • GC03P187587
  • GC03P187732
  • GC03P187651
  • GC03P187813
  • GC03P186330
  • GC03P183739

Summaries for AHSG Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for AHSG Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene is a negatively-charged serum glycoprotein that is synthesized by hepatocytes. The encoded protein consists of two polypeptide chains, which are both cleaved from a proprotein encoded from a single mRNA. It is involved in several processes, including endocytosis, brain development, and the formation of bone tissue. Defects in this gene are a cause of susceptibility to leanness. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2017]

GeneCards Summary for AHSG Gene

AHSG (Alpha 2-HS Glycoprotein) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with AHSG include Alopecia-Intellectual Disability Syndrome and Epstein-Barr Virus Hepatitis. Among its related pathways are Response to elevated platelet cytosolic Ca2+ and Glucose / Energy Metabolism. GO annotations related to this gene include cysteine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity and kinase inhibitor activity. An important paralog of this gene is FETUB.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for AHSG Gene

  • Promotes endocytosis, possesses opsonic properties and influences the mineral phase of bone. Shows affinity for calcium and barium ions.

Gene Wiki entry for AHSG Gene

Additional gene information for AHSG Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for AHSG Gene

Genomics for AHSG Gene

Regulatory Elements for AHSG Gene

Enhancers for AHSG Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH03H185958 1.5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 9.9 -652.8 -652773 3.3 ATF1 ARID4B FEZF1 ATF7 DEK REST TSHZ1 NFIL3 MAFF ZNF610 TRA2B ETV5 ETV5-AS1 AHSG NMRAL2P GC03M185982
GH03H186588 1.2 Ensembl ENCODE 12.3 -23.0 -23010 3.2 PKNOX1 FOXA2 ARNT BRCA1 RAD21 RARA GTF3C2 SLC30A9 ZNF366 SCRT2 ENSG00000200418 TRA2B TBCCD1 AHSG SNORD2 EIF4A2 SNORA63 SNORA81 SNORA4 ENSG00000231724
GH03H186094 1.5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 9.5 -515.5 -515452 5.5 PKNOX1 FOXA2 ARID4B FEZF1 DMAP1 ZNF2 YY1 ATF7 SP5 KAT8 AHSG ETV5 ETV5-AS1
GH03H186241 1.3 Ensembl ENCODE 9.8 -370.6 -370614 1.4 ATF1 MLX ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 SLC30A9 ZNF143 FOS ATF7 RUNX3 ETV5 TRA2B ETV5-AS1 AHSG GC03P186167 DGKG
GH03H186752 1.2 Ensembl ENCODE 9.9 +141.2 141215 3.9 FOXA2 ARID4B BRCA1 YY1 TCF12 ZNF121 ATF7 FOS REST KAT8 KNG1 EIF4A2 ENSG00000200418 SNORA63 SNORA81 RFC4 FETUB ENSG00000231724 AHSG HRG
- Elite enhancer and/or Elite enhancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around AHSG on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Locations for AHSG Gene

Genomic Locations for AHSG Gene
8,396 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for AHSG Gene

Genes around AHSG on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
AHSG Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for AHSG Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for AHSG Gene

Proteins for AHSG Gene

  • Protein details for AHSG Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A8K9N6
    • B2R7G1
    • O14961
    • O14962
    • Q9P152

    Protein attributes for AHSG Gene

    367 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    39325 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Alpha-2-HS glycoprotein derives from this precursor, when the connecting peptide is cleaved off. The two chains A and B are held together by a single disulfide bond.

neXtProt entry for AHSG Gene

Post-translational modifications for AHSG Gene

  • O- and N-glycosylated. O-glycosylated with core 1 or possibly core 8 glycans. N-glycan at Asn-156: Hex5HexNAc4; N-glycan heterogeneity at Asn-176: Hex5HexNAc4 (major) and Hex6HexNAc5 (minor).
  • Phosphorylated by FAM20C in the extracellular medium.
  • Glycosylation at posLast=156156, Asn176, Thr256, posLast=270270, Thr339, and posLast=346346
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for AHSG Gene

Antibody Products

  • Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for AHSG (FETUA)

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for AHSG Gene

Domains & Families for AHSG Gene

Gene Families for AHSG Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Cancer-related genes
  • Plasma proteins
  • Predicted secreted proteins

Protein Domains for AHSG Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for AHSG Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the fetuin family.
  • Belongs to the fetuin family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with AHSG: view

Function for AHSG Gene

Molecular function for AHSG Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
HS-glycoprotein,alpha-2-,inhibitor of the insulin-receptor tyrosine kinase,pp63 (cystatin superfamily)
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Promotes endocytosis, possesses opsonic properties and influences the mineral phase of bone. Shows affinity for calcium and barium ions.

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for AHSG Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for AHSG Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004866 endopeptidase inhibitor activity IBA --
GO:0004869 cysteine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity IEA --
GO:0019210 kinase inhibitor activity NAS 12203945
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with AHSG: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with AHSG: view

Animal Models for AHSG Gene

MGI Knock Outs for AHSG:

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for AHSG

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for AHSG Gene

Localization for AHSG Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for AHSG Gene


Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for AHSG gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
endoplasmic reticulum 4
golgi apparatus 4
cytoskeleton 2
cytosol 2
plasma membrane 1
mitochondrion 1
peroxisome 1
nucleus 1
lysosome 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Golgi apparatus (3)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for AHSG Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS --
GO:0005615 extracellular space NAS,IEA 11922920
GO:0005788 endoplasmic reticulum lumen TAS --
GO:0005794 Golgi apparatus IDA --
GO:0031012 extracellular matrix IBA,IDA 27559042
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with AHSG: view

Pathways & Interactions for AHSG Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with AHSG: view

Pathways by source for AHSG Gene

1 Cell Signaling Technology pathway for AHSG Gene
1 BioSystems pathway for AHSG Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for AHSG Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001501 skeletal system development NAS 12153747
GO:0001503 ossification IEA --
GO:0002576 platelet degranulation TAS --
GO:0006907 pinocytosis NAS 12773197
GO:0006953 acute-phase response IDA 12153747
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with AHSG: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for AHSG Gene

Drugs & Compounds for AHSG Gene

(10) Drugs for AHSG Gene - From: DrugBank, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Copper Approved Pharma Target 188
Zinc Approved Pharma Target 2359
calcium Nutra 0

(8) Additional Compounds for AHSG Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with AHSG: view

Transcripts for AHSG Gene

Unigene Clusters for AHSG Gene

Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for AHSG

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for AHSG Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6 ^ 7a · 7b · 7c
SP1: -
SP2: -
SP3: -
SP4: -
SP6: -

Relevant External Links for AHSG Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for AHSG Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for AHSG Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for AHSG Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver (x52.7).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for AHSG Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Serum (13.6), Lavage (12.3), Plasma (9.8), Synovial fluid (9.1), and Monocytes (6.4).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for AHSG Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for AHSG Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of AHSG Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for AHSG Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for AHSG Gene:

Tissue specificity: Synthesized in liver and selectively concentrated in bone matrix. Secreted in plasma. It is also found in dentin in much higher quantities than other plasma proteins.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for AHSG Gene

  • Liver(5)
  • Blood(4.7)
  • Nervous system(4.4)
  • Bone marrow(4.2)
  • Saliva(4.2)
  • Lung(2.5)
  • Kidney(2.3)
  • Heart(2.2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with AHSG: view

No data available for Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for AHSG Gene

Orthologs for AHSG Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for AHSG Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia AHSG 33 34
  • 98.91 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia AHSG 33 34
  • 79.09 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia AHSG 33 34
  • 75.49 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Ahsg 33 16 34
  • 73.08 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Ahsg 33
  • 72.81 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia AHSG 34
  • 49 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia AHSG 34
  • 48 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves AHSG 33 34
  • 52.22 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia AHSG 34
  • 36 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia ahsg 33
  • 50.94 (n)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii ahsg 33
  • 47.66 (n)
  • 26 (a)
Species where no ortholog for AHSG was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for AHSG Gene

Gene Tree for AHSG (if available)
Gene Tree for AHSG (if available)

Paralogs for AHSG Gene

Paralogs for AHSG Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with AHSG: view

Variants for AHSG Gene

Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for AHSG Gene

There are two common alleles, AHSG*1 and AHSG*2. AHSG*1 has Thr-248/Thr-256; AHSG*2 has Met-248/Ser-256.

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for AHSG Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 03 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs2070634 other 186,618,238(+) TCTAA(G/T)GCTGG intron-variant
rs2070635 other 186,618,387(+) GCCCT(A/G)TGTAA intron-variant
rs4917 other 186,619,924(+) CTGCA(C/T)GGTGT intron-variant, reference, missense
rs4918 other 186,620,593(+) CGTGA(C/G)CTCAC reference, missense
rs1000277790 -- 186,611,694(+) GGTCC(C/T)CCTCT upstream-variant-2KB

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for AHSG Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv508974 CNV insertion 20534489
esv2759206 CNV loss 17122850

Variation tolerance for AHSG Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 75% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 2.22; 39.99% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for AHSG Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

Disorders for AHSG Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(13) MalaCards diseases for AHSG Gene - From: HGMD, Orphanet, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
alopecia-intellectual disability syndrome
  • alopecia-mental retardation syndrome 1
epstein-barr virus hepatitis
eccrine papillary adenocarcinoma
  • digital papillary adenocarcinoma
testicular yolk sac tumor
  • yolk sac tumor
alcoholic liver cirrhosis
  • alcoholic cirrhosis
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search AHSG in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for AHSG

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with AHSG: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for AHSG Gene

Publications for AHSG Gene

  1. Structure of the gene encoding human alpha 2-HS glycoprotein (AHSG). (PMID: 9322749) Osawa M … Takeichi S (Gene 1997) 2 3 4 22 60
  2. Association of AHSG gene polymorphisms with fetuin-A plasma levels and cardiovascular diseases in the EPIC-Potsdam study. (PMID: 20031641) Fisher E … Weikert C (Circulation. Cardiovascular genetics 2009) 3 22 45 60
  3. AHSG tag single nucleotide polymorphisms associate with type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia: studies of metabolic traits in 7,683 white Danish subjects. (PMID: 18316360) Andersen G … Pedersen O (Diabetes 2008) 3 22 45 60
  4. Is fetuin-A/alpha2-Heremans-Schmid glycoprotein associated with the metabolic syndrome in patients with chronic kidney disease? (PMID: 18337634) Axelsson J … Stenvinkel P (American journal of nephrology 2008) 3 22 45 60
  5. Association of alpha2-Heremans-Schmid glycoprotein polymorphisms with subclinical atherosclerosis. (PMID: 17062776) Lehtinen AB … Bowden DW (The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism 2007) 3 22 45 60

Products for AHSG Gene

Sources for AHSG Gene

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