Free for academic non-profit institutions. Other users need a Commercial license

Aliases for AGR2 Gene

Aliases for AGR2 Gene

  • Anterior Gradient 2, Protein Disulphide Isomerase Family Member 2 3 5
  • Protein Disulfide Isomerase Family A, Member 17 2 3
  • Secreted Cement Gland Protein XAG-2 Homolog 3 4
  • HAG-2 3 4
  • AG-2 3 4
  • HPC8 3 4
  • AG2 3 4
  • Anterior Gradient 2 Homolog (Xenopus Laevis) 2
  • Anterior Gradient Protein 2 Homolog 3
  • Epididymis Secretory Protein Li 116 3
  • Secreted Cement Gland Homolog 3
  • Anterior Gradient Homolog 2 3
  • HEL-S-116 3
  • PDIA17 3
  • GOB-4 3
  • XAG-2 3

External Ids for AGR2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for AGR2 Gene

  • GC07M016476
  • GC07M016575
  • GC07M016605
  • GC07M016797
  • GC07M016719

Summaries for AGR2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for AGR2 Gene

  • This gene encodes a member of the disulfide isomerase (PDI) family of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) proteins that catalyze protein folding and thiol-disulfide interchange reactions. The encoded protein has an N-terminal ER-signal sequence, a catalytically active thioredoxin domain, and a C-terminal ER-retention sequence. This protein plays a role in cell migration, cellular transformation and metastasis and is as a p53 inhibitor. As an ER-localized molecular chaperone, it plays a role in the folding, trafficking, and assembly of cysteine-rich transmembrane receptors and the cysteine-rich intestinal gylcoprotein mucin. This gene has been implicated in inflammatory bowel disease and cancer progression. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2017]

CIViC summary for AGR2 Gene

GeneCards Summary for AGR2 Gene

AGR2 (Anterior Gradient 2, Protein Disulphide Isomerase Family Member) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with AGR2 include Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma. Among its related pathways are Adhesion and Tyrosine Kinases / Adaptors. GO annotations related to this gene include dystroglycan binding. An important paralog of this gene is AGR3.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for AGR2 Gene

  • Required for MUC2 post-transcriptional synthesis and secretion. May play a role in the production of mucus by intestinal cells (By similarity). Proto-oncogene that may play a role in cell migration, cell differentiation and cell growth. Promotes cell adhesion (PubMed:23274113).

Gene Wiki entry for AGR2 Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for AGR2 Gene

Genomics for AGR2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for AGR2 Gene

Enhancers for AGR2 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH07G016801 1.1 Ensembl ENCODE 22.7 +29.4 29435 6.0 FOXA2 NFIB ZFP64 SIN3A RAD21 RFX5 FOS ZNF680 ZNF654 ZBTB11 AGR2 AGR3 TSPAN13 ENSG00000272361 LOC100287613
GH07G016810 1 Ensembl ENCODE 23.1 +22.0 21963 2.2 ZNF362 RFX1 RNF2 SIN3A NR3C1 BMI1 RAD21 FOXA1 JUND GATA3 AGR2 AGR3 TSPAN13
GH07G016913 1.2 Ensembl ENCODE 14.8 -82.4 -82372 5.1 FOXA2 PKNOX1 MLX FOS REST MIER2 KAT8 MIER3 SMARCA4 RCOR2 AGR3 AGR2 TSPAN13 ENSG00000223867 LOC100131425
GH07G016739 1.3 Ensembl ENCODE 10.1 +92.8 92844 2.1 HDGF PKNOX1 ATF1 CREB3L1 ARNT E2F7 FEZF1 TCF12 ZNF766 CBX5 AGR2 ANKMY2 BZW2 GC07M016725 TSPAN13
GH07G016708 0.9 Ensembl ENCODE 11 +124.3 124282 1.2 CTCF NR2F1 BHLHE40 ATF2 FOSL1 JUND ATF3 NCOR1 POLR2A SMARCA4 TSPAN13 AGR2 ENSG00000235837 BZW2
- Elite enhancer and/or Elite enhancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around AGR2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for AGR2 Gene

Chromosome:
7
Start:
16,791,811 bp from pter
End:
16,833,433 bp from pter
Size:
41,623 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for AGR2 Gene

Genes around AGR2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
AGR2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for AGR2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for AGR2 Gene

Proteins for AGR2 Gene

  • Protein details for AGR2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    O95994-AGR2_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Anterior gradient protein 2 homolog
    Protein Accession:
    O95994

    Protein attributes for AGR2 Gene

    Size:
    175 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    19979 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Monomer and homodimer (PubMed:23274113). Interacts with LYPD3 and DAG1 (alphaDAG1). Interacts with MUC2; disulfide-linked.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for AGR2 Gene

neXtProt entry for AGR2 Gene

Post-translational modifications for AGR2 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for AGR2 Gene

Antibody Products

  • Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for AGR2 (AGR2)

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for AGR2 Gene

Domains & Families for AGR2 Gene

Gene Families for AGR2 Gene

Protein Domains for AGR2 Gene

InterPro:
ProtoNet:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

O95994

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

AGR2_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the AGR family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the AGR family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with AGR2: view

Function for AGR2 Gene

Molecular function for AGR2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Required for MUC2 post-transcriptional synthesis and secretion. May play a role in the production of mucus by intestinal cells (By similarity). Proto-oncogene that may play a role in cell migration, cell differentiation and cell growth. Promotes cell adhesion (PubMed:23274113).

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for AGR2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0002162 dystroglycan binding IDA 12592373
GO:0005154 epidermal growth factor receptor binding IPI 25666625
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 12592373
GO:0042803 protein homodimerization activity IMP 23220234
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with AGR2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with AGR2: view

Animal Models for AGR2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for AGR2:

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for AGR2

CRISPR Products

miRNA for AGR2 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target AGR2

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for AGR2
  • Applied Biological Materials Clones for AGR2

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for AGR2 Gene

Localization for AGR2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for AGR2 Gene

Secreted. Endoplasmic reticulum.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for AGR2 gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
endoplasmic reticulum 5
mitochondrion 2

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for AGR2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region IEA --
GO:0005615 extracellular space IDA 22184114
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IEA --
GO:0005783 endoplasmic reticulum ISS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with AGR2: view

Pathways & Interactions for AGR2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with AGR2: view

Pathways by source for AGR2 Gene

2 Cell Signaling Technology pathways for AGR2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for AGR2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0010628 positive regulation of gene expression IMP 22184114
GO:0010811 positive regulation of cell-substrate adhesion IMP 23274113
GO:0030154 cell differentiation IBA --
GO:0034976 NOT response to endoplasmic reticulum stress IMP 25666625
GO:0045742 positive regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway IMP 25666625
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with AGR2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for AGR2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for AGR2 Gene

(1) Drugs for AGR2 Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with AGR2: view

Transcripts for AGR2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for AGR2 Gene

Anterior gradient 2 homolog (Xenopus laevis):
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for AGR2
  • Applied Biological Materials Clones for AGR2

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for AGR2 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b · 5c ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8a · 8b ^ 9a · 9b · 9c
SP1: - - -
SP2: - - - -
SP3: -
SP4: - - -
SP5:
SP6: - - - -

Relevant External Links for AGR2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
AGR2
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
AGR2

Expression for AGR2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for AGR2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for AGR2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Stomach (x15.9), Colon - Transverse (x13.8), and Small Intestine - Terminal Ileum (x6.3).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for AGR2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Oral epithelium (25.4) and Stomach (10.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for AGR2 Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for AGR2 Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of AGR2 Gene:

AGR2

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for AGR2 Gene:

Hs.530009

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for AGR2 Gene:

O95994-AGR2_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Expressed strongly in trachea, lung, stomach, colon, prostate and small intestine. Expressed weakly in pituitary gland, salivary gland, mammary gland, bladder, appendix, ovary, fetal lung, uterus, pancreas, kidney, fetal kidney, testis, placenta, thyroid gland and in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer cell lines.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for AGR2 Gene

  • Intestine(4.9)
  • Stomach(4.8)
  • Pancreas(4.5)
  • Lung(2.6)
  • Gall bladder(2.4)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with AGR2: view

Primer Products

No data available for Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for AGR2 Gene

Orthologs for AGR2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for AGR2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia AGR2 34 35
  • 99.81 (n)
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia AGR2 34 35
  • 92.57 (n)
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia AGR2 34 35
  • 90.29 (n)
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Agr2 34 16 35
  • 87.81 (n)
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Agr2 34
  • 87.81 (n)
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia AGR2 35
  • 82 (a)
OneToOne
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia AGR2 35
  • 62 (a)
OneToOne
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves AGR2 34 35
  • 75.49 (n)
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia AGR2 35
  • 79 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia agr2 34
  • 68.7 (n)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia MGC53762 34
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii agr2 34 35
  • 68.89 (n)
Dr.25277 34
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.8969 34
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea Y57A10A.23 35
  • 26 (a)
ManyToMany
F49H12.5 35
  • 17 (a)
ManyToMany
Species where no ortholog for AGR2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for AGR2 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for AGR2 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for AGR2 (if available)

Paralogs for AGR2 Gene

Paralogs for AGR2 Gene

(2) SIMAP similar genes for AGR2 Gene using alignment to 6 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with AGR2: view

Variants for AGR2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for AGR2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 07 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs1000077862 -- 16,796,498(+) TATGA(C/T)TAGCA intron-variant
rs1000139592 -- 16,796,759(+) ATGAC(A/T)ACAAG intron-variant
rs1001131862 -- 16,795,542(+) ACTTT(A/T)TTGTT intron-variant
rs1001250014 -- 16,800,255(+) AAACT(A/G)TGAGT intron-variant
rs1001400215 -- 16,800,307(+) GGAGT(A/G)GTCCA intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for AGR2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv6289n100 CNV gain 25217958
esv3891076 CNV gain 25118596
nsv1028125 CNV gain 25217958

Variation tolerance for AGR2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 47.1% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.07; 21.86% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for AGR2 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
AGR2

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for AGR2 Gene

Disorders for AGR2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(1) MalaCards diseases for AGR2 Gene - From: DISEASES and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma
  • ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search AGR2 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for AGR2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
AGR2
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
AGR2
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
AGR2
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with AGR2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for AGR2 Gene

Publications for AGR2 Gene

  1. hAG-2, the human homologue of the Xenopus laevis cement gland gene XAG-2, is coexpressed with estrogen receptor in breast cancer cell lines. (PMID: 9790916) Thompson D.A. … Weigel R.J. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1998) 2 3 4 22 64
  2. hAG-2 and hAG-3, human homologues of genes involved in differentiation, are associated with oestrogen receptor-positive breast tumours and interact with metastasis gene C4.4a and dystroglycan. (PMID: 12592373) Fletcher G.C. … Terrett J.A. (Br. J. Cancer 2003) 3 4 22 64
  3. Metastasis-promoting anterior gradient 2 protein has a dimeric thioredoxin fold structure and a role in cell adhesion. (PMID: 23274113) Patel P. … Lian L.Y. (J. Mol. Biol. 2013) 3 4 64
  4. Genetic variants in nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes influence AIDS progression. (PMID: 20877624) Hendrickson S.L. … O'Brien S.J. (PLoS ONE 2010) 3 46 64
  5. The protein disulfide isomerase AGR2 is essential for production of intestinal mucus. (PMID: 19359471) Park S.-W. … Erle D.J. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2009) 3 4 64

Products for AGR2 Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for AGR2

Sources for AGR2 Gene

Content
Loading form....