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Aliases for ADSL Gene

Aliases for ADSL Gene

  • Adenylosuccinate Lyase 2 3 5
  • Adenylosuccinase 3 4
  • EC 4 61
  • ASASE 3 4
  • AMPS 3 4
  • ASL 3 4
  • EC 4.3.2 61

External Ids for ADSL Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for ADSL Gene

  • GC22P037357
  • GC22P038985
  • GC22P039067
  • GC22P040742
  • GC22P023705

Summaries for ADSL Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for ADSL Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the lyase 1 family. It is an essential enzyme involved in purine metabolism, and catalyzes two non-sequential reactions in the de novo purine biosynthetic pathway: the conversion of succinylaminoimidazole carboxamide ribotide (SAICAR) to aminoimidazole carboxamide ribotide (AICAR) and the conversion of adenylosuccinate (S-AMP) to adenosine monophosphate (AMP). Mutations in this gene are associated with adenylosuccinase deficiency (ADSLD), a disorder marked with psychomotor retardation, epilepsy or autistic features. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2015]

GeneCards Summary for ADSL Gene

ADSL (Adenylosuccinate Lyase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with ADSL include Adenylosuccinase Deficiency and Histidinemia. Among its related pathways are Metabolism and Purine metabolism (KEGG). GO annotations related to this gene include N6-(1,2-dicarboxyethyl)AMP AMP-lyase (fumarate-forming) activity and (S)-2-(5-amino-1-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)imidazole-4-carboxamido)succinate AMP-lyase (fumarate-forming) activity.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ADSL Gene

  • Catalyzes two non-sequential steps in de novo AMP synthesis: converts (S)-2-(5-amino-1-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)imidazole-4-carboxamido)succinate (SAICAR) to fumarate plus 5-amino-1-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)imidazole-4-carboxamide, and thereby also contributes to de novo IMP synthesis, and converts succinyladenosine monophosphate (SAMP) to AMP and fumarate.

No data available for Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for ADSL Gene

Genomics for ADSL Gene

Regulatory Elements for ADSL Gene

Enhancers for ADSL Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH22F040950 0.8 FANTOM5 ENCODE 25.6 +605.1 605067 3.1 HDGF PKNOX1 MLX ARID4B SIN3A FEZF1 DMAP1 ZNF2 YY1 ZNF143 EP300 ADSL ST13 XRCC6 PHF5A MIR1281 ENSG00000232754 XPNPEP3 ENSG00000272834 LOC100313968
GH22F040189 1 Ensembl ENCODE 25 -155.7 -155729 1.7 HDAC1 CBX3 ARNT TBL1XR1 SIN3A CHAMP1 GATA2 CREM KLF13 HCFC1 ADSL EP300 ENSG00000232754 ENSG00000272834 TNRC6B ENSG00000225528 LOC100313968 RPL3 PIR61047 RPL7P52
GH22F040235 0.8 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 22.3 -108.2 -108233 5.9 HDGF PKNOX1 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 FEZF1 ZNF2 YY1 ZNF143 ZNF207 ADSL TNRC6B EP300 EP300-AS1 LOC100313968 RPL3 GRAP2 PIR42017 GC22P040255
GH22F040484 1.2 Ensembl ENCODE 15.5 +140.0 139966 3.9 CTCF ZNF654 CEBPB TRIM22 REST RAD21 GLIS1 ZNF143 SMC3 NBN MKL1 ADSL LOC101927257 ENSG00000229999 SGSM3 ENSG00000272834 RPL4P6 ATF4 ENSG00000227413
GH22F040192 1.1 Ensembl ENCODE 14.6 -152.9 -152900 3.2 MLX ARID4B DMAP1 ZNF48 ZNF263 SP5 PPARG KAT8 NFIL3 MIER3 ADSL TNRC6B PIR61047 RPL7P52
- Elite enhancer/Elite enhancer-gene association Download Table
Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around ADSL on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for ADSL Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters
ENSR00000085668 100 2401 HDGF PKNOX1 WRNIP1 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2 YY1 SLC30A9 ZNF207

Genomic Location for ADSL Gene

40,346,500 bp from pter
40,390,463 bp from pter
43,964 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for ADSL Gene

Genes around ADSL on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
ADSL Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for ADSL Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for ADSL Gene

Proteins for ADSL Gene

  • Protein details for ADSL Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Adenylosuccinate lyase
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B0QY76
    • O75495
    • Q5TI34

    Protein attributes for ADSL Gene

    484 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    54889 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homotetramer. Residues from neighboring subunits contribute catalytic and substrate-binding residues to each active site.
    • Sequence=AAC60603.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally extended.; Evidence={ECO:0000305}; Sequence=CAA46697.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally extended.; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for ADSL Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for ADSL Gene


neXtProt entry for ADSL Gene

Post-translational modifications for ADSL Gene

  • Ubiquitination at Lys 134, Lys 170, Lys 276, and Lys 415
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Domains & Families for ADSL Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the lyase 1 family. Adenylosuccinate lyase subfamily.
  • Belongs to the lyase 1 family. Adenylosuccinate lyase subfamily.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with ADSL: view

No data available for Gene Families for ADSL Gene

Function for ADSL Gene

Molecular function for ADSL Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
adenylosuccinate lyase,twelfth step of the de novo purine (adenylate) biosynthesis component of a bifunctional enzyme also catalyzing the eight step of the de novo purine biosynthesis,i.e,the conversion of SAICAR to AICAR (amino-imidazole carboxamide ribonucleotide),also involved in the purine nucleotide cycle
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
N(6)-(1,2-dicarboxyethyl)AMP = fumarate + AMP.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
(S)-2-(5-amino-1-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)imidazole-4-carboxamido)succinate = fumarate + 5-amino-1-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)imidazole-4-carboxamide.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
The enzyme reaction kinetics indicate cooperativity between subunits.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Catalyzes two non-sequential steps in de novo AMP synthesis: converts (S)-2-(5-amino-1-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)imidazole-4-carboxamido)succinate (SAICAR) to fumarate plus 5-amino-1-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)imidazole-4-carboxamide, and thereby also contributes to de novo IMP synthesis, and converts succinyladenosine monophosphate (SAMP) to AMP and fumarate.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for ADSL Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for ADSL Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003824 catalytic activity IEA --
GO:0004018 N6-(1,2-dicarboxyethyl)AMP AMP-lyase (fumarate-forming) activity IEA,TAS --
GO:0016829 lyase activity IEA --
GO:0070626 (S)-2-(5-amino-1-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)imidazole-4-carboxamido)succinate AMP-lyase (fumarate-forming) activity IEA,IBA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ADSL: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with ADSL: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for ADSL Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for ADSL Gene

MGI Knock Outs for ADSL:
  • Adsl tm1b(KOMP)Wtsi

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for ADSL

miRNA for ADSL Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target ADSL

Inhibitory RNA Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for ADSL Gene

Localization for ADSL Gene

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for ADSL Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for ADSL gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 5
mitochondrion 3
nucleus 3
extracellular 2
plasma membrane 2
chloroplast 1
vacuole 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for ADSL Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IEA --
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ADSL: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ADSL Gene

Pathways & Interactions for ADSL Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with ADSL: view

Pathways by source for ADSL Gene

1 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) pathway for ADSL Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot P30566-PUR8_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Purine metabolism; AMP biosynthesis via de novo pathway; AMP from IMP: step 2/2.
  • Pathway: Purine metabolism; IMP biosynthesis via de novo pathway; 5-amino-1-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)imidazole-4-carboxamide from 5-amino-1-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)imidazole-4-carboxylate: step 2/2.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for ADSL Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001666 response to hypoxia IEA --
GO:0006163 purine nucleotide metabolic process IEA --
GO:0006164 purine nucleotide biosynthetic process IEA,IC 10888601
GO:0006167 AMP biosynthetic process IDA 11428554
GO:0006189 de novo IMP biosynthetic process IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ADSL: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for ADSL Gene

Drugs & Compounds for ADSL Gene

(16) Drugs for ADSL Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Adenosine monophosphate Approved Nutra 0
AICAR Experimental Pharma AMPK activator 0
SB-649868 Experimental Pharma Antagonist 0
Adenylsuccinic acid Experimental Pharma 0

(16) Additional Compounds for ADSL Gene - From: Novoseek and HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • (S)-2-(5-amino-1-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)imidazole-4-carboxamido)succinate
  • (S)-2-(5-amino-1-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)imidazole-4-carboxamido)succinic acid
  • (S)-2-(5-amino-1-(5-phospho-delta-ribosyl)imidazole-4-carboxamido)succinate
  • (S)-2-(5-amino-1-(5-phospho-delta-ribosyl)imidazole-4-carboxamido)succinic acid
  • (S)-2-[5-Amino-1-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)imidazole-4-carboxamido]succinate
  • 4-Amino-5-Imidazolecarboxamide
  • 4-Aminoimidazole-5-carboxamide
  • 4-Carbamoyl-5-aminoimidazole
  • 4-Carboxamido-5-aminoimidazole
  • 5-Amino-1H-Imidazole-4-carboxamide
Argininosuccinic acid
  • 2-(N(Omega)-L-arginine)succinate
  • 2-(N(Omega)-L-arginine)succinic acid
  • 2-(N(Omega)-L-arginino)succinate
  • 2-(N(Omega)-L-arginino)succinic acid
  • 2-(Nw-L-arginino)butanedioate
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with ADSL: view

Transcripts for ADSL Gene

Unigene Clusters for ADSL Gene

Adenylosuccinate lyase:
Representative Sequences:

Inhibitory RNA Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for ADSL Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for ADSL Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for ADSL Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for ADSL Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for ADSL Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Muscle - Skeletal (x6.7).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for ADSL Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Lymph node (9.9) and Tonsil (7.3).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for ADSL Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for ADSL Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of ADSL Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for ADSL Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for ADSL Gene:

Tissue specificity: Ubiquitously expressed. Both isoforms are produced by all tissues. Isoform 2 is 10-fold less abundant than isoform 1.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with ADSL: view

Primer Products

Orthologs for ADSL Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for ADSL Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia ADSL 34 35
  • 99.1 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia ADSL 34
  • 90.63 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia ADSL 34 35
  • 89.81 (n)
-- 35
  • 77 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Adsl 34 16 35
  • 86.91 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Adsl 34
  • 86.23 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia ADSL 35
  • 83 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia ADSL 35
  • 78 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves ADSL 34 35
  • 75.53 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia ADSL 35
  • 76 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia adsl 34
  • 73.45 (n)
Str.3693 34
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia adsl-prov 34
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii adsl 34 35
  • 69.84 (n)
wufi60b04 34
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.103 34
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG3590 36 34 35
  • 64.67 (n)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP002378 34
  • 63.34 (n)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea R06C7.5 35
  • 46 (a)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_ABL006C 34
  • 61.54 (n)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes ADE13 34 35 37
  • 59.67 (n)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0B13189g 34
  • 59.41 (n)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.4901 35
  • 67 (a)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes ade8 34
  • 58.9 (n)
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU06187 34
  • 57.5 (n)
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.14641 34
Species where no ortholog for ADSL was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for ADSL Gene

Gene Tree for ADSL (if available)
Gene Tree for ADSL (if available)

Paralogs for ADSL Gene Pseudogenes for ADSL Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with ADSL: view

No data available for Paralogs for ADSL Gene

Variants for ADSL Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for ADSL Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 22 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs119450940 Adenylosuccinase deficiency (ADSLD) [MIM:103050], Pathogenic 40,365,000(+) TTCAC(C/T)CCCAG intron-variant, nc-transcript-variant, reference, missense
rs119450941 Adenylosuccinase deficiency (ADSLD) [MIM:103050], Pathogenic 40,364,965(+) AGAGC(A/G)TATCC intron-variant, nc-transcript-variant, reference, missense
rs119450942 Adenylosuccinase deficiency (ADSLD) [MIM:103050], Pathogenic 40,349,976(+) GCTGT(C/G)CAAAA nc-transcript-variant, reference, missense, utr-variant-5-prime
rs119450943 Adenylosuccinase deficiency (ADSLD) [MIM:103050], Pathogenic 40,364,952(+) ACAAT(G/T)ACCTC intron-variant, nc-transcript-variant, reference, missense
rs119450944 Adenylosuccinase deficiency (ADSLD) [MIM:103050], Pathogenic 40,360,436(+) CACGA(A/G)AAGTG nc-transcript-variant, reference, missense, utr-variant-5-prime

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for ADSL Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv834202 CNV loss 17160897

Variation tolerance for ADSL Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 30.8% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 3.04; 50.38% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for ADSL Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ADSL Gene

Disorders for ADSL Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(14) MalaCards diseases for ADSL Gene - From: OMIM, ClinVar, GeneTests, Orphanet, Swiss-Prot, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
adenylosuccinase deficiency
  • adenylosuccinate lyase deficiency
  • histidinuria
erythematosquamous dermatosis
  • erythematosquamous dermatosis nos
argininosuccinic aciduria
  • citrullinemia
autistic disorder
  • autism
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search ADSL in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • Adenylosuccinase deficiency (ADSLD) [MIM:103050]: An autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the accumulation in the body fluids of succinylaminoimidazole-carboxamide riboside (SAICA-riboside) and succinyladenosine (S-Ado). Most children display marked psychomotor delay, often accompanied by epilepsy or autistic features, or both, although some patients may be less profoundly retarded. Occasionally, growth retardation and muscular wasting are also present. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:10090474, ECO:0000269 PubMed:10888601, ECO:0000269 PubMed:12368987, ECO:0000269 PubMed:12833398, ECO:0000269 PubMed:1302001, ECO:0000269 PubMed:9266401, ECO:0000269 PubMed:9545543}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Genatlas disease for ADSL Gene

mental retardation,severe,with autistic features and succinylpurinemia

Relevant External Links for ADSL

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with ADSL: view

Publications for ADSL Gene

  1. Mapping of the human adenylosuccinate lyase (ADSL) gene to chromosome 22q13.1-->q13.2. (PMID: 8404037) Fon E.A. … Rouleau G.A. (Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 1993) 2 3 4 22 64
  2. Biochemical and biophysical analysis of five disease-associated human adenylosuccinate lyase mutants. (PMID: 19405474) Ariyananda Lde Z. … Colman R.F. (Biochemistry 2009) 3 4 22 64
  3. Expression, purification, and characterization of stable, recombinant human adenylosuccinate lyase. (PMID: 16973378) Lee P. … Colman R.F. (Protein Expr. Purif. 2007) 3 4 22 64
  4. Intrafamilial variability in the phenotypic expression of adenylosuccinate lyase deficiency: a report on three patients. (PMID: 12833398) Edery P. … Tardieu M. (Am. J. Med. Genet. A 2003) 3 4 22 64
  5. Screening for adenylosuccinate lyase deficiency: clinical, biochemical and molecular findings in four patients. (PMID: 12368987) Castro M. … Ugarte M. (Neuropediatrics 2002) 3 4 22 64

Products for ADSL Gene

Sources for ADSL Gene

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