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Aliases for ADK Gene

Aliases for ADK Gene

  • Adenosine Kinase 2 3
  • Adenosine 5-Phosphotransferase 2 3 4
  • EC 4 63
  • AK 3 4
  • EC 2.7.1 63

External Ids for ADK Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for ADK Gene

  • GC10P074865
  • GC10P075014
  • GC10P075803
  • GC10P075255
  • GC10P075580
  • GC10P075910
  • GC10P069907

Summaries for ADK Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for ADK Gene

  • This gene an enzyme which catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-phosphate from ATP to adenosine, thereby serving as a regulator of concentrations of both extracellular adenosine and intracellular adenine nucleotides. Adenosine has widespread effects on the cardiovascular, nervous, respiratory, and immune systems and inhibitors of the enzyme could play an important pharmacological role in increasing intravascular adenosine concentrations and acting as anti-inflammatory agents. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011]

GeneCards Summary for ADK Gene

ADK (Adenosine Kinase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with ADK include hypermethioninemia due to adenosine kinase deficiency and hypermethioninemia encephalopathy due to adenosine kinase deficiency. Among its related pathways are Metabolism and Metabolism. GO annotations related to this gene include phosphotransferase activity, alcohol group as acceptor.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ADK Gene

  • ATP dependent phosphorylation of adenosine and other related nucleoside analogs to monophosphate derivatives. Serves as a potential regulator of concentrations of extracellular adenosine and intracellular adenine nucleotides

Tocris Summary for ADK Gene

  • Adenosine kinase (ADK) is a highly conserved monomeric enzyme that constitutes the primary route of adenosine metabolism under normal conditions. ADK acts to decrease intracellular adenosine levels by catalyzing its conversion into AMP and ADP, using ATP as a phosphate donor and a divalent cation, for example Mg2+, as a co-factor. ADK is regulated by inorganic phosphate levels, the concentration of local free Mg2+ and contains a NXXE motif that is vital for phosphate activation. Inhibition of this enzyme has been implicated in tissue-protective mechanisms against various physiological stresses, including ischemia, seizures, inflammation and pain, thus there is much interest in developing pharmacological ADK inhibitors.

Gene Wiki entry for ADK Gene

No data available for PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for ADK Gene

Genomics for ADK Gene

Regulatory Elements for ADK Gene

Epigenetics Products

  • DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human,mouse,rat

Genomic Location for ADK Gene

74,151,185 bp from pter
74,709,303 bp from pter
558,119 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for ADK Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for ADK Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for ADK Gene

Proteins for ADK Gene

  • Protein details for ADK Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Adenosine kinase
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B7Z783
    • B7Z800
    • O00741
    • O00742
    • Q16710
    • Q5JQ10
    • Q5JQ11
    • Q9BTN2

    Protein attributes for ADK Gene

    362 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    40545 Da
    Name=Mg(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:18420; Note=Binds 3 Mg(2+) ions per subunit.;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Monomer
    • Sequence=AAB01689.1; Type=Frameshift; Positions=17; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for ADK Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for ADK Gene


neXtProt entry for ADK Gene

Proteomics data for ADK Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for ADK Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for ADK Gene

Antibody Products

Domains for ADK Gene

Gene Families for ADK Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • P55263
  • Belongs to the carbohydrate kinase PfkB family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with ADK: view

Function for ADK Gene

Molecular function for ADK Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
adenosine kinase,38.7kDa
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
ATP + adenosine = ADP + AMP
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
ATP dependent phosphorylation of adenosine and other related nucleoside analogs to monophosphate derivatives. Serves as a potential regulator of concentrations of extracellular adenosine and intracellular adenine nucleotides

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for ADK Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for ADK Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004001 adenosine kinase activity EXP --
GO:0005524 ATP binding IEA --
GO:0016773 phosphotransferase activity, alcohol group as acceptor IEA --
GO:0044822 poly(A) RNA binding IDA 22658674
GO:0046872 metal ion binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ADK: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with ADK: view

Animal Model Products

miRNA for ADK Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target ADK

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for ADK

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for ADK Gene

Localization for ADK Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ADK Gene

Isoform 1: Nucleus.
Isoform 2: Cytoplasm.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for ADK Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for ADK gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 4
extracellular 2
mitochondrion 2
nucleus 2
peroxisome 2
plasma membrane 2
chloroplast 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for ADK Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005634 nucleus --
GO:0005654 nucleoplasm IDA --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IDA --
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ADK: view

Pathways for ADK Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with ADK: view

Pathways by source for ADK Gene

2 KEGG pathways for ADK Gene
1 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) pathway for ADK Gene

PCR Array Products

  • Pathway & Disease-focused RT² Profiler PCR Arrays

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot P55263-ADK_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Purine metabolism; AMP biosynthesis via salvage pathway; AMP from adenosine: step 1/1

Interacting Proteins for ADK Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for ADK Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006144 purine nucleobase metabolic process TAS --
GO:0006166 purine ribonucleoside salvage --
GO:0006175 dATP biosynthetic process IEA --
GO:0009156 ribonucleoside monophosphate biosynthetic process TAS 9070863
GO:0010613 positive regulation of cardiac muscle hypertrophy IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ADK: view

Compounds for ADK Gene

(1) Tocris Compounds for ADK Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
ABT 702 dihydrochloride Adenosine kinase inhibitor; orally active [1188890-28-9]

(6) HMDB Compounds for ADK Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number PubMed IDs
  • 1-(6-amino-9H-purin-9-yl)-1-deoxy-beta-D-Ribofuranose
Adenosine monophosphate
  • 5'-AMP
Adenosine triphosphate
  • 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate) Adenosine
  • adenosindiphosphorsaeure
  • Magnesium

(7) Drugbank Compounds for ADK Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number Type Actions PubMed IDs
  • 2'-Deoxyadenosine
58-61-7 enzyme substrate
Adenosine monophosphate
  • 5'-Adenosine monophosphate
61-19-8 target product of
Adenosine triphosphate
  • 5'-ATP
56-65-5 enzyme substrate

(2) IUPHAR Ligand for ADK Gene

Ligand Type Action Affinity Pubmed IDs
A134974 Inhibitor Inhibition 10.2
ABT702 Inhibitor Inhibition 8.8

(74) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for ADK Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
5-iodotubercidin 94.2 17
5-amino-5-deoxyadenosine 93.8 9
2-methyladenosine 92.9 1
6-benzylthioinosine 92.5 7
2-carboxyethylphosphonic acid 85.1 2
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with ADK: view

Transcripts for ADK Gene

Unigene Clusters for ADK Gene

Adenosine kinase:
Representative Sequences:

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for ADK

Primer Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for ADK Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for ADK Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for ADK Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for ADK Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for ADK Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver (4.4).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues for ADK Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Oral epithelium (8.6).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for ADK Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for ADK Gene Hs.656586

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for ADK Gene

Tissue specificity: Widely expressed. Highest level in placenta, liver, muscle and kidney
genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with ADK: view

Expression partners for ADK Gene

In Situ Assay Products

Orthologs for ADK Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for ADK Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia ADK 35
  • 92.71 (n)
  • 93.88 (a)
-- 36
  • 85 (a)
-- 36
  • 94 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia ADK 35
  • 92.63 (n)
  • 92.82 (a)
ADK 36
  • 93 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Adk 35
  • 89.44 (n)
  • 91.39 (a)
Adk 16
Adk 36
  • 91 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia ADK 35
  • 99.72 (n)
  • 99.72 (a)
ADK 36
  • 100 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Adk 35
  • 87.22 (n)
  • 90.28 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 80 (a)
-- 36
  • 72 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia ADK 36
  • 75 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves ADK 35
  • 82.17 (n)
  • 84.96 (a)
ADK 36
  • 86 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia ADK 36
  • 84 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia adk 35
  • 76.2 (n)
  • 80.56 (a)
Str.1953 35
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.28433 35
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii adka 35
  • 72.35 (n)
  • 78.49 (a)
Dr.4408 35
adka 36
  • 78 (a)
adkb 36
  • 79 (a)
adkb 36
  • 77 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG11255 37
  • 52 (a)
CG3809 37
  • 41 (a)
CG11255 35
  • 55.36 (n)
  • 52.8 (a)
Ady43A 36
  • 24 (a)
CG11255 36
  • 52 (a)
CG3809 36
  • 36 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea R07H5.8 37
  • 50 (a)
R07H5.8 35
  • 55.85 (n)
  • 51.62 (a)
R07H5.8 36
  • 51 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes ADO1 36
  • 39 (a)
ADO1 38
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons ADK1 35
  • 60.26 (n)
  • 57.99 (a)
(Glycine max)
eudicotyledons Gma.7688 35
Alicante grape
(Vitis vinifera)
eudicotyledons Vvi.7628 35
(Hordeum vulgare)
Liliopsida Hv.3882 35
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os04g0518000 35
  • 61.05 (n)
  • 58.28 (a)
(Triticum aestivum)
Liliopsida Ta.3437 35
(Zea mays)
Liliopsida Zm.247 35
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.2861 36
  • 51 (a)
Species with no ortholog for ADK:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)

Evolution for ADK Gene

Gene Tree for ADK (if available)
Gene Tree for ADK (if available)

Paralogs for ADK Gene

No data available for Paralogs for ADK Gene

Variants for ADK Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for ADK Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 10 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs7918003 -- 74,569,603(+) tcctt(C/T)gccca intron-variant
rs7917790 -- 74,303,356(+) AGAAA(A/G)AAACC intron-variant
rs7917666 -- 74,391,263(+) TTATA(C/T)TCAAC intron-variant
rs7916584 -- 74,329,509(+) CCACC(G/T)ATCTA intron-variant
rs7916445 -- 74,329,424(+) TTCTT(C/T)CCATA intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for ADK Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv2659855 CNV Deletion 23128226
nsv515824 CNV Gain+Loss 19592680
esv34143 CNV Loss 18971310
esv2677955 CNV Deletion 23128226
nsv507561 CNV Insertion 20534489
esv2466100 CNV Deletion 19546169
nsv895728 CNV Loss 21882294
esv2661407 CNV Deletion 23128226
dgv112n27 CNV Loss 19166990
nsv7165 CNV Insertion 18451855
esv2641301 CNV Deletion 19546169
esv2567854 CNV Deletion 19546169
esv2661426 CNV Deletion 23128226
esv2669986 CNV Deletion 23128226

Relevant External Links for ADK Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ADK Gene

Disorders for ADK Gene

(1) OMIM Diseases for ADK Gene (102750)


  • Hypermethioninemia due to adenosine kinase deficiency (HMAKD) [MIM:614300]: A metabolic disorder characterized by global developmental delay, early-onset seizures, mild dysmorphic features, and characteristic biochemical anomalies, including persistent hypermethioninemia with increased levels of S-adenosylmethionine and S-adenosylhomocysteine. Homocysteine levels are typically normal. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:21963049}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

(1) University of Copenhagen DISEASES for ADK Gene

(10) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for ADK Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
epilepsy 39.1 8
toxoplasmosis 33.7 1
tuberculosis 15.3 18
ischemia 7.56 2
inflammation 5.67 3

Relevant External Links for ADK

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with ADK: view

No data available for Genatlas for ADK Gene

Publications for ADK Gene

  1. Cloning of human adenosine kinase cDNA: sequence similarity to microbial ribokinases and fructokinases. (PMID: 8577746) Spychala J. … Mitchell B.S. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1996) 2 3 4 23
  2. Cloning and characterization of cDNA for adenosine kinase from mammalian (Chinese hamster, mouse, human and rat) species. High frequency mutants of Chinese hamster ovary cells involve structural alterations in the gene. (PMID: 8917457) Singh B. … Gupta R.S. (Eur. J. Biochem. 1996) 3 4 23
  3. Cloning and expression of the adenosine kinase gene from rat and human tissues. (PMID: 9070863) McNally T. … Halbert D.N. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1997) 3 4 23
  4. Structure of human adenosine kinase at 1.5-A resolution. (PMID: 9843365) Mathews I.I. … Ealick S.E. (Biochemistry 1998) 3 4 23
  5. Subcellular localization of adenosine kinase in mammalian cells: The long isoform of AdK is localized in the nucleus. (PMID: 19635462) Cui X.A. … Gupta R.S. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2009) 3 4 23

Products for ADK Gene

Sources for ADK Gene

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