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ADAR Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 66
GCID: GC01M154554

Adenosine Deaminase, RNA-Specific

(Previous name: interferon-induced protein 4)
(Previous symbols: IFI4, G1P1)
  See related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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This gene clusters with an RNA gene
Subcategory (RNA class): lncRNA

Quality score for the ORGUL clustered with this gene is 4

Aliases
Adenosine Deaminase, RNA-Specific1 2     K88DSRBP2 3
G1P11 2 3 5     AGS62 5
IFI41 2 3 5     DSH2 5
DRADA2 3 5     P1362
DSRAD2 3 5     Adenosine Deaminase Acting On RNA 1-A2
Interferon-Induced Protein 41 2     Double-Stranded RNA-Specific Adenosine Deaminase2
Interferon-Inducible Protein 42 3     DsRNA Adenosine Deaminase2
136 KDa Double-Stranded RNA-Binding Protein2 3     EC 3.5.4.373
ADAR12 3     p1363
IFI-42 3     EC 3.5.48

External Ids:    HGNC: 2251   Entrez Gene: 1032   Ensembl: ENSG000001607107   OMIM: 1469205   UniProtKB: P552653   
ORGUL members:    fRNAdb10:FR112002 FR144105      
H-InvDB12:HIT000066630 HIT000325090    
NCBI13:AF084516 X98561    
RNAdb15:HIV2166 HIV2177    

Export aliases for ADAR gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC01M152370 GC01M150285 GC01M151329 GC01M151772 GC01M151773 GC01M151367 GC01M152821 GC01M125917


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for ADAR Gene:
This gene encodes the enzyme responsible for RNA editing by site-specific deamination of adenosines. This enzyme
destabilizes double-stranded RNA through conversion of adenosine to inosine. Mutations in this gene have been
associated with dyschromatosis symmetrica hereditaria. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript
variants. (provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010)

GeneCards Summary for ADAR Gene:
ADAR (adenosine deaminase, RNA-specific) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with ADAR include dyschromatosis universalis hereditaria, and aicardi-goutieres syndrome 6. GO annotations related to this gene include RNA binding and double-stranded RNA adenosine deaminase activity. An important paralog of this gene is ADAT1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: DSRAD_HUMAN, P55265
Function: Catalyzes the hydrolytic deamination of adenosine to inosine in double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) referred to
as A-to-I RNA editing. This may affect gene expression and function in a number of ways that include mRNA
translation by changing codons and hence the amino acid sequence of proteins; pre-mRNA splicing by altering
splice site recognition sequences; RNA stability by changing sequences involved in nuclease recognition; genetic
stability in the case of RNA virus genomes by changing sequences during viral RNA replication; and RNA
structure-dependent activities such as microRNA production or targeting or protein-RNA interactions. Can edit
both viral and cellular RNAs and can edit RNAs at multiple sites (hyper-editing) or at specific sites
(site-specific editing). Its cellular RNA substrates include: bladder cancer-associated protein (BLCAP),
neurotransmitter receptors for glutamate (GRIA2) and serotonin (HTR2C) and GABA receptor (GABRA3). Site-specific
RNA editing of transcripts encoding these proteins results in amino acid substitutions which consequently alters
their functional activities. Exhibits low-level editing at the GRIA2 Q/R site, but edits efficiently at the R/G
site and HOTSPOT1. Its viral RNA substrates include: hepatitis C virus (HCV), vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV),
measles virus (MV), hepatitis delta virus (HDV), and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Exhibits either
a proviral (HDV, MV, VSV and HIV-1) or an antiviral effect (HCV) and this can be editing-dependent (HDV and HCV),
editing-independent (VSV and MV) or both (HIV-1). Impairs HCV replication via RNA editing at multiple sites.
Enhances the replication of MV, VSV and HIV-1 through an editing-independent mechanism via suppression of
EIF2AK2/PKR activation and function. Stimulates both the release and infectivity of HIV-1 viral particles by an
editing-dependent mechanism where it associates with viral RNAs and edits adenosines in the 5'UTR and the Rev and
Tat coding sequence. Can enhance viral replication of HDV via A-to-I editing at a site designated as amber/W,
thereby changing an UAG amber stop codon to an UIG tryptophan (W) codon that permits synthesis of the large delta
antigen (L-HDAg) which has a key role in the assembly of viral particles. However, high levels of ADAR1 inhibit
HDV replication

Gene Wiki entry for ADAR Gene

fRNAdb sequence ontology for ADAR:
ncRNA - An RNA transcript that does not encode for a protein rather the RNA molecule is the gene product.

View fRNAdb secondary structures for ADAR

(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence:
NC_000001.11  NT_004487.20  NC_018912.2  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the ADAR gene promoter:
         STAT1   STAT1beta   CUTL1   STAT1alpha   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmids (see all 2): ADAR promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for ADAR

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat ADAR


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 1q21.3   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  1q21.3   HGNC cytogenetic band: 1q21.3

ADAR Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
ADAR gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 1         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC01M154554:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
154,554,533 bp from pter      End:
154,600,475 bp from pter
Size:
45,943 bases      Orientation:
minus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp., Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: DSRAD_HUMAN, P55265 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Double-stranded RNA-specific adenosine deaminase  
Size: 1226 amino acids; 136066 Da
Subunit: Homodimer. Homodimerization is essential for its catalytic activity. Isoform 5 can form heterodimers with
ADARB1/ADAR2. Isoform 1 interacts with ILF2/NF45 and ILF3/NF90. Binding to ILF3/NF90 up-regulates ILF3-mediated
gene expression. Isoform 5 (via DRBM 3 domain) interacts with TNPO1. Isoform 5 (via DRBM domains) interacts with
XPO5. Isoform 1 and isoform 5 can interact with EIF2AK2/PKR and UPF1
Caution: The N-terminus of isoform 4 has been derived from EST and genomic sequences
Sequence caution: Sequence=CAE45853.1; Type=Erroneous termination; Positions=1227; Note=Translated as stop;
Selected PDB 3D structures from and Proteopedia for ADAR (see all 11):
1QBJ (3D)        1QGP (3D)        1XMK (3D)        2ACJ (3D)        2GXB (3D)        2L54 (3D)    
Secondary accessions: B1AQQ9 B1AQR0 D3DV76 O15223 O43859 O43860 Q9BYM3 Q9BYM4
Alternative promoter usage, Alternative splicing: 5 isoforms:  P55265-1   P55265-2   P55265-3   P55265-4   P55265-5   (Produced by alternative promoter usage)

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for ADAR: NX_P55265

Explore proteomics data for ADAR at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Sumoylation reduces RNA-editing activity1
  • Ubiquitination2 at Lys145, Lys625, Lys757
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • 4 DME Specific Peptides for ADAR (P55265)
     GEGTIPV  QSGPPHEP  SLGTGNRC  WNVLGLQGALL 


    See ADAR Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins (5 alternative transcripts): 
    NP_001020278.1  NP_001102.2  NP_001180424.1  NP_056655.2  NP_056656.2  

    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000357459   ENSP00000357456   ENSP00000431794   ENSP00000292205  
    Reactome Protein details: P55265

    ADAR Human Recombinant Protein Products:

    Browse Purified and Recombinant Proteins at EMD Millipore
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    Browse recombinant and purified proteins available from Enzo Life Sciences
    OriGene Purified Protein for ADAR
    OriGene Protein Over-expression Lysate for ADAR
    OriGene MassSpec for ADAR
    OriGene Custom Protein Services for ADAR
    GenScript Custom Purified and Recombinant Proteins Services for ADAR
    Novus Biologicals ADAR Protein
    Novus Biologicals ADAR Lysate
    Browse Sino Biological Recombinant Proteins
    Browse Sino Biological Cell Lysates
    Browse ProSpec Recombinant Proteins
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Proteins for ADAR

    ADAR Antibody Products:

    EMD Millipore Mono- and Polyclonal Antibodies for the study of ADAR
    Browse R&D Systems for Antibodies
    Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for ADAR 
    OriGene Antibodies for ADAR
    OriGene Custom Antibody Services for ADAR
    Abcam antibodies for ADAR
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Antibodies for ADAR
    ThermoFisher Antibodies for ADAR
    Search LSBio for Antibodies for ADAR

    ADAR Assay Products:

    Browse Kits and Assays available from EMD Millipore
    OriGene Custom Assay Services for ADAR
    Browse R&D Systems for biochemical assays
    GenScript Custom Assay Services for ADAR
    Browse Enzo Life Sciences for kits & assays
    Cloud-Clone Corp. ELISAs for ADAR
    Cloud-Clone Corp. CLIAs for ADAR


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    4 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR002466 A_deamin
     IPR000607 dsRNA_A_deaminase
     IPR014720 dsRNA-bd_dom
     IPR011991 WHTH_DNA-bd_dom

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P55265

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P55265

    3 Blocks protein domains:
    IPB000607 Double-stranded RNA-specific adenosine deaminase (DRADA)
    IPB001159 Double-stranded RNA binding (DsRBD) domain
    IPB002466 Adenosine deaminase/editase


    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: DSRAD_HUMAN, P55265
    Similarity: Contains 1 A to I editase domain
    Similarity: Contains 2 DRADA repeats
    Similarity: Contains 3 DRBM (double-stranded RNA-binding) domains


    ADAR for domains           About GeneDecksing


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, and Vector BioLabs, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: DSRAD_HUMAN, P55265
    Function: Catalyzes the hydrolytic deamination of adenosine to inosine in double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) referred to
    as A-to-I RNA editing. This may affect gene expression and function in a number of ways that include mRNA
    translation by changing codons and hence the amino acid sequence of proteins; pre-mRNA splicing by altering
    splice site recognition sequences; RNA stability by changing sequences involved in nuclease recognition; genetic
    stability in the case of RNA virus genomes by changing sequences during viral RNA replication; and RNA
    structure-dependent activities such as microRNA production or targeting or protein-RNA interactions. Can edit
    both viral and cellular RNAs and can edit RNAs at multiple sites (hyper-editing) or at specific sites
    (site-specific editing). Its cellular RNA substrates include: bladder cancer-associated protein (BLCAP),
    neurotransmitter receptors for glutamate (GRIA2) and serotonin (HTR2C) and GABA receptor (GABRA3). Site-specific
    RNA editing of transcripts encoding these proteins results in amino acid substitutions which consequently alters
    their functional activities. Exhibits low-level editing at the GRIA2 Q/R site, but edits efficiently at the R/G
    site and HOTSPOT1. Its viral RNA substrates include: hepatitis C virus (HCV), vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV),
    measles virus (MV), hepatitis delta virus (HDV), and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Exhibits either
    a proviral (HDV, MV, VSV and HIV-1) or an antiviral effect (HCV) and this can be editing-dependent (HDV and HCV),
    editing-independent (VSV and MV) or both (HIV-1). Impairs HCV replication via RNA editing at multiple sites.
    Enhances the replication of MV, VSV and HIV-1 through an editing-independent mechanism via suppression of
    EIF2AK2/PKR activation and function. Stimulates both the release and infectivity of HIV-1 viral particles by an
    editing-dependent mechanism where it associates with viral RNAs and edits adenosines in the 5'UTR and the Rev and
    Tat coding sequence. Can enhance viral replication of HDV via A-to-I editing at a site designated as amber/W,
    thereby changing an UAG amber stop codon to an UIG tryptophan (W) codon that permits synthesis of the large delta
    antigen (L-HDAg) which has a key role in the assembly of viral particles. However, high levels of ADAR1 inhibit
    HDV replication
    Catalytic activity: Adenine in double-stranded RNA + H(2)O = hypoxanthine in double-stranded RNA + NH(3)
    Induction: Isoform 1 is induced by interferon alpha. Isoform 5 is constitutively expressed

         Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB): EC 3.5.42 EC 3.5.4.371

         Gene Ontology (GO): Selected molecular function terms (see all 7):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0003677DNA binding IEA--
    GO:0003723RNA binding ----
    GO:0003726double-stranded RNA adenosine deaminase activity NAS7565688
    GO:0004000adenosine deaminase activity ----
    GO:0005515protein binding IPI18362360
         
    ADAR for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    Phenotypes:
         9 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 8 alleles(MGI details for Adar):
     cardiovascular system  cellular  embryogenesis  growth/size/body  hematopoietic system 
     homeostasis/metabolism  immune system  liver/biliary system  mortality/aging 

    ADAR for phenotypes           About GeneDecksing

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-outs for ADAR: Adartm2Knk Adartm1Phs Adartm2Phs Adartm1.1Knk

       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for ADAR
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Contact us about creating complex and humanized mouse models for ADAR

       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for ADAR
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for ADAR

    miRNA
    Products:
        
    miRTarBase miRNAs that target ADAR:
    hsa-mir-197-3p (MIRT048109), hsa-mir-1 (MIRT002820), hsa-mir-93-5p (MIRT028111), hsa-mir-130b-3p (MIRT020248), hsa-mir-1226-3p (MIRT036504), hsa-mir-484 (MIRT041936), hsa-mir-625-5p (MIRT039595)

    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat ADAR using miScript Target Protectors
    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate ADAR (see all 37):
    hsa-miR-106a hsa-miR-519a hsa-miR-1184 hsa-miR-93 hsa-miR-155* hsa-miR-4309 hsa-miR-526b* hsa-miR-509-3-5p
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidADAR 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
        
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for ADAR
    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat ADAR

    Gene Editing
    Products:
    DNA2.0 Custom Protein Engineering Service for ADAR

    Clone
    Products:
         
    OriGene clones in human, mouse for ADAR (see all 22)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for ADAR
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector (see all 5): ADAR (NM_001111)
    Browse Sino Biological Human cDNA Clones
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for ADAR
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat ADAR

    Cell Line
    Products:
         
    GenScript Custom overexpressing Cell Line Services for ADAR
    Browse ESI BIO Cell Lines and PureStem Progenitors for ADAR 
    In Situ Assay
    Products:
       

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for ADAR


    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    DSRAD_HUMAN, P55265: Isoform 1: Cytoplasm. Nucleus. Note=Shuttles between the cytoplasm and nucleus
    DSRAD_HUMAN, P55265: Isoform 5: Cytoplasm. Nucleus. Nucleus, nucleolus. Note=Predominantly nuclear but can
    shuttle between nucleus and cytoplasm. TNPO1 can mediate its nuclear import whereas XPO1 can mediate its nuclear
    export
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    nucleus5
    cytosol2

    Gene Ontology (GO): 5 cellular component terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005634nucleus TAS7565688
    GO:0005654nucleoplasm TAS--
    GO:0005730nucleolus IEA--
    GO:0005737cytoplasm TAS7565688
    GO:0044530supraspliceosomal complex IDA18362360

    ADAR for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for ADAR About   (see all 8)  
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Formation of editosomes by ADAR proteins
    Formation of editosomes by ADAR proteins0.50
    mRNA Editing- A to I Conversion0.00
    mRNA Editing0.50
    C6 deamination of adenosine0.00
    2Interferon Signaling
    Interferon Signaling0.59
    Cytokine Signaling in Immune system0.59
    3Influenza A
    Influenza A0.34
    Measles0.34
    4Immune response IFN alpha beta signaling pathway
    Interferon alpha/beta signaling0.43
    5Gene Expression
    Gene Expression0.40

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways


    1 Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Pathway for ADAR
        Translational Control

    1 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) Pathway for ADAR
        ATP/ITP metabolism

    3 Reactome Pathways for ADAR
        Interferon alpha/beta signaling
    C6 deamination of adenosine
    Formation of editosomes by ADAR proteins


    3 Kegg Pathways  (Kegg details for ADAR):
        Cytosolic DNA-sensing pathway
    Measles
    Influenza A


    ADAR for pathways           About GeneDecksing

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including ADAR: 
              Interferons & Receptors in human mouse rat
              Type I Interferon Response in human mouse rat
              PI3K-AKT Signaling Pathway in human mouse rat
              Stem Cells in human mouse rat

    Interactions:

        GeneGlobe Interaction Network for ADAR

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    Selected Interacting proteins for ADAR (P552651, 3 ENSP000003574594) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 71)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    HDLBPQ003413, ENSP000003120424I2D: score=3 STRING: ENSP00000312042
    SUMO1P631653, ENSP000003760764I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000376076
    HDAC5Q9UQL63, ENSP000002259834I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000225983
    XPO1O149803I2D: score=3 
    ATG101Q9BSB43I2D: score=1 
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected biological process terms (see all 18):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0006382adenosine to inosine editing TAS--
    GO:0006396RNA processing ----
    GO:0006397mRNA processing IEA--
    GO:0006606protein import into nucleus IDA19124606
    GO:0006611protein export from nucleus IDA19124606

    ADAR for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Browse Tocris compounds for ADAR (DSRAD)

    Selected Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for ADAR gene (see all 11)    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    inosine 90.1 31 8643357 (1), 9020165 (1), 9614652 (1), 10200312 (1) (see all 25)
    red 2 86.3 1 10581403 (1)
    guanosine 51.8 1 7543593 (1)
    glutamate 50 20 14559151 (2), 8647818 (2), 8595560 (2), 10581403 (1) (see all 15)
    cytidine 47.6 4 7972084 (1), 8722180 (1), 10376681 (1), 7615504 (1)
    2',5'-oligoadenylate 37.7 1 11585785 (1)
    deoxyribose 31.2 1 11752786 (1)
    arginine 18 11 9202292 (2), 16120648 (1), 8598204 (1), 15659327 (1)
    glutamine 10.6 3 9202292 (1), 8598204 (1), 8995285 (1)
    glycerol 4.85 1 9222368 (1)



    ADAR for compounds           About GeneDecksing



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN )
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    2 fRNAdb Secondary structures:


    REFSEQ mRNAs for ADAR gene (5 alternative transcripts): 
    NM_001025107.2  NM_001111.4  NM_001193495.1  NM_015840.3  NM_015841.3  

    Unigene Cluster for ADAR:

    Adenosine deaminase, RNA-specific
    Hs.12341  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_001193495
    11 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000368474(uc001ffh.3 uc001ffj.3 uc001ffi.3 uc001ffn.2)
    ENST00000368471(uc001ffl.1) ENST00000492630 ENST00000529168 ENST00000530954
    ENST00000534279 ENST00000463920 ENST00000494866(uc001ffm.1) ENST00000471068
    ENST00000526905 ENST00000292205(uc021pag.1 uc001ffk.3)
    miRNA
    Products:
         
    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat ADAR using miScript Target Protectors
    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate ADAR (see all 37):
    hsa-miR-106a hsa-miR-519a hsa-miR-1184 hsa-miR-93 hsa-miR-155* hsa-miR-4309 hsa-miR-526b* hsa-miR-509-3-5p
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidADAR 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
         
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for ADAR
    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat ADAR
    Clone
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    OriGene clones in human, mouse for ADAR (see all 22)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for ADAR
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector (see all 5): ADAR (NM_001111)
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for ADAR
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat ADAR
    Primer
    Products:
        
    OriGene qPCR primer pairs and template standards for ADAR
    OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human, mouse for ADAR
    Pre-validated RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat ADAR
      QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat ADAR
      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat ADAR

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AB209891.1 AK304153.1 BC017853.1 BC038227.1 BX538232.1 BX640741.1 EF190448.1 EF190449.1 
    EF190450.1 EF190451.1 EF190452.1 EF190453.1 U10439.1 U18121.1 X79448.1 X79449.1 
    X98559.1 X98563.1 

    Selected DOTS entries (see all 33):

    DT.449598  DT.100658403  DT.91846984  DT.100658458  DT.95272413  DT.100658457  DT.95091272  DT.95134022 
    DT.95340523  DT.100658453  DT.100658460  DT.100853482  DT.121357319  DT.91878250  DT.121357314  DT.85104621 
    DT.121357358  DT.87077558  DT.91792987  DT.91793012  DT.100658459  DT.121357295  DT.121357330  DT.40235011 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 776):

    BQ772413 CD369922 AA639845 AI473455 AW375385 T33059 BQ052493 BU430757 
    BM665380 BQ063611 AI243789 CD677965 AU127900 AA843525 F02856 CA426250 
    AL538415 CN479304 F04435 AA361786 U10439 CA431210 CA307962 AA057171 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    Selected Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for ADAR (see all 13)    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8a · 8b · 8c · 8d · 8e · 8f ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12 ^ 13a · 13b ^ 14 ^ 15 ^ 16 ^ 17 ^ 18a · 18b ·
    SP1:                                      -                                                                                                           -         
    SP2:                                                                                                                                                  -         
    SP3:                    -     -     -     -                                                                                                           -         
    SP4:                                                                                                                                                  -         
    SP5:                                                                                                                          -                                 

    ExUns: 18c ^ 19a · 19b ^ 20a · 20b · 20c ^ 21a · 21b ^ 22a · 22b ^ 23
    SP1:                                -     -                           
    SP2:                                -     -                           
    SP3:                                -     -                           
    SP4:  -     -                                                         
    SP5:                                                                  


    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for ADAR

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
    About This Section

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    ADAR expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: CCCCTCTGAG
    ADAR Expression
    About this image


    ADAR expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 15) fully expand
     
     Brain (Nervous System)    fully expand to see all 7 entries
             Cerebral Cortex
     
     Ovary (Reproductive System)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             Ovarian Mesenchymal Stroma Cells Ovary Interstitium
             Oviduct
     
     Neural Tube (Nervous System)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             Metencephalon
     
     Skeletal Muscle (Muscoskeletal System)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             Myoblasts Mandibular Arch Muscles
     
     Testis (Reproductive System)
             Leydig Cells Testis Interstitium
    ADAR Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    ADAR Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.12341

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: DSRAD_HUMAN, P55265
    Tissue specificity: Ubiquitously expressed, highest levels were found in brain and lung. Isoform 5 is expressed at
    higher levels in astrocytomas as compared to normal brain tissue and expression increases strikingly with the
    severity of the tumor, being higher in the most aggressive tumors

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including ADAR: 
              Interferons & Receptors in human mouse rat
              Type I Interferon Response in human mouse rat
              PI3K-AKT Signaling Pathway in human mouse rat
              Stem Cells in human mouse rat

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    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
    About This Section

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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

    Orthologs for ADAR gene from Selected species (see all 13)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Adar1 , 5 adenosine deaminase, RNA-specific1, 5 81.76(n)1
    80.09(a)1
      3 (39.19 cM)5
    564171  NM_019655.31  NP_062629.31 
     897150225 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves ADAR1 adenosine deaminase, RNA-specific 62.87(n)
    59.47(a)
      769675  XM_004948259.1  XP_004948316.1 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia ADAR6
    adenosine deaminase, RNA-specific
    36(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    GL344076.1(49533-68790)
    African clawed frog
    (Xenopus laevis)
    Amphibia adar-A-prov2 dsRNA adenosine deaminase 76.18(n)    U88066.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii adar2 adenosine deaminase, RNA-specific 75.34(n)   58119  AF124332.1 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for ADAR (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for ADAR (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for ADAR gene
    ADAT12  ADARB22  ADARB12  ADAD22  ADAD12  
    6 SIMAP similar genes for ADAR using alignment to 6 protein entries:     DSRAD_HUMAN (see all proteins):
    EIF2AK2    TARBP2    ADARB2    RED1    ADAR2d    ADARB1

    ADAR for paralogs           About GeneDecksing



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for ADAR (see all 1093)    About this table    
    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 1 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    VAR_0695354
    Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome 6 (AGS6)4--see VAR_0695352 P A mis40--------
    VAR_0695384
    Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome 6 (AGS6)4--see VAR_0695382 R H mis40--------
    VAR_0695374
    Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome 6 (AGS6)4--see VAR_0695372 I T mis40--------
    VAR_0695404
    Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome 6 (AGS6)4--see VAR_0695402 G R mis40--------
    VAR_0358054
    A breast cancer sample4--see VAR_0358052 E V mis40--------
    VAR_0266694
    Dyschromatosis symmetrica hereditaria (DSH)4--see VAR_0266692 R W mis40--------
    VAR_0695394
    Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome 6 (AGS6)4--see VAR_0695392 K N mis40--------
    VAR_0217294
    Dyschromatosis symmetrica hereditaria (DSH)4--see VAR_0217292 C F mis40--------
    VAR_0695424
    Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome 6 (AGS6)4--see VAR_0695422 D H mis40--------
    VAR_0695414
    Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome 6 (AGS6)4--see VAR_0695412 Y F mis40--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for ADAR (154554533 - 154600475 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 7 variations for ADAR:    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    esv2658585CNV Deletion23128226
    esv33703CNV Loss17666407
    esv32568CNV Loss17666407
    nsv470740CNV Gain18288195
    nsv521887CNV Gain19592680
    esv33112CNV Gain17666407
    nsv464050CNV Gain19166990

    Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD): ADAR
    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing ADAR
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for ADAR

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
    About This Section

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    OMIM gene information: 146920OMIM information: 115665 116600 121800 155600 211420 600975 605225 605606 606788 606852 606928 607317 607671 608446 608543 608553 608995    
    OMIM disorders: 127400  615010  
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: DSRAD_HUMAN, P55265
  • Dyschromatosis symmetrica hereditaria (DSH) [MIM:127400]: An autosomal dominant pigmentary genodermatosis
    characterized by a mixture of hyperpigmented and hypopigmented macules distributed on the face and the dorsal
    parts of the hands and feet, that appear in infancy or early childhood. Note=The disease is caused by mutations
    affecting the gene represented in this entry
  • Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome 6 (AGS6) [MIM:615010]: A form of Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome, a genetically
    heterogeneous disease characterized by cerebral atrophy, leukoencephalopathy, intracranial calcifications,
    chronic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lymphocytosis, increased CSF alpha-interferon, and negative serologic
    investigations for common prenatal infection. Clinical features as thrombocytopenia, hepatosplenomegaly and
    elevated hepatic transaminases along with intermittent fever may erroneously suggest an infective process. Severe
    neurological dysfunctions manifest in infancy as progressive microcephaly, spasticity, dystonic posturing and
    profound psychomotor retardation. Death often occurs in early childhood. Note=The disease is caused by mutations
    affecting the gene represented in this entry

  • Selected diseases for ADAR (see all 47):    
    About MalaCards
    dyschromatosis universalis hereditaria    aicardi-goutieres syndrome 6    dyschromatosis symmetrica hereditaria 1    human t-cell leukemia virus type 2
    aicardi-goutieres syndrome type 5    steatitis    striatonigral degeneration infantile    early onset absence epilepsy
    lymphocytic choriomeningitis    aicardi-goutieres syndrome    hyperaldosteronism    teratocarcinoma
    measles    dengue hemorrhagic fever    stomatitis    gastroenteritis
    hemorrhagic fever    skin disease    lupus erythematosus    hepatitis c virus

    2 diseases from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for ADAR:
    Steatitis     Early onset absence epilepsy

    ADAR for disorders           About GeneDecksing

    9 Novoseek inferred disease relationships for ADAR gene    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    dyschromatosis symmetrica hereditaria 97.7 32 16536805 (2), 15146470 (2), 17225010 (2), 15347341 (1) (see all 23)
    hepatitis delta 52.9 2 9111310 (1), 11907222 (1)
    teratocarcinoma 32.5 2 9202292 (1), 14559151 (1)
    skin diseases 31.9 2 16536805 (1)
    virus infection 12.4 7 17079286 (3), 19710021 (1), 19605474 (1)
    lupus erythematosus systemic 6.91 1 17376196 (1)
    inflammation 4.97 3 12954622 (2), 17224799 (1)
    genetic disorder 0 1 7490742 (1)
    epilepsy 0 2 9694203 (1)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): ADAR
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: ADAR (10 documents)

    Export disorders for ADAR gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for ADAR gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 272):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with ADAR)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Molecular cloning of cDNA for double-stranded RNA adenosine deaminase, a candidate enzyme for nuclear RNA editing. (PubMed id 7972084)1, 2, 3, 9 Kim U.... Nishikura K. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1994)
    2. ADAR1 interacts with NF90 through double-stranded RNA and regulates NF90-mediated gene expression independently of RNA editing. (PubMed id 16055709)1, 2, 9 Nie Y.... Yang J.-H. (Mol. Cell. Biol. 2005)
    3. A new arginine substitution mutation of DSRAD gene in a Chinese family with dyschromatosis symmetrica hereditaria. (PubMed id 15659327)1, 2, 9 Li C.-R.... Zhu W.-Y. (J. Dermatol. Sci. 2005)
    4. Editing of HIV-1 RNA by the double-stranded RNA deaminase ADAR1 stimulates viral infection. (PubMed id 19651874)1, 2, 9 Doria M.... Michienzi A. (Nucleic Acids Res. 2009)
    5. Double-stranded RNA deaminase ADAR1 increases host susceptibility to virus infection. (PubMed id 17079286)1, 2, 9 Nie Y.... Yang J.H. (J. Virol. 2007)
    6. Dynamic association of RNA-editing enzymes with the nucleolus. (PubMed id 12665561)1, 2, 9 Desterro J.M.P....Carmo-Fonseca M. (J. Cell Sci. 2003)
    7. SUMO-1 modification alters ADAR1 editing activity. (PubMed id 16120648)1, 2, 9 Desterro J.M.P....Carmo-Fonseca M. (Mol. Biol. Cell 2005)
    8. Human RNA-specific adenosine deaminase ADAR1 transcripts possess alternative exon 1 structures that initiate from different promoters, one constitutively active and the other interferon inducible. (PubMed id 10200312)1, 2, 9 George C.X. and Samuel C.E. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1999)
    9. RNA-specific adenosine deaminase ADAR1 suppresses measles virus- induced apoptosis and activation of protein kinase PKR. (PubMed id 19710021)1, 2, 9 Toth A.M.... Samuel C.E. (J. Biol. Chem. 2009)
    10. Seven novel mutations of the ADAR gene in Chinese families and sporadic patients with dyschromatosis symmetrica hereditaria (DSH). (PubMed id 15146470)1, 2, 9 Zhang X.-J.... Huang W. (Hum. Mutat. 2004)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 103 HGNC: 225 AceView: ADAR Ensembl:ENSG00000160710 euGenes: HUgn103
    ECgene: ADAR Kegg: 103 H-InvDB: ADAR

    (According to HUGE)
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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for ADAR Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for ADAR gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving ADAR

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



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