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ADAM21 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 50
GCID: GC14P070924

ADAM Metallopeptidase Domain 21

(Previous name: a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain 21)
  Search for ADAM21
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
ADAM Metallopeptidase Domain 211 2     ADAM Metallopeptidase Domain 21, Preproprotein2
A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase Domain 211 2     Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase Domain-Containing Protein 212
ADAM 212 3     EC 3.4.24.-3
ADAM312     

External Ids:    HGNC: 2001   Entrez Gene: 87472   Ensembl: ENSG000001399857   OMIM: 6037135   UniProtKB: Q9UKJ83   

Export aliases for ADAM21 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC14P068429 GC14P064720 GC14P068914 GC14P068688 GC14P069993


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for ADAM21 Gene:
This gene encodes a member of the ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease domain) family. Members of this family
are membrane-anchored proteins structurally related to snake venom disintegrins, and have been implicated in a
variety of biological processes involving cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, including fertilization, muscle
development, and neurogenesis. The expression of this gene expression is testis-specific. (provided by RefSeq,
May 2011)

GeneCards Summary for ADAM21 Gene:
ADAM21 (ADAM metallopeptidase domain 21) is a protein-coding gene. GO annotations related to this gene include metallopeptidase activity and metalloendopeptidase activity. An important paralog of this gene is ADAM7.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: ADA21_HUMAN, Q9UKJ8
Function: May be involved in sperm maturation and/or fertilization. May also be involved in epithelia functions
associated with establishing and maintaining gradients of ions or nutrients




(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence:
NC_000014.9  NC_018925.2  NT_026437.13  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the ADAM21 gene promoter:
         Pbx1a   C/EBPalpha   E47   RORalpha2   CHOP-10   POU2F1   POU2F1a   Hand1   Hlf   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidADAM21 promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for ADAM21

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat ADAM21


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 14q24.1   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  14q24.2   HGNC cytogenetic band: 14q24.1

ADAM21 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
ADAM21 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 14         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC14P070924:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
70,918,874 bp from pter      End:
70,926,622 bp from pter
Size:
7,749 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., and/or eBioscience,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., and/or eBioscience, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: ADA21_HUMAN, Q9UKJ8 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 21 precursor  
Size: 722 amino acids; 80834 Da
Cofactor: Binds 1 zinc ion per subunit (Potential)
Miscellaneous: May be the functional equivalent of ADAM 1/fertilin alpha which is a pseudogene in human
Secondary accessions: O43507 Q2VPC6 Q32MR0

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for ADAM21: NX_Q9UKJ8

Explore proteomics data for ADAM21 at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Has no obvious cleavage site for furin endopeptidase, suggesting that the proteolytic processing is regulated1
  • Glycosylation2 at Asn164, Asn227, Asn377, Asn437, Asn478, Asn546, Asn600

  • See ADAM21 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins: NP_003804.2  
    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000474385   ENSP00000267499  
    Reactome Protein details: Q9UKJ8

    ADAM21 Human Recombinant Protein Products:

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    Novus Biologicals ADAM21 Protein
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    Browse Sino Biological Cell Lysates
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    Cloud-Clone Corp. Proteins for ADAM21

     
    Search eBioscience for Proteins for ADAM21 

    ADAM21 Antibody Products:

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    Cloud-Clone Corp. ELISAs for ADAM21
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    Search eBioscience for ELISAs for ADAM21 


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    HGNC Gene Families:
    ADAM: ADAM metallopeptidase domain containing

    IUPHAR Guide to PHARMACOLOGY protein family classification: ADAM21
    ADAM

    Selected InterPro protein domains (see all 7):
     IPR024079 MetalloPept_cat_dom
     IPR006586 ADAM_Cys-rich
     IPR018358 Disintegrin_CS
     IPR001762 Blood-coag_inhib_Disintegrin
     IPR001590 Peptidase_M12B

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry Q9UKJ8

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: Q9UKJ8

    3 Blocks protein domains:
    IPB001762 Disintegrin
    IPB002870 Metalloendopeptidase M12B
    IPB006586 ADAM


    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: ADA21_HUMAN, Q9UKJ8
    Domain: A tripeptide motif (VGE) within disintegrin-like domain could be involved in the binding to egg integrin
    receptor and thus could mediate sperm/egg binding
    Domain: The cysteine-rich domain encodes putative cell-fusion peptides, which could be involved in sperm-egg
    fusion
    Domain: The conserved cysteine present in the cysteine-switch motif binds the catalytic zinc ion, thus inhibiting
    the enzyme. The dissociation of the cysteine from the zinc ion upon the activation-peptide release activates the
    enzyme
    Similarity: Contains 1 disintegrin domain
    Similarity: Contains 1 EGF-like domain
    Similarity: Contains 1 peptidase M12B domain


    Find genes that share domains with ADAM21           About GenesLikeMe


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: ADA21_HUMAN, Q9UKJ8
    Function: May be involved in sperm maturation and/or fertilization. May also be involved in epithelia functions
    associated with establishing and maintaining gradients of ions or nutrients

         Genatlas biochemistry entry for ADAM21:
    a disintegrin and metalloprotease (active) domain 21,membrane anchored cell surface adhesion protein,testis
    specific with similarity to fertilin-alpha

         Enzyme Number (IUBMB): EC 3.4.24.-1

         Gene Ontology (GO): 3 molecular function terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0004222metalloendopeptidase activity IEA--
    GO:0008237metallopeptidase activity TAS9469942
    GO:0008270zinc ion binding IEA--
         
    Find genes that share ontologies with ADAM21           About GenesLikeMe


    Phenotypes:
         1 MGI mutant phenotype (inferred from 2 alleles(MGI details for Adam21):
     normal 

    Find genes that share phenotypes with ADAM21           About GenesLikeMe

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-out Adam21tm1Lex for ADAM21

       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for ADAM21
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    miRNA
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    miRTarBase miRNAs that target ADAM21:
    hsa-mir-335-5p (MIRT016846)

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    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidADAM21 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
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    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    ADA21_HUMAN, Q9UKJ8: Membrane; Single-pass type I membrane protein
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    plasma membrane3
    endoplasmic reticulum2
    peroxisome1

    Gene Ontology (GO): 2 cellular component terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005886plasma membrane TAS--
    GO:0016021integral component of membrane IEA--

    Find genes that share ontologies with ADAM21           About GenesLikeMe


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for ADAM21 About    
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Reproduction
    Reproduction1.00
    Interaction With The Zona Pellucida0.00
    Fertilization1.00


    Find genes that share SuperPaths with ADAM21           About GenesLikeMe

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways


    1 Reactome Pathway for ADAM21
        Interaction With The Zona Pellucida


        Custom Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays for ADAM21
    Interactions:

        Search GeneGlobe Interaction Network for ADAM21

    Gene Ontology (GO): 4 biological process terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0006508proteolysis ----
    GO:0007338single fertilization TAS--
    GO:0007339binding of sperm to zona pellucida TAS--
    GO:0032504multicellular organism reproduction TAS--

    Find genes that share ontologies with ADAM21           About GenesLikeMe



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Browse Tocris compounds for ADAM21 (ADA21)



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for ADAM21 gene: 
    NM_003813.3  

    Unigene Cluster for ADAM21:

    ADAM metallopeptidase domain 21
    Hs.178748  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_003813
    2 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000603540 ENST00000267499(uc021rvq.1)
    miRNA
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    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: ADAM21 (NM_003813)
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    Primer
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      QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat ADAM21
      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat ADAM21

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AF029900.1 BC109024.1 BC109025.1 

    1 DOTS entry:

    DT.103709 

    4 AceView cDNA sequences:

    BX089075 AF029900 NM_003813 BU619464 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure


    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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    ADAM21 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: TTTCTATCTA
    ADAM21 Expression
    About this image


    ADAM21 expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 2) fully expand
     
     Testis (Reproductive System)
             Spermatid Seminiferous Tubules
     
     Gonad
             Spermatid Seminiferous Tubules
    ADAM21 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    ADAM21 Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.178748
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    In Situ
    Assay Products:
     

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for ADAM21

    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

    Orthologs for ADAM21 gene from Selected species (see all 12)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Adam211 , 5 a disintegrin and metallopeptidase domain 211, 5 78.14(n)1
    69.1(a)1
      12 (37.79 cM)5
    566221  NM_020330.41  NP_065063.11 
     815585845 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves LOC1008578401 disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing more 52.36(n)
    43.51(a)
      100857840  NM_001277790.1  NP_001264719.1 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia --
    --
    (see all 6)
    Uncharacterized protein
    (see all 6)
    42(a)
    41(a)
    (see all 6)
    many ↔ many
    many ↔ many
    (see all 6)
    GL343318.1(1387820-1389757)
    GL343318.1(1397144-1399132)
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii zgc:1741646
    zgc:174164
    28(a)
    many ↔ many
    12(12421893-12455943) ENSDARG00000057138
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta Neu36
    Neu3
    15(a)
    1 → many
    3R(10491559-10523057)
    worm
    (Caenorhabditis elegans)
    Secernentea adm-26
    Protein ADM-2 (adm-2) mRNA, complete cds
    19(a)
    1 → many
    X(13687973-13695791) WBGene00000074


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for ADAM21 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for ADAM21 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for ADAM21 gene
    ADAM72  ADAM192  ADAM122  ADAM332  ADAM302  ADAM282  ADAM292  ADAM202  
    ADAM92  ADAM152  ADAM82  
    13 SIMAP similar genes for ADAM21 using alignment to 1 protein entry:     ADA21_HUMAN:
    ADAM20    ADAM29    ADAM30    ADAM9    ADAM23    ADAM19
    ADAM32    ADAM12    ADAM18    ADAM22    ADAM2    ADAM7
    ADAM33

    Find genes that share paralogs with ADAM21           About GenesLikeMe


    Selected Pseudogenes.org Pseudogenes for ADAM21 (see all 7)
    PGOHUM00000239927 PGOHUM00000257964 PGOHUM00000247914 PGOHUM00000246615 PGOHUM00000246632


    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for ADAM21 (see all 313)    About this table                                 

    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 14 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs1380159021,2
    --70916893(+) AGTTTC/TCCCAT 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1840587221,2
    --70916902(+) ATGACA/TTTTGG 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1888307611,2
    C--70916913(+) GTGGAA/GAAGGA 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs727357531,2
    C,F--70916922(+) GATGGT/GTATTT 1 -- us2k13Minor allele frequency- G:0.07CSA WA NA 239
    rs1426993161,2
    --70916947(+) GTCTCG/TCCAGA 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1460245811,2
    --70917003(+) GTCTTC/TTTGTT 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1400350251,2
    --70917035(+) TGTTAC/TAGGCT 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs732919611,2
    C,F--70917089(+) ACCATG/ATTATT 1 -- us2k12Minor allele frequency- A:0.03WA 120
    rs1493410861,2
    --70917287(+) GTCTCA/TTCAGT 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1816326161,2
    --70917321(+) AAACAA/TTGTTA 1 -- us2k10--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for ADAM21 (70918874 - 70926622 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 1 variation for ADAM21:    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    nsv902075CNV Gain21882294

    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing ADAM21
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for ADAM21

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 603713    OMIM disorders: --


    Find genes that share disorders with ADAM21           About GenesLikeMe


    Export disorders for ADAM21 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for ADAM21 gene integrated from 10 sources:
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with ADAM21)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. ADAM 20 and 21; two novel human testis-specific membrane metalloproteases with similarity to fertilin-alpha. (PubMed id 9469942)1, 2, 3 Hooft van Huijsduijnen R. (Gene 1998)
    2. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PubMed id 15489334)1, 2 Gerhard D.S.... Malek J. (Genome Res. 2004)
    3. The identification of seven metalloproteinase-disintegrin (ADAM) genes from genomic libraries. (PubMed id 10524237)1, 2 Poindexter K.... Cerretti D.P. (Gene 1999)
    4. Diversification of transcriptional modulation: large-scale identification and characterization of putative alternative promoters of human genes. (PubMed id 16344560)1 Kimura K.... Sugano S. (Genome Res. 2006)
    5. The DNA sequence and analysis of human chromosome 14. (PubMed id 12508121)2 Heilig R.... Weissenbach J. (Nature 2003)
    6. Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences. (PubMed id 12477932)1 Strausberg R.L....Marra M.A. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2002)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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      Query String
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    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 8747 HGNC: 200 AceView: ADAM21 Ensembl:ENSG00000139985 euGenes: HUgn8747
    ECgene: ADAM21 H-InvDB: ADAM21

    (According to HUGE)
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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for ADAM21 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for ADAM21 gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving ADAM21

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, eBioscience, and/or others, Gene Editing from DNA2.0. Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Addgene, Cell lines from GenScript, and ESI BIO, Flow cytometery from eBioscience, PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or ApexBio, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
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