Free for academic non-profit institutions. Other users need a Commercial license

Aliases for ACSS2 Gene

Aliases for ACSS2 Gene

  • Acyl-CoA Synthetase Short-Chain Family Member 2 2 3 4 5
  • Acetyl-Coenzyme A Synthetase 2 (ADP Forming) 2 3
  • Acyl-Activating Enzyme 3 4
  • EC 4 61
  • ACECS 3 4
  • ACAS2 3 4
  • ACS 3 4
  • Acetyl-Coenzyme A Synthetase, Cytoplasmic 3
  • Cytoplasmic Acetyl-Coenzyme A Synthetase 3
  • Acetyl-CoA Synthetase 4
  • Acetate--CoA Ligase 4
  • Acetate Thiokinase 3
  • Acetate-CoA Ligase 3
  • DJ1161H23.1 3
  • EC 6.2.1 61
  • ACSA 3

External Ids for ACSS2 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for ACSS2 Gene

  • ACAS2

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for ACSS2 Gene

  • GC20P032927
  • GC20P033459
  • GC20P030241

Summaries for ACSS2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for ACSS2 Gene

  • This gene encodes a cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the activation of acetate for use in lipid synthesis and energy generation. The protein acts as a monomer and produces acetyl-CoA from acetate in a reaction that requires ATP. Expression of this gene is regulated by sterol regulatory element-binding proteins, transcription factors that activate genes required for the synthesis of cholesterol and unsaturated fatty acids. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2009]

GeneCards Summary for ACSS2 Gene

ACSS2 (Acyl-CoA Synthetase Short-Chain Family Member 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with ACSS2 include Cystoisosporiasis. Among its related pathways are Metabolism and Cytochrome P450 - arranged by substrate type. GO annotations related to this gene include AMP binding and acetate-CoA ligase activity. An important paralog of this gene is ACSS1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ACSS2 Gene

  • Activates acetate so that it can be used for lipid synthesis or for energy generation.

Gene Wiki entry for ACSS2 Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for ACSS2 Gene

Genomics for ACSS2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for ACSS2 Gene

Enhancers for ACSS2 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH20F034015 1.1 Ensembl ENCODE 4 -854.2 -854245 5.8 PKNOX1 YBX1 ZNF48 ZNF335 ZNF366 SCRT2 ZNF202 ZNF263 SMARCA4 GLIS1 NCOA6 RALY RALY-AS1 ENSG00000272945 ZNF341-AS1 MAP1LC3A AHCY GSS ACSS2 LOC105372596
GH20F034476 0.8 FANTOM5 4.6 -395.5 -395509 0.3 CTCF MXI1 SAP130 FOXA3 HLF ZMYM3 MXD4 ZNF48 RAD21 ZGPAT DYNLRB1 ACSS2 FDX1P1 GC20M034509
GH20F034903 1.3 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 1.7 +32.2 32154 1.0 TAL1 ZMYM3 GATA2 ADNP EED ETV6 PRDM10 CREM MTA2 HLF PIGU MIR499A EDEM2 MMP24-AS1 ACSS2 TP53INP2 GC20P034899 MYH7B
GH20F034862 0.8 Ensembl ENCODE 0.4 -8.9 -8855 1.3 SREBF1 CBX3 HMBOX1 ZBTB33 FOS ZSCAN29 RARA GSS NCOA6 EDEM2 MMP24-AS1 MAP1LC3A PROCR ACSS2 GC20M034846
GH20F034861 0.4 ENCODE 0.4 -10.1 -10062 0.8 HLF PRDM10 GGT7 MAP1LC3A PIGU NCOA6 MIR499A EDEM2 MMP24-AS1 ACSS2 GC20M034846
- Elite enhancer and/or Elite enhancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around ACSS2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for ACSS2 Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters
ENSR00001836933 454 1201 PKNOX1 MLX ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2 SLC30A9 ZNF143 ZNF263 SP3

Genomic Location for ACSS2 Gene

34,872,146 bp from pter
34,927,966 bp from pter
55,821 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for ACSS2 Gene

Genes around ACSS2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
ACSS2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for ACSS2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for ACSS2 Gene

Proteins for ACSS2 Gene

  • Protein details for ACSS2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase, cytoplasmic
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A6NE90
    • Q5QPH2
    • Q5QPH3
    • Q8N238
    • Q96EL0
    • Q9NQP7
    • Q9UJ15

    Protein attributes for ACSS2 Gene

    701 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    78580 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Monomer.

    Alternative splice isoforms for ACSS2 Gene


neXtProt entry for ACSS2 Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for ACSS2 Gene


Post-translational modifications for ACSS2 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Domains & Families for ACSS2 Gene

Gene Families for ACSS2 Gene

Protein Domains for ACSS2 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the ATP-dependent AMP-binding enzyme family.
  • Belongs to the ATP-dependent AMP-binding enzyme family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with ACSS2: view

Function for ACSS2 Gene

Molecular function for ACSS2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
ATP + acetate + CoA = AMP + diphosphate + acetyl-CoA.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Activates acetate so that it can be used for lipid synthesis or for energy generation.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for ACSS2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for ACSS2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003824 catalytic activity IEA --
GO:0003987 acetate-CoA ligase activity TAS --
GO:0005524 ATP binding IEA --
GO:0016208 AMP binding IC 10843999
GO:0016874 ligase activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ACSS2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with ACSS2: view

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for ACSS2

miRNA for ACSS2 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target ACSS2

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for ACSS2 Gene

Localization for ACSS2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ACSS2 Gene


Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for ACSS2 gene
Compartment Confidence
nucleus 5
cytosol 5
mitochondrion 2
peroxisome 2
plasma membrane 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for ACSS2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005654 nucleoplasm IDA --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IDA --
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
GO:0043231 intracellular membrane-bounded organelle IDA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ACSS2: view

Pathways & Interactions for ACSS2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with ACSS2: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for ACSS2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006069 ethanol oxidation TAS --
GO:0006085 acetyl-CoA biosynthetic process IEA --
GO:0008152 metabolic process IEA --
GO:0008610 lipid biosynthetic process IMP 10843999
GO:0019413 acetate biosynthetic process IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ACSS2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for ACSS2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for ACSS2 Gene

(22) Drugs for ACSS2 Gene - From: DrugBank, PharmGKB, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Adenosine monophosphate Approved Nutra Target, product of 0
Adenosine triphosphate Approved Nutra Target 0
Carboplatin Approved Pharma Antitumor agent that forms platinum-DNA adducts., Platinum 1980
Cisplatin Approved Pharma Inhibits DNA synthesis,chemotherapy drug, Platinum, Potent pro-apoptotic anticancer agent; activates caspase-3 2690
Docetaxel Approved May 1996, Investigational Pharma Microtubulin disassembly inhibitor, Tubulin and VEGF inhibitor, Taxanes, Microtubule stabilizer 1918

(15) Additional Compounds for ACSS2 Gene - From: Novoseek and HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • Ac-CoA
  • Ac-Coenzyme A
  • Ac-S-CoA
  • Ac-S-Coenzyme A
  • Acetyl coenzyme-A
  • (4-)Diphosphoric acid ion
  • (P2O74-)Diphosphate
  • Diphosphate
  • Diphosphoric acid
  • PPi
Acetyl adenylate
  • 5'-O-[Acetoxy(hydroxy)phosphoryl]adenosine
  • Acetyl adenylate
  • Acetyl AMP
  • Acetyladenylate
  • [[(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(6-aminopurin-9-yl)-3,4-dihydroxy-tetrahydrofuran-2-yl]methoxy-hydroxy-phosphoryl] acetate
Propinol adenylate
  • Propionyladenylate
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with ACSS2: view

Transcripts for ACSS2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for ACSS2 Gene

Acyl-CoA synthetase short-chain family member 2:
Representative Sequences:

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for ACSS2 Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2a · 2b · 2c · 2d ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10a · 10b ^ 11 ^ 12 ^ 13a · 13b ^ 14a · 14b ^ 15 ^ 16 ^ 17 ^ 18 ^ 19a ·
SP1: - - - - -
SP2: - - - - - - - - - -
SP3: - - - - - -
SP4: - - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP5: - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP6: -
SP7: -
SP10: - - - - - -

ExUns: 19b · 19c ^ 20 ^ 21 ^ 22 ^ 23a · 23b · 23c
SP5: -
SP8: -

Relevant External Links for ACSS2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for ACSS2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for ACSS2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for ACSS2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Urine (7.6), Stomach (7.5), Milk (7.4), and Nasopharynx (7.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for ACSS2 Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for ACSS2 Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of ACSS2 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for ACSS2 Gene:

genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with ACSS2: view

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for ACSS2 Gene

Orthologs for ACSS2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for ACSS2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia ACSS2 34 35
  • 99.77 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia ACSS2 34 35
  • 91.46 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia ACSS2 34 35
  • 91.16 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Acss2 34 16 35
  • 90.58 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Acss2 34
  • 90.58 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia ACSS2 35
  • 77 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves ACSS2 34 35
  • 74.55 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia ACSS2 35
  • 78 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia acss2 34
  • 71.15 (n)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii acss2 35
  • 74 (a)
Dr.14648 34
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP006569 34
  • 63.73 (n)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta AcCoAS 34 35
  • 62.96 (n)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea acs-19 34 35
  • 55.67 (n)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes ACS1 35
  • 42 (a)
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons ACS 34
  • 58.24 (n)
(Glycine max)
eudicotyledons Gma.1473 34
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os02g0525900 34
  • 59.66 (n)
Os.8565 34
(Hordeum vulgare)
Liliopsida Hv.487 34
(Triticum aestivum)
Liliopsida Ta.16490 34
(Zea mays)
Liliopsida Zm.3669 34
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.2696 35
  • 65 (a)
Species where no ortholog for ACSS2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)

Evolution for ACSS2 Gene

Gene Tree for ACSS2 (if available)
Gene Tree for ACSS2 (if available)

Paralogs for ACSS2 Gene

Variants for ACSS2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for ACSS2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 20 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs1013677 -- 34,880,990(+) gttac(A/G)gttct intron-variant
rs10485507 -- 34,921,023(+) CCCAC(A/G)TATCC reference, synonymous-codon
rs1051118 -- 34,928,463(-) TAATT(C/T)TGCCT downstream-variant-500B, utr-variant-3-prime
rs10542624 -- 34,904,906(+) TTTTT(-/T)GGTAG intron-variant
rs1060615 -- 34,890,578(+) TTCTG(A/G)TCATT intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for ACSS2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv95n6 CNV deletion 16902084
esv2520076 CNV deletion 19546169
esv2671024 CNV deletion 23128226
esv2722357 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2743305 CNV deletion 23290073
esv3353956 CNV insertion 20981092
esv3557024 CNV deletion 23714750
nsv1055447 CNV loss 25217958
nsv1071692 CNV deletion 25765185
nsv1152938 CNV deletion 26484159
nsv478716 CNV novel sequence insertion 20440878
nsv833962 CNV loss 17160897
nsv956232 CNV deletion 24416366

Variation tolerance for ACSS2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 13.1% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 4.95; 67.99% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for ACSS2 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ACSS2 Gene

Disorders for ACSS2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(1) MalaCards diseases for ACSS2 Gene - From: DISEASES

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
  • infection by isospora belli and isospora hominis
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search ACSS2 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for ACSS2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with ACSS2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for ACSS2 Gene

Publications for ACSS2 Gene

  1. Molecular characterization of human acetyl-CoA synthetase, an enzyme regulated by sterol regulatory element-binding proteins. (PMID: 10843999) Luong A. … Goldstein J.L. (J. Biol. Chem. 2000) 2 3 4 22 64
  2. Identification of type 2 diabetes-associated combination of SNPs using support vector machine. (PMID: 20416077) Ban H.J. … Park K.J. (BMC Genet. 2010) 3 46 64
  3. Variation at the NFATC2 locus increases the risk of thiazolidinedione-induced edema in the Diabetes REduction Assessment with ramipril and rosiglitazone Medication (DREAM) study. (PMID: 20628086) Bailey S.D. … Anand S. (Diabetes Care 2010) 3 46 64
  4. The importance of acetyl coenzyme A synthetase for 11C-acetate uptake and cell survival in hepatocellular carcinoma. (PMID: 19617323) Yun M. … Lee J.D. (J. Nucl. Med. 2009) 3 22 64
  5. Multiple genetic variants along candidate pathways influence plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. (PMID: 18660489) Lu Y. … Boer J.M. (J. Lipid Res. 2008) 3 46 64

Products for ACSS2 Gene

Sources for ACSS2 Gene

Loading form....