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Aliases for ACSS2 Gene

Aliases for ACSS2 Gene

  • Acyl-CoA Synthetase Short-Chain Family Member 2 2 3 4 5
  • Acetyl-Coenzyme A Synthetase 2 (ADP Forming) 2 3
  • Acyl-Activating Enzyme 3 4
  • EC 4 63
  • ACECS 3 4
  • ACAS2 3 4
  • ACS 3 4
  • Cytoplasmic Acetyl-Coenzyme A Synthetase 3
  • Acetyl-CoA Synthetase 4
  • Acetate--CoA Ligase 4
  • Acetate Thiokinase 3
  • Acetate-CoA Ligase 3
  • DJ1161H23.1 3
  • EC 6.2.1 63
  • ACSA 3

External Ids for ACSS2 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for ACSS2 Gene

  • ACAS2

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for ACSS2 Gene

  • GC20P032927
  • GC20P033459
  • GC20P030241

Summaries for ACSS2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for ACSS2 Gene

  • This gene encodes a cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the activation of acetate for use in lipid synthesis and energy generation. The protein acts as a monomer and produces acetyl-CoA from acetate in a reaction that requires ATP. Expression of this gene is regulated by sterol regulatory element-binding proteins, transcription factors that activate genes required for the synthesis of cholesterol and unsaturated fatty acids. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2009]

GeneCards Summary for ACSS2 Gene

ACSS2 (Acyl-CoA Synthetase Short-Chain Family Member 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are ethanol degradation IV and Glucose / Energy Metabolism. GO annotations related to this gene include AMP binding and acetate-CoA ligase activity. An important paralog of this gene is ACSM2B.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ACSS2 Gene

  • Activates acetate so that it can be used for lipid synthesis or for energy generation.

Gene Wiki entry for ACSS2 Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for ACSS2 Gene

Genomics for ACSS2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for ACSS2 Gene

Enhancers for ACSS2 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Score Enhancer Sources TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Other Gene Targets for Enhancer

Enhancers around ACSS2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for ACSS2 Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

ENSRs around ACSS2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for ACSS2 Gene

34,872,146 bp from pter
34,927,966 bp from pter
55,821 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for ACSS2 Gene

Genes around ACSS2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
ACSS2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for ACSS2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for ACSS2 Gene

Proteins for ACSS2 Gene

  • Protein details for ACSS2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase, cytoplasmic
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A6NE90
    • Q5QPH2
    • Q5QPH3
    • Q8N238
    • Q96EL0
    • Q9NQP7
    • Q9UJ15

    Protein attributes for ACSS2 Gene

    701 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    78580 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Monomer.

    Alternative splice isoforms for ACSS2 Gene


neXtProt entry for ACSS2 Gene

Proteomics data for ACSS2 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for ACSS2 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Domains & Families for ACSS2 Gene

Gene Families for ACSS2 Gene

Protein Domains for ACSS2 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the ATP-dependent AMP-binding enzyme family.
  • Belongs to the ATP-dependent AMP-binding enzyme family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with ACSS2: view

Function for ACSS2 Gene

Molecular function for ACSS2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
ATP + acetate + CoA = AMP + diphosphate + acetyl-CoA.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Activates acetate so that it can be used for lipid synthesis or for energy generation.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for ACSS2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for ACSS2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0016208 AMP binding IC 10843999
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ACSS2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with ACSS2: view

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for ACSS2

miRNA for ACSS2 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target ACSS2

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for ACSS2 Gene

Localization for ACSS2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ACSS2 Gene


Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for ACSS2 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for ACSS2 gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 5
nucleus 5
mitochondrion 2
peroxisome 2
chloroplast 1
plasma membrane 1

No data available for Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for ACSS2 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for ACSS2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with ACSS2: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for ACSS2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006069 ethanol oxidation TAS --
GO:0006805 xenobiotic metabolic process TAS --
GO:0008610 lipid biosynthetic process IMP 10843999
GO:0019413 acetate biosynthetic process IEA --
GO:0019427 acetyl-CoA biosynthetic process from acetate IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ACSS2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for ACSS2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for ACSS2 Gene

(22) Drugs for ACSS2 Gene - From: DrugBank, PharmGKB, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Adenosine monophosphate Approved Nutra Target, product of 0
Adenosine triphosphate Approved Nutra Target 0
Carboplatin Approved Pharma Antitumor agent that forms platinum-DNA adducts., Platinum 1910
Cisplatin Approved Pharma Inhibits DNA synthesis,chemotherapy drug, Platinum 2569
Docetaxel Approved May 1996, Investigational Pharma Microtubulin disassembly inhibitor, Tubulin and VEGF inhibitor, Taxanes 1859

(15) Additional Compounds for ACSS2 Gene - From: Novoseek and HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • Ac-CoA
  • Ac-Coenzyme A
  • Ac-S-CoA
  • Ac-S-Coenzyme A
  • Acetyl coenzyme-A
Acetyl adenylate
  • 5'-O-[Acetoxy(hydroxy)phosphoryl]adenosine
  • Acetyl adenylate
  • Acetyl AMP
  • Acetyladenylate
  • [[(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(6-aminopurin-9-yl)-3,4-dihydroxy-tetrahydrofuran-2-yl]methoxy-hydroxy-phosphoryl] acetate
phosphoric acid
  • Acide phosphorique (FRENCH)
  • Acido fosforico [Italian]
  • Acidum phosphoricum
  • Diphosphate tetrasodium
  • Fosforzuuroplossingen [Dutch]
Propinol adenylate
  • Propionyladenylate
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with ACSS2: view

Transcripts for ACSS2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for ACSS2 Gene

Acyl-CoA synthetase short-chain family member 2:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for ACSS2 Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2a · 2b · 2c · 2d ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10a · 10b ^ 11 ^ 12 ^ 13a · 13b ^ 14a · 14b ^ 15 ^ 16 ^ 17 ^ 18 ^ 19a ·
SP1: - - - - -
SP2: - - - - - - - - - -
SP3: - - - - - -
SP4: - - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP5: - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP6: -
SP7: -
SP10: - - - - - -

ExUns: 19b · 19c ^ 20 ^ 21 ^ 22 ^ 23a · 23b · 23c
SP5: -
SP8: -

Relevant External Links for ACSS2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for ACSS2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for ACSS2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for ACSS2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Urine (7.6), Stomach (7.5), Milk (7.4), and Nasopharynx (7.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for ACSS2 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for ACSS2 Gene Hs.517034

genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with ACSS2: view

Protein tissue co-expression partners for ACSS2 Gene

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for ACSS2 Gene

Orthologs for ACSS2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for ACSS2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia ACSS2 35
  • 91.16 (n)
  • 94.01 (a)
ACSS2 36
  • 94 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia ACSS2 35
  • 91.46 (n)
  • 93.42 (a)
ACSS2 36
  • 93 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Acss2 35
  • 90.58 (n)
  • 93.58 (a)
Acss2 16
Acss2 36
  • 94 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia ACSS2 35
  • 99.77 (n)
  • 99.58 (a)
ACSS2 36
  • 100 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Acss2 35
  • 90.58 (n)
  • 93.72 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia ACSS2 36
  • 77 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves ACSS2 35
  • 74.55 (n)
  • 79.25 (a)
ACSS2 36
  • 80 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia ACSS2 36
  • 78 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia acss2 35
  • 71.15 (n)
  • 77.78 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii Dr.14648 35
acss2 36
  • 74 (a)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP006569 35
  • 63.73 (n)
  • 64.19 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta AcCoAS 35
  • 62.96 (n)
  • 64.18 (a)
AcCoAS 36
  • 63 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea acs-19 35
  • 55.67 (n)
  • 54.14 (a)
acs-19 36
  • 52 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes ACS1 36
  • 42 (a)
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons ACS 35
  • 58.24 (n)
  • 59.84 (a)
(Glycine max)
eudicotyledons Gma.1473 35
(Hordeum vulgare)
Liliopsida Hv.487 35
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os.8565 35
Os02g0525900 35
  • 59.66 (n)
  • 59.04 (a)
(Triticum aestivum)
Liliopsida Ta.16490 35
(Zea mays)
Liliopsida Zm.3669 35
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.2696 36
  • 65 (a)
Species with no ortholog for ACSS2:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)

Evolution for ACSS2 Gene

Gene Tree for ACSS2 (if available)
Gene Tree for ACSS2 (if available)

Paralogs for ACSS2 Gene

Paralogs for ACSS2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with ACSS2: view

Variants for ACSS2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for ACSS2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 20 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs9547 -- 34,927,635(-) AAATT(A/G)TTCCT utr-variant-3-prime
rs1013677 -- 34,880,990(+) gttac(A/G)gttct intron-variant
rs1060615 -- 34,890,578(+) TTCTG(A/G)TCATT intron-variant
rs1062891 -- 34,927,884(+) ACATT(C/T)TCAGA utr-variant-3-prime
rs2223881 -- 34,918,660(+) GAAAC(A/C)CGCAG intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for ACSS2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv912860 CNV Gain 21882294
esv271518 CNV Insertion 20981092
esv2520076 CNV Deletion 19546169
esv2722357 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv2743305 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv2671024 CNV Deletion 23128226
dgv95n6 CNV Loss 16902084
nsv833962 CNV Loss 17160897

Variation tolerance for ACSS2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 13.1% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 4.95; 67.99% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Relevant External Links for ACSS2 Gene

Disorders for ACSS2 Gene

Relevant External Links for ACSS2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:

No disorders were found for ACSS2 Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for ACSS2 Gene

Publications for ACSS2 Gene

  1. Molecular characterization of human acetyl-CoA synthetase, an enzyme regulated by sterol regulatory element-binding proteins. (PMID: 10843999) Luong A. … Goldstein J.L. (J. Biol. Chem. 2000) 2 3 4 23 67
  2. The importance of acetyl coenzyme A synthetase for 11C-acetate uptake and cell survival in hepatocellular carcinoma. (PMID: 19617323) Yun M. … Lee J.D. (J. Nucl. Med. 2009) 3 23
  3. Biochemical and crystallographic analysis of substrate binding and conformational changes in acetyl-CoA synthetase. (PMID: 17497934) Reger A.S. … Gulick A.M. (Biochemistry 2007) 23 25
  4. Reversible lysine acetylation controls the activity of the mitochondrial enzyme acetyl-CoA synthetase 2. (PMID: 16788062) Schwer B. … Verdin E. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2006) 3 23
  5. Enhanced biological phosphorus removal from wastewater by biomass with different phosphorus contents, Part II: Anaerobic adenosine triphosphate utilization and acetate uptake rates. (PMID: 14704009) Schuler A.J. … Jenkins D. (Water Environ. Res. 2003) 23 25

Products for ACSS2 Gene

Sources for ACSS2 Gene