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ACSL1 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 66
GCID: GC04M185676

Acyl-CoA Synthetase Long-Chain Family Member 1

(Previous names: fatty-acid-Coenzyme A ligase, long-chain 2)
(Previous symbol: FACL2)
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(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Acyl-CoA Synthetase Long-Chain Family Member 11 2     Palmitoyl-CoA Ligase 12 3
FACL21 2 3 5     Palmitoyl-CoA Ligase 22 3
ACS12 3 5     LACS12 3
FACL12 3 5     LACS22 3
LACS2 3 5     LACS 12 3
Fatty-Acid-Coenzyme A Ligase, Long-Chain 21 2     LACS 22 3
Lignoceroyl-CoA Synthase1 2     EC 6.2.1.33 8
Long-Chain Fatty-Acid-Coenzyme A Ligase 11 2     Fatty-Acid-Coenzyme A Ligase, Long-Chain 12
Acyl-CoA Synthetase 12 3     Long-Chain-Fatty-Acid--CoA Ligase 12
Long-Chain Acyl-CoA Synthetase 12 3     Paltimoyl-CoA Ligase 12
Long-Chain Acyl-CoA Synthetase 22 3     EC 6.2.18
Long-Chain Fatty Acid-CoA Ligase 22 3     

External Ids:    HGNC: 35691   Entrez Gene: 21802   Ensembl: ENSG000001517267   OMIM: 1524255   UniProtKB: P331213   

Export aliases for ACSL1 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC04M186373 GC04M186051 GC04M185914 GC04M181430


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for ACSL1 Gene:
The protein encoded by this gene is an isozyme of the long-chain fatty-acid-coenzyme A ligase family. Although
differing in substrate specificity, subcellular localization, and tissue distribution, all isozymes of this
family convert free long-chain fatty acids into fatty acyl-CoA esters, and thereby play a key role in lipid
biosynthesis and fatty acid degradation. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found
for this gene. (provided by RefSeq, Nov 2013)

GeneCards Summary for ACSL1 Gene:
ACSL1 (acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 1) is a protein-coding gene. GO annotations related to this gene include long-chain fatty acid-CoA ligase activity. An important paralog of this gene is ACSBG1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: ACSL1_HUMAN, P33121
Function: Activation of long-chain fatty acids for both synthesis of cellular lipids, and degradation via
beta-oxidation. Preferentially uses palmitoleate, oleate and linoleate

Gene Wiki entry for ACSL1 Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence at NCBI GenBank:
NC_000004.11  NT_016354.20  NC_018915.2  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the ACSL1 gene promoter:
         AP-2alpha isoform 3   AP-2alpha isoform 2   Evi-1   PPAR-alpha   PPAR-gamma1   FOXO4   AP-2alpha isoform 4   PPAR-gamma2   AP-2alpha   AP-2alphaA   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmids (see all 7): ACSL1 promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for ACSL1

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat ACSL1


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 4q35   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  4q35.1   HGNC cytogenetic band: 4q35

ACSL1 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
ACSL1 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 4         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC04M185676:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
185,676,749 bp from pter      End:
185,747,972 bp from pter
Size:
71,224 bases      Orientation:
minus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, antibodies-online, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: ACSL1_HUMAN, P33121 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Long-chain-fatty-acid--CoA ligase 1  
Size: 698 amino acids; 77943 Da
Cofactor: Magnesium
Developmental stage: Expressed during the early stages of erythroid development while expression is very low in
reticulocytes and young erythrocytes
Sequence caution: Sequence=BAC04704.1; Type=Erroneous initiation;
Secondary accessions: D3DP57 P41215 Q8N8V7 Q8TA99
Alternative splicing: 2 isoforms:  P33121-1   P33121-2   (May be due to a competing acceptor splice site. No experimental confirmation available)

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for ACSL1: NX_P33121

Explore proteomics data for ACSL1 at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Ubiquitination2 at Lys216, Lys395, Lys419, Lys532
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Selected DME Specific Peptides for ACSL1 (P33121) (see all 12)
     YGQTECT  LPLAHMFE  VPLYDTLG  DGWLHTGD 


    See ACSL1 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins (5 alternative transcripts): 
    NP_001273637.1  NP_001273639.1  NP_001273640.1  NP_001273641.1  NP_001986.2  

    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000407165   ENSP00000422607   ENSP00000425098   ENSP00000281455   ENSP00000426244  
     ENSP00000426491   ENSP00000425006   ENSP00000426150   ENSP00000424935   ENSP00000425640  
     ENSP00000405687  
    Reactome Protein details: P33121

    ACSL1 Human Recombinant Protein Products:

    Browse Purified and Recombinant Proteins at EMD Millipore
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    Browse OriGene Protein Over-expression Lysates
    OriGene Custom MassSpec
    OriGene Custom Protein Services for ACSL1
    GenScript Custom Purified and Recombinant Proteins Services for ACSL1
    Novus Biologicals ACSL1 Proteins
    Browse Sino Biological Recombinant Proteins
    Browse Sino Biological Cell Lysates
    Browse ProSpec Recombinant Proteins
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Proteins for ACSL1

     
    Search eBioscience for Proteins for ACSL1 

     
    antibodies-online proteins for ACSL1 (5 products) 

     
    antibodies-online peptides for ACSL1

    ACSL1 Antibody Products:

    EMD Millipore Mono- and Polyclonal Antibodies for the study of ACSL1
    Browse R&D Systems for Antibodies
    Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for ACSL1 
    OriGene Antibodies for ACSL1
    OriGene Custom Antibody Services for ACSL1
    Novus Biologicals ACSL1 Antibodies
    Abcam antibodies for ACSL1
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Antibodies for ACSL1
    ThermoFisher Antibodies for ACSL1
    LSBio Antibodies in human, mouse, rat for ACSL1
    antibodies-online antibodies for ACSL1 (46 products) 

    ACSL1 Assay Products:

    Browse Kits and Assays available from EMD Millipore
    OriGene Custom Assay Services for ACSL1
    Browse R&D Systems for biochemical assays
    GenScript Custom Assay Services for ACSL1
    Browse Enzo Life Sciences for kits & assays
    Cloud-Clone Corp. ELISAs for ACSL1
    Cloud-Clone Corp. CLIAs for ACSL1
    Search eBioscience for ELISAs for ACSL1 
    antibodies-online kits for ACSL1 (6 products) 


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    HGNC Gene Families:
    ACS: Acyl-CoA synthetase family

    2 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR020845 AMP-binding_CS
     IPR000873 AMP-dep_Synth/Lig

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P33121

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P33121

    1 Blocks protein domain: IPB000873 AMP-binding signature

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: ACSL1_HUMAN, P33121
    Similarity: Belongs to the ATP-dependent AMP-binding enzyme family


    Find genes that share domains with ACSL1           About GenesLikeMe


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: ACSL1_HUMAN, P33121
    Function: Activation of long-chain fatty acids for both synthesis of cellular lipids, and degradation via
    beta-oxidation. Preferentially uses palmitoleate, oleate and linoleate
    Catalytic activity: ATP + a long-chain fatty acid + CoA = AMP + diphosphate + an acyl-CoA

         Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB): EC 6.2.1.31 2 EC 6.2.12

         Gene Ontology (GO): 4 molecular function terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0003824catalytic activity ----
    GO:0004467long-chain fatty acid-CoA ligase activity TAS--
    GO:0005524ATP binding IEA--
    GO:0016874ligase activity ----
         
    Find genes that share ontologies with ACSL1           About GenesLikeMe


    Phenotypes:
         4 GenomeRNAi human phenotypes for ACSL1:
     Decreased viability of wild-ty  Increased cell number in S and  Proliferating cells  Synthetic lethal with imatinib 

         3 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 1 allele(MGI details for Acsl1):
     adipose tissue  growth/size/body  homeostasis/metabolism 

    Find genes that share phenotypes with ACSL1           About GenesLikeMe

    Animal Models:
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for ACSL1
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Contact us about creating complex and humanized mouse models for ACSL1

       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for ACSL1
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for ACSL1

    miRNA
    Products:
        
    miRTarBase miRNAs that target ACSL1:
    hsa-mir-335-5p (MIRT017213), hsa-mir-34a-5p (MIRT025381), hsa-let-7b-5p (MIRT032285), hsa-mir-93-3p (MIRT038888), hsa-mir-192-5p (MIRT026287), hsa-mir-191-5p (MIRT045814)

    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat ACSL1 using miScript Target Protectors
    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate ACSL1 (see all 59):
    hsa-miR-2052 hsa-miR-19b-2* hsa-miR-376b hsa-miR-15a hsa-miR-301a hsa-miR-218 hsa-miR-766 hsa-miR-449a
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidACSL1 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
        
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for ACSL1
    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat ACSL1

    Gene Editing
    Products:
    DNA2.0 Custom Protein Engineering Service for ACSL1

    Clone
    Products:
         
    OriGene clones in human, mouse for ACSL1 (see all 7)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for ACSL1
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: ACSL1 (NM_001995)
    Sino Biological Human cDNA Clone for ACSL1
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for ACSL1
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat ACSL1

    Cell Line
    Products:
         
    GenScript Custom overexpressing Cell Line Services for ACSL1
    Browse ESI BIO Cell Lines and PureStem Progenitors for ACSL1 
    In Situ Assay
    Products:
       

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for ACSL1


    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    ACSL1_HUMAN, P33121: Mitochondrion outer membrane; Single-pass type III membrane protein (By similarity).
    Peroxisome membrane; Single-pass type III membrane protein (By similarity). Microsome membrane; Single-pass type
    III membrane protein (By similarity). Endoplasmic reticulum membrane; Single-pass type III membrane protein (By
    similarity)
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    endoplasmic reticulum5
    mitochondrion5
    peroxisome5
    nucleus3
    cytosol2
    plasma membrane2

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected cellular component terms (see all 7):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005739mitochondrion IDA--
    GO:0005741mitochondrial outer membrane TAS--
    GO:0005778peroxisomal membrane IEA--
    GO:0005783endoplasmic reticulum ----
    GO:0005789endoplasmic reticulum membrane TAS--

    Find genes that share ontologies with ACSL1           About GenesLikeMe


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for ACSL1 About   (see all 13)  
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Metabolism
    Metabolism0.38
    Metabolism of lipids and lipoproteins0.37
    Metabolic pathways0.38
    2PPAR signaling pathway
    fatty acid beta-oxidation VI (peroxisome)0.00
    PPAR signaling pathway
    3stearate biosynthesis I (animals)
    stearate biosynthesis I (animals)0.35
    eicosapentaenoate biosynthesis II (metazoa)0.00
    gamma-linolenate biosynthesis II (animals)0.35
    fatty acid activation0.00
    fatty acid beta-oxidation I0.30
    4Fatty acid, triacylglycerol, and ketone body metabolism
    Fatty acid, triacylglycerol, and ketone body metabolism0.65
    PPARA Activates Gene Expression0.63
    Regulation of Lipid Metabolism by Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha)0.65
    5Triglyceride Biosynthesis
    Triglyceride Biosynthesis
    Fatty Acyl-CoA Biosynthesis0.00
    Synthesis of very long-chain fatty acyl-CoAs0.00


    Find genes that share SuperPaths with ACSL1           About GenesLikeMe

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways


    1 Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Pathway for ACSL1
        Glucose / Energy Metabolism

    Selected BioSystems Pathways for ACSL1 (see all 10)
        Fatty Acid Beta Oxidation
    stearate biosynthesis I (animals)
    gamma-linolenate biosynthesis II (animals)
    fatty acid alpha-oxidation II
    fatty acid beta-oxidation VI (peroxisome)


    4 Reactome Pathways for ACSL1
        Linoleic acid (LA) metabolism
    PPARA activates gene expression
    Synthesis of very long-chain fatty acyl-CoAs
    alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) metabolism


    Selected Kegg Pathways  (Kegg details for ACSL1) (see all 6):
        Fatty acid degradation
    Metabolic pathways
    Fatty acid metabolism
    PPAR signaling pathway
    Peroxisome

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including ACSL1: 
              Fatty Acid Metabolism in human mouse rat
              Insulin Resistance in human mouse rat
              Drug Metabolism: Phase II Enzymes in human mouse rat
              PPAR Targets in human mouse rat
              Molecular Toxicology PathwayFinder 384HT in human mouse rat

    Interactions:

        Search GeneGlobe Interaction Network for ACSL1

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    Selected Interacting proteins for ACSL1 (P331213 ENSP000002814554) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 87)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    CYB5R3P003873, ENSP000003384614I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000338461
    EPHX1P070993, ENSP000002721674I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000272167
    FAM47E-STBD1O952103I2D: score=1 
    NMT1P304193, ENSP000002589604I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000258960
    STBD1O952103I2D: score=1 
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected biological process terms (see all 22):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0001676long-chain fatty acid metabolic process IDA--
    GO:0006631fatty acid metabolic process ----
    GO:0006641triglyceride metabolic process ----
    GO:0007584response to nutrient IEA--
    GO:0008152metabolic process ----

    Find genes that share ontologies with ACSL1           About GenesLikeMe



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Browse Tocris compounds for ACSL1

    Selected HMDB Compounds for ACSL1 (see all 47)    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
    (2E)-Decenoyl-CoA(E)-S-2-decenoate Coenzyme A (see all 15)10018-95-8--
    (2E)-Dodecenoyl-CoA2-trans-Dodecenoyl-Coenzyme A (see all 4)1066-12-2--
    (2E)-Hexadecenoyl-CoAtrans-2-Hexadecenoyl-CoA (see all 4)4460-95-1--
    (2E)-Octenoyl-CoA(E)-S-2-octenoate Coenzyme A (see all 16)10018-94-7--
    (2E)-Tetradecenoyl-CoA(2E)-Tetradecenoyl-Coenzyme A (see all 8)38795-33-4--
    2-Methylbutyryl-CoA2-methylbutanoyl-CoA (see all 11)6712-02-3--
    2-Methylhexanoyl-CoA2-Methylhexanoyl-CoEnzyme A (see all 5)----
    20-COOH-leukotriene E420-COOH-LTE4 (see all 3)----
    3Z-dodecenoyl-CoAS-[2-[3-[[(2R)-4-[[[(2R,3R,5R)-5-(6-aminopurin-9-yl)-4-hydroxy-3-phosphonooxyoxolan-2-yl]methoxy-hydroxyphosphoryl]oxy-hydroxyphosphoryl]oxy-2-hydroxy-3,3-dimethylbutanoyl]amino]propanoylamino]ethyl] (Z)-dodec-3-enethioate (see all 4)2152-91-2--
    6,9,12,15,18,21-Tetracosahexaenoic acidall-cis-6,9,12,15,18,21-tetracosahexaenoate (see all 8)----

    2 DrugBank Compounds for ACSL1    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #TypeActionsPubMed Ids
    Adenosine monophosphate5'-Adenosine monophosphate (see all 15)61-19-8targetproduct of17350930 16981708
    Adenosine triphosphate5'-ATP (see all 8)56-65-5target--17139284 17016423

    6 Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for ACSL1 gene    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    acyl-coa 80.4 12 19392700 (3), 15051725 (1), 17690180 (1), 11716462 (1) (see all 8)
    fatty acid 56.7 11 16788709 (2), 16705061 (2), 15168018 (1), 17690180 (1) (see all 6)
    oleic acid 41 2 15051725 (1), 16705061 (1)
    lactose 39 2 11406582 (1), 16505367 (1)
    galactose 36 1 16505367 (1)
    lipid 27.7 3 16788709 (1), 16705061 (1)



    Find genes that share compounds with ACSL1           About GenesLikeMe



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for ACSL1 gene (5 alternative transcripts): 
    NM_001286708.1  NM_001286710.1  NM_001286711.1  NM_001286712.1  NM_001995.3  

    Unigene Cluster for ACSL1:

    Acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 1
    Hs.406678  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_001995
    12 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000454703(uc003iws.1) ENST00000513001 ENST00000515030(uc003iww.2 uc011ckm.1 uc003iwt.1)
    ENST00000503407 ENST00000281455(uc003iwu.1 uc011ckn.1) ENST00000507295
    ENST00000506733 ENST00000504342 ENST00000513317 ENST00000504900(uc010ise.1)
    ENST00000505492 ENST00000437665
    miRNA
    Products:
         
    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat ACSL1 using miScript Target Protectors
    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate ACSL1 (see all 59):
    hsa-miR-2052 hsa-miR-19b-2* hsa-miR-376b hsa-miR-15a hsa-miR-301a hsa-miR-218 hsa-miR-766 hsa-miR-449a
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidACSL1 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
         
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for ACSL1
    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat ACSL1
    Clone
    Products:
         
    OriGene clones in human, mouse for ACSL1 (see all 7)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for ACSL1
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: ACSL1 (NM_001995)
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for ACSL1
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat ACSL1
    Primer
    Products:
        
    OriGene qPCR primer pairs and template standards for ACSL1
    OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human, mouse for ACSL1
    Pre-validated RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat ACSL1
      QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat ACSL1
      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat ACSL1

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AK096117.1 AK292798.1 AK296550.1 AK296826.1 AK303486.1 BC026290.1 BC050073.1 D10040.1 
    DQ083028.1 DQ083029.1 

    Selected DOTS entries (see all 27):

    DT.100827268  DT.99953704  DT.449705  DT.121227975  DT.95332877  DT.100827267  DT.97841749  DT.100812273 
    DT.121227997  DT.91712497  DT.121227945  DT.95332925  DT.40105791  DT.92017270  DT.100028913  DT.121227957 
    DT.40245389  DT.95134924  DT.99927879  DT.100812272  DT.121227949  DT.40133099  DT.75109510  DT.95332919 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 416):

    BE858804 AI138759 CR598751 CB108462 BE858782 T27645 AA343601 AW628833 
    BM977721 BG741417 BU742851 AA348922 AL539656 BU728153 CA405702 AA343971 
    AW241656 AV703904 BE858660 AA348923 BX365464 BG680610 AA131566 CA405570 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    Selected Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for ACSL1 (see all 21)    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1 ^ 2a · 2b · 2c · 2d ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6a · 6b · 6c · 6d ^ 7a · 7b ^ 8 ^ 9a · 9b ^ 10a · 10b · 10c ^ 11a · 11b · 11c ^ 12a ·
    SP1:                                                  -     -     -     -     -     -                       -     -                                             
    SP2:                                                                                                                                                            
    SP3:                                -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -                       -     -                                             
    SP4:                                                                                                                                                            
    SP5:                                                                                -                       -     -                                             

    ExUns: 12b ^ 13a · 13b ^ 14 ^ 15 ^ 16 ^ 17 ^ 18 ^ 19a · 19b ^ 20 ^ 21 ^ 22a · 22b · 22c ^ 23a · 23b · 23c ^ 24 ^ 25 ^ 26 ^ 27a · 27b · 27c ^ 28 ^ 29 ^
    SP1:                                -                       -           -     -           -                 -                                                   
    SP2:                                                                                                        -                       -                           
    SP3:                                                                                                                                                            
    SP4:                                -                       -     -                                                                                             
    SP5:                                                                                                                                                            

    ExUns: 30 ^ 31a · 31b · 31c
    SP1:                        
    SP2:                        
    SP3:                        
    SP4:                        
    SP5:                        


    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for ACSL1

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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    ACSL1 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: TATTATATAC
    ACSL1 Expression
    About this image


    ACSL1 expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 17) fully expand
     
     Skeletal Muscle (Muscoskeletal System)    fully expand to see all 4 entries
             Muscle Progenitor Cells Mandibular Arch Muscles
     
     Adipose (Muscoskeletal System)    fully expand to see all 3 entries
             Body Subcutaneous White Adipose
             White adipocyte-like cells
     
     Bone (Muscoskeletal System)    fully expand to see all 3 entries
             Membranous Facial Bones
             HyStem+TGFbeta3+GDF5-induced 7PEND24 cells
     
     Liver (Hepatobiliary System)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             Hepatocytes Liver Lobule
             Liver Lobule
     
     Neural Tube (Nervous System)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             Metencephalon
    ACSL1 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    ACSL1 Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.406678

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: ACSL1_HUMAN, P33121
    Tissue specificity: Highly expressed in liver, heart, skeletal muscle, kidney and erythroid cells, and to a lesser
    extent in brain, lung, placenta and pancreas

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including ACSL1: 
              Fatty Acid Metabolism in human mouse rat
              Insulin Resistance in human mouse rat
              Drug Metabolism: Phase II Enzymes in human mouse rat
              PPAR Targets in human mouse rat
              Molecular Toxicology PathwayFinder 384HT in human mouse rat

    Primer
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    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for ACSL1

    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
    About This Section

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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

    Orthologs for ACSL1 gene from Selected species (see all 19)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Acsl11 , 5 acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 11, 5 84(n)1
    83.95(a)1
      8 (26.36 cM)5
    140811  NM_007981.31  NP_032007.21 
     464710415 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves ACSL11 acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 1 73.78(n)
    76.79(a)
      422547  NM_001012578.1  NP_001012596.1 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia ACSL16
    acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 1
    79(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    5(113179027-113229865)
    African clawed frog
    (Xenopus laevis)
    Amphibia BC043756.12   -- 74.89(n)    BC043756.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii acsl1a6
    acsl1b6
    acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 1b
    70(a)
    63(a)
    1 ↔ many
    1 ↔ many
    1(16279346-16329447) ENSDARG00000030514
    14(931645-969245) ENSDARG00000003854
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta CG39616
    --
    47(a)
    1 → many
    3L(18871350-18883583)
    worm
    (Caenorhabditis elegans)
    Secernentea acs-136
    acs-56
    Protein ACS-5 (acs-5) mRNA, complete cds
    47(a)
    44(a)
    many ↔ many
    many ↔ many
    I(511048-516456) WBGene00022037
    III(13540138-13543534) WBGene00013575
    baker's yeast
    (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
    Saccharomycetes FAA2(YER015W)4 Medium chain fatty acyl-CoA synthetase, activates imported more   --   5(184541-186775) 856734  NP_010931.1 
    thale cress
    (Arabidopsis thaliana)
    eudicotyledons LACS71 LACS7 51.53(n)
    43.93(a)
      832820  NM_122642.4  NP_198112.2 
    wheat
    (Triticum aestivum)
    Liliopsida Ta.90512 Triticum aestivum transcribed sequence with moderate more 71.74(n)    CA595234.1 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for ACSL1 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for ACSL1 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for ACSL1 gene
    ACSBG12  ACSL62  ACSBG22  ACSL52  
    6 SIMAP similar genes for ACSL1 using alignment to 10 protein entries:     ACSL1_HUMAN (see all proteins):
    ACSL5    FACL5    ACSL6    ACSL3    FACL4    ACSL4

    Find genes that share paralogs with ACSL1           About GenesLikeMe



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for ACSL1 (see all 1660)    About this table                                 

    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 4 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs1505402741,2
    --185676481(+) CAGCAA/CGGAAG 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs1871167731,2
    --185676485(+) AAGGAA/CGCTGC 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs1393446081,2
    C--185676525(+) CATGAC/TTTTCT 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs1918521911,2
    --185676581(+) GGCTCA/GGGTCA 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs126449051,2
    C,F,H--185676683(+) TCTTGC/TTCTTC 1 -- ds500118Minor allele frequency- T:0.09NS EA NA WA 2344
    rs2017163031,2
    --185676733(+) ACATT-/AAAAAA 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs785916171,2
    C--185676738(+) AAAAA-/GGATGC 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs113255091,2
    C--185676739(+) AAAAA-/GATGCC 1 -- ds50011Minor allele frequency- G:0.00NA 2
    rs1497422991,2
    C--185676746(+) GCCTC-/AACTCA 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs1824780771,2
    --185676823(+) AAACAC/TAGAAA 1 -- ut310--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for ACSL1 (185676749 - 185747972 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 4 variations for ACSL1:    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    esv2662137CNV Deletion23128226
    nsv830168CNV Loss17160897
    esv28765CNV Loss19812545
    nsv822880CNV Gain20364138

    Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD): ACSL1
    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing ACSL1
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for ACSL1

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 152425    OMIM disorders: --


    Find genes that share disorders with ACSL1           About GenesLikeMe

    2 Novoseek inferred disease relationships for ACSL1 gene    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    obesity 26.9 3 16788709 (1), 15168018 (1)
    insulin resistance 18 3 16788709 (1), 15168018 (1)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): ACSL1
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: ACSL1 (4 documents)

    Export disorders for ACSL1 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for ACSL1 gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 57):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with ACSL1)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Genetic variants in nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes influence AIDS progression. (PubMed id 20877624)1, 4 Hendrickson S.L....O'Brien S.J. (PLoS ONE 2010)
    2. Gene-nutrient interactions with dietary fat modulate the association between genetic variation of the ACSL1 gene and metabolic syndrome. (PubMed id 20176858)1, 4 Phillips C.M....Roche H.M. (J. Lipid Res. 2010)
    3. Multiple genetic variants along candidate pathways influence plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. (PubMed id 18660489)1, 4 Lu Y....Boer J.M. (J. Lipid Res. 2008)
    4. Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs. (PubMed id 14702039)1, 2 Ota T.... Sugano S. (Nat. Genet. 2004)
    5. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PubMed id 15489334)1, 2 Gerhard D.S.... Malek J. (Genome Res. 2004)
    6. Identification and molecular characterization of acyl-CoA synthetase in human red cells and erythroid precursor. (PubMed id 10548543)1, 2 Malhotra K.T.... Kuypers F.A. (Biochem. J. 1999)
    7. Molecular cloning and sequencing of human palmitoyl-CoA ligase and its tissue specific expression. (PubMed id 8584017)1, 2 Ghosh B.... Singh I. (Mol. Cell. Biochem. 1995)
    8. Chromosomal localization of the human gene for palmitoyl-CoA ligase (FACL1). (PubMed id 1531127)1, 3 Stanczak H....Singh I. (Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 1992)
    9. Human long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase: structure and chromosomal location. (PubMed id 1607358)1, 2 Abe T.... Yamamoto T. (J. Biochem. 1992)
    10. Structure and regulation of rat long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase. (PubMed id 2341402)1, 3 Suzuki H....Yamamoto T. (J. Biol. Chem. 1990)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 2180 HGNC: 3569 AceView: ACSL1 Ensembl:ENSG00000151726 euGenes: HUgn2180
    ECgene: ACSL1 Kegg: 2180 H-InvDB: ACSL1

    (According to HUGE)
    About This Section

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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    About This Section

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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for ACSL1 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    ATLAS Chromosomes in Cancer entry for ACSL1 Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for ACSL1 gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving ACSL1

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



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