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Aliases for ACR Gene

Aliases for ACR Gene

  • Acrosin 2 3
  • Acrosin Light And Heavy Chain Prepropeptide 2 3
  • Preproacrosin 2 3
  • EC 4 63
  • Proacrosin 3
  • EC 3.4.21 63
  • ACRS 4

External Ids for ACR Gene

Summaries for ACR Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for ACR Gene

  • Acrosin is the major proteinase present in the acrosome of mature spermatozoa. It is a typical serine proteinase with trypsin-like specificity. It is stored in the acrosome in its precursor form, proacrosin. The active enzyme functions in the lysis of the zona pellucida, thus facilitating penetration of the sperm through the innermost glycoprotein layers of the ovum. The mRNA for proacrosin is synthesized only in the postmeiotic stages of spermatogenesis. In humans proacrosin first appears in the haploid spermatids. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for ACR Gene

ACR (Acrosin) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Reproduction and Reproduction. GO annotations related to this gene include serine-type endopeptidase activity and drug binding. An important paralog of this gene is PRSS56.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ACR Gene

  • Acrosin is the major protease of mammalian spermatozoa. It is a serine protease of trypsin-like cleavage specificity, it is synthesized in a zymogen form, proacrosin and stored in the acrosome

Gene Wiki entry for ACR Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for ACR Gene

Genomics for ACR Gene

Genomic Location for ACR Gene

50,738,196 bp from pter
50,745,334 bp from pter
7,139 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for ACR Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for ACR Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for ACR Gene

Regulatory Elements for ACR Gene

Proteins for ACR Gene

  • Protein details for ACR Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q6ICK2

    Protein attributes for ACR Gene

    421 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    45847 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Heavy chain (catalytic) and a light chain linked by two disulfide bonds. Forms a heterodimer with SERPINA5

neXtProt entry for ACR Gene

Proteomics data for ACR Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for ACR Gene

  • Glycosylation at Asn22 and Asn210

Other Protein References for ACR Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
Reactome Protein details:
REFSEQ proteins:

Domains for ACR Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for ACR Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Contains 1 peptidase S1 domain.:
    • P10323
  • Belongs to the peptidase S1 family.:
    • P10323
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with ACR: view

No data available for Gene Families for ACR Gene

Function for ACR Gene

Molecular function for ACR Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry: acrosin
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity: Preferential cleavage: Arg- -Xaa, Lys- -Xaa
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation: Inhibited by SERPINA5.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Acrosin is the major protease of mammalian spermatozoa. It is a serine protease of trypsin-like cleavage specificity, it is synthesized in a zymogen form, proacrosin and stored in the acrosome

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for ACR Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for ACR Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003677 DNA binding NAS 1937464
GO:0003824 catalytic activity --
GO:0004040 amidase activity ISS --
GO:0004252 serine-type endopeptidase activity IDA 6802470
GO:0005507 copper ion binding NAS 6815104
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ACR: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with ACR: view

Animal Models for ACR Gene

MGI Knock Outs for ACR:

miRNA for ACR Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target ACR

No data available for Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for ACR Gene

Localization for ACR Gene

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for ACR Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for ACR gene
Compartment Confidence
vacuole 4
extracellular 3
golgi apparatus 2
plasma membrane 2
endoplasmic reticulum 1
nucleus 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for ACR Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001669 acrosomal vesicle --
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS --
GO:0005634 nucleus IDA 21630459
GO:0005798 Golgi-associated vesicle IEA --
GO:0043159 acrosomal matrix TAS 12398221
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ACR: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ACR Gene

Pathways for ACR Gene

SuperPathways for ACR Gene

Superpath Contained pathways
1 Reproduction
genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with ACR: view

Pathways by source for ACR Gene

3 Reactome pathways for ACR Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for ACR Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0002077 acrosome matrix dispersal NAS 10418103
GO:0006508 proteolysis --
GO:0007190 activation of adenylate cyclase activity IDA 3880736
GO:0007338 single fertilization TAS --
GO:0007339 binding of sperm to zona pellucida IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ACR: view

Compounds for ACR Gene

(34) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for ACR Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
baee 75.9 1
fucoidan 70.5 9
p-amino benzamidine 62.2 1
benzamidine 59.6 2
serine 55.1 24
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with ACR: view

Transcripts for ACR Gene

mRNA/cDNA for ACR Gene

(1) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(3) Additional mRNA sequences :
(15) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(4) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for ACR Gene

Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for ACR Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for ACR Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for ACR Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for ACR Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for ACR Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Testis (34.4).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB and MOPED for ACR Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for ACR Gene Hs.370870

genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with ACR: view

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for ACR Gene

Orthologs for ACR Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for ACR Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia ACR 35
  • 90.85 (n)
  • 86.62 (a)
ACR 36
  • 97 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia ACR 35
  • 76.35 (n)
  • 68.52 (a)
ACR 36
  • 68 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia ACR 35
  • 79.42 (n)
  • 72.64 (a)
ACR 36
  • 72 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Acr 35
  • 74.15 (n)
  • 69.02 (a)
Acr 16
Acr 36
  • 65 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia ACR 36
  • 35 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Acr 35
  • 74.81 (n)
  • 69.27 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves -- 36
  • 41 (a)
-- 36
  • 37 (a)
LOC769176 35
  • 55.32 (n)
  • 46.28 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 36
  • 35 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia LOC101732614 35
  • 58.88 (n)
  • 54.89 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii tmprss12 36
  • 35 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG11668 36
  • 18 (a)
CG11670 36
  • 17 (a)
CG11836 36
  • 32 (a)
CG11841 36
  • 24 (a)
CG11842 36
  • 24 (a)
CG11843 36
  • 26 (a)
CG1299 36
  • 16 (a)
CG14642 36
  • 17 (a)
CG14892 36
  • 19 (a)
CG18735 36
  • 23 (a)
CG31728 36
  • 13 (a)
CG32260 36
  • 15 (a)
CG3355 36
  • 27 (a)
CG34350 36
  • 9 (a)
CG3700 36
  • 21 (a)
CG4386 36
  • 22 (a)
CG4613 36
  • 24 (a)
CG4914 36
  • 25 (a)
CG4927 36
  • 21 (a)
CG6361 36
  • 13 (a)
CG6865 36
  • 29 (a)
CG7432 36
  • 11 (a)
CG8172 36
  • 14 (a)
CG8213 36
  • 5 (a)
CG9294 36
  • 25 (a)
CG9372 36
  • 23 (a)
psh 36
  • 21 (a)
Sb 36
  • 11 (a)
snk 36
  • 19 (a)
spirit 36
  • 20 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 36
  • 31 (a)
Species with no ortholog for ACR:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for ACR Gene

Gene Tree for ACR (if available)
Gene Tree for ACR (if available)

Paralogs for ACR Gene

Paralogs for ACR Gene Pseudogenes for ACR Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with ACR: view

Variants for ACR Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for ACR Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 22 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs1064733 -- 50,739,384(+) CTTCA(C/G/T)GTACA reference, missense
rs1064734 - 50,739,770(+) CGCCT(C/G)TGCAA reference, missense
rs1064735 - 50,739,910(+) CACTT(G/T)AAGGC missense, reference
rs1064738 -- 50,744,975(+) GCCCC(C/G)ACCCC missense, reference
rs1858748 -- 50,736,234(+) AGCTT(C/T)CTGAG upstream-variant-2KB

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for ACR Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv784n67 CNV Gain 20364138
essv13762 CNV CNV 17122850
nsv428394 CNV Loss 18775914

Relevant External Links for ACR Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ACR Gene

Disorders for ACR Gene

(3) University of Copenhagen DISEASES for ACR Gene

(5) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for ACR Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
globozoospermia 63.5 2
infertility 51 17
infertility male 48 2
oligozoospermia 46.5 2
varicocele 32.1 2
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with ACR: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ACR Gene

Publications for ACR Gene

  1. Molecular cloning of human preproacrosin cDNA. (PMID: 2298447) Adham I.M. … Engel W. (Hum. Genet. 1990) 2 3 4 23
  2. Evaluation of the proacrosin/acrosin system and its mechanism of activation in human sperm extracts. (PMID: 11839395) Zahn A. … Vazquez-Levin M.H. (J. Reprod. Immunol. 2002) 3 4 23
  3. Molecular cloning, sequencing and restriction mapping of the genomic sequence encoding human proacrosin. (PMID: 1628652) Vazquez-Levin M.H. … Gordon J.W. (Eur. J. Biochem. 1992) 3 4 23
  4. Nucleotide sequence and exon-intron organization of the human proacrosin gene. (PMID: 2114285) Keime S. … Engel W. (Eur. J. Biochem. 1990) 3 4 23
  5. Inhibition of acrosin by protein C inhibitor and localization of protein C inhibitor to spermatozoa. (PMID: 7521127) Zheng X. … Binder B.R. (Am. J. Physiol. 1994) 3 4 23

Products for ACR Gene

Sources for ACR Gene

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