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Aliases for ACR Gene

Aliases for ACR Gene

  • Acrosin 2 3 3 5
  • Acrosin Light And Heavy Chain Prepropeptide 2 3
  • Preproacrosin 2 3
  • EC 3.4.21.10 4 61
  • Proacrosin 3
  • EC 3.4.21 61
  • ACRS 4

External Ids for ACR Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for ACR Gene

  • GC22P047680
  • GC22P049309
  • GC22P049466
  • GC22P051176
  • GC22P034069

Summaries for ACR Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for ACR Gene

  • Acrosin is the major proteinase present in the acrosome of mature spermatozoa. It is a typical serine proteinase with trypsin-like specificity. It is stored in the acrosome in its precursor form, proacrosin. The active enzyme functions in the lysis of the zona pellucida, thus facilitating penetration of the sperm through the innermost glycoprotein layers of the ovum. The mRNA for proacrosin is synthesized only in the postmeiotic stages of spermatogenesis. In humans proacrosin first appears in the haploid spermatids. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for ACR Gene

ACR (Acrosin) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with ACR include Spermatogenic Failure 6 and Male Infertility. Among its related pathways are Fertilization. GO annotations related to this gene include serine-type endopeptidase activity and drug binding. An important paralog of this gene is TMPRSS9.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ACR Gene

  • Acrosin is the major protease of mammalian spermatozoa. It is a serine protease of trypsin-like cleavage specificity, it is synthesized in a zymogen form, proacrosin and stored in the acrosome.

Gene Wiki entry for ACR Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for ACR Gene

Genomics for ACR Gene

Regulatory Elements for ACR Gene

Enhancers for ACR Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH22G050670 1.3 FANTOM5 ENCODE dbSUPER 6.8 -65.8 -65836 3.5 TAF1 MAX UBTF RBBP5 GLIS2 GATA2 POLR2A EGR1 ZNF600 FOS CPT1B SHANK3 CHKB CHKB-CPT1B CHKB-AS1 SYCE3 MAPK8IP2 ACR DENND6B ARSA
GH22G050717 0.4 dbSUPER 5 -19.9 -19878 1.6 CTCF RAD21 SYCE3 RPL23AP82 RABL2B ACR LOC105373100 GC22M050692 RNU6-409P
GH22G050271 1.4 FANTOM5 ENCODE dbSUPER 1.2 -466.4 -466354 0.3 RB1 FUS ARID4B BMI1 KLF13 SP3 SP5 GATAD2B REST SP1 DENND6B MAPK8IP2 MAPK11 SHANK3 PPP6R2 MOV10L1 MLC1 SBF1 ACR PIR50517
- Elite enhancer and/or Elite enhancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around ACR on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for ACR Gene

Chromosome:
22
Start:
50,738,196 bp from pter
End:
50,745,334 bp from pter
Size:
7,139 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for ACR Gene

Genes around ACR on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
ACR Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for ACR Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for ACR Gene

Proteins for ACR Gene

  • Protein details for ACR Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P10323-ACRO_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Acrosin
    Protein Accession:
    P10323
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q6ICK2

    Protein attributes for ACR Gene

    Size:
    421 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    45847 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Heavy chain (catalytic) and a light chain linked by two disulfide bonds. Forms a heterodimer with SERPINA5.

neXtProt entry for ACR Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for ACR Gene

P10323:
  • GKIDTCQGDSGGPLMC
  • VLTAAHC
  • GDSGGPL
  • LCNSTQWYNGR
  • GITSWGVGCARAKRPG
  • CQGDSGGP
  • LTAAHCF
  • WVLTAAH
  • WIASKIG
  • VGITSWG

Post-translational modifications for ACR Gene

  • Glycosylation at Asn22 and posLast=210210

Other Protein References for ACR Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

Domains & Families for ACR Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for ACR Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P10323

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

ACRO_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the peptidase S1 family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the peptidase S1 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with ACR: view

No data available for Gene Families for ACR Gene

Function for ACR Gene

Molecular function for ACR Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
acrosin
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Preferential cleavage: Arg- -Xaa, Lys- -Xaa.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
Inhibited by SERPINA5.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Acrosin is the major protease of mammalian spermatozoa. It is a serine protease of trypsin-like cleavage specificity, it is synthesized in a zymogen form, proacrosin and stored in the acrosome.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for ACR Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for ACR Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0002020 protease binding TAS --
GO:0003677 DNA binding NAS 1937464
GO:0004040 amidase activity ISS --
GO:0004252 serine-type endopeptidase activity IEA,IDA 6802470
GO:0005507 copper ion binding NAS 6815104
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ACR: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with ACR: view

Animal Models for ACR Gene

MGI Knock Outs for ACR:

Animal Model Products

miRNA for ACR Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target ACR

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

  • Applied Biological Materials Clones for ACR

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for ACR Gene

Localization for ACR Gene

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for ACR gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
nucleus 5
plasma membrane 2
golgi apparatus 2
endoplasmic reticulum 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for ACR Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS --
GO:0005634 nucleus IDA 21630459
GO:0005798 Golgi-associated vesicle IEA --
GO:0043159 acrosomal matrix TAS 12398221
GO:0043234 protein complex IDA 7521127
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ACR: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ACR Gene

Pathways & Interactions for ACR Gene

SuperPathway Contained pathways
1 Fertilization
genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with ACR: view

Pathways by source for ACR Gene

3 Reactome pathways for ACR Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for ACR Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0002077 acrosome matrix dispersal NAS 10418103
GO:0006508 proteolysis IEA --
GO:0007190 activation of adenylate cyclase activity IDA 3880736
GO:0007338 single fertilization IEA,ISS --
GO:0007339 binding of sperm to zona pellucida IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ACR: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for ACR Gene

Drugs & Compounds for ACR Gene

(48) Drugs for ACR Gene - From: ClinicalTrials and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Abatacept Approved Pharma 197
Apremilast Approved, Investigational Pharma 75
Methotrexate Approved Pharma Folate antagonist,inhibits DFHR 1551
Thalidomide Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn Pharma Immunomodulatory agent,sedative drug,angiogenesis inhibitor, Immunomodulatory agents, TNF-alpha synthesis inhibitor 1142
Folic Acid Approved, Vet_approved Nutra 4392

(14) Additional Compounds for ACR Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with ACR: view

Transcripts for ACR Gene

mRNA/cDNA for ACR Gene

(1) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(3) Additional mRNA sequences :
(15) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(4) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for ACR Gene

Acrosin:
Representative Sequences:

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

  • Applied Biological Materials Clones for ACR

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for ACR Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for ACR Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ACR
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
ACR

Expression for ACR Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for ACR Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for ACR Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Testis (x34.4).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for ACR Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Testis (55.2) and Ovary (9.9).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for ACR Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for ACR Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of ACR Gene:

ACR

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for ACR Gene:

Hs.370870

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for ACR Gene

  • Blood(4.3)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with ACR: view

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for ACR Gene

Orthologs for ACR Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for ACR Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia ACR 34 35
  • 90.85 (n)
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia ACR 34 35
  • 79.42 (n)
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia ACR 34 35
  • 76.35 (n)
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Acr 34
  • 74.81 (n)
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Acr 34 16 35
  • 74.15 (n)
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia ACR 35
  • 35 (a)
OneToOne
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves LOC769176 34
  • 55.32 (n)
-- 35
  • 41 (a)
OneToMany
-- 35
  • 37 (a)
OneToMany
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 35
  • 35 (a)
ManyToMany
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia LOC101732614 34
  • 58.88 (n)
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii tmprss12 35
  • 35 (a)
OneToOne
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG11836 35
  • 32 (a)
ManyToMany
CG6865 35
  • 29 (a)
ManyToMany
CG3355 35
  • 27 (a)
ManyToMany
CG11843 35
  • 26 (a)
ManyToMany
CG4914 35
  • 25 (a)
ManyToMany
CG9294 35
  • 25 (a)
ManyToMany
CG11841 35
  • 24 (a)
ManyToMany
CG11842 35
  • 24 (a)
ManyToMany
CG4613 35
  • 24 (a)
ManyToMany
CG18735 35
  • 23 (a)
ManyToMany
CG9372 35
  • 23 (a)
ManyToMany
CG4386 35
  • 22 (a)
ManyToMany
CG3700 35
  • 21 (a)
ManyToMany
CG4927 35
  • 21 (a)
ManyToMany
psh 35
  • 21 (a)
ManyToMany
spirit 35
  • 20 (a)
ManyToMany
CG14892 35
  • 19 (a)
ManyToMany
snk 35
  • 19 (a)
ManyToMany
CG11668 35
  • 18 (a)
ManyToMany
CG11670 35
  • 17 (a)
ManyToMany
CG14642 35
  • 17 (a)
ManyToMany
CG1299 35
  • 16 (a)
ManyToMany
CG32260 35
  • 15 (a)
ManyToMany
CG8172 35
  • 14 (a)
ManyToMany
CG31728 35
  • 13 (a)
ManyToMany
CG6361 35
  • 13 (a)
ManyToMany
CG7432 35
  • 11 (a)
ManyToMany
Sb 35
  • 11 (a)
ManyToMany
CG34350 35
  • 9 (a)
ManyToMany
CG8213 35
  • 5 (a)
ManyToMany
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 35
  • 31 (a)
ManyToMany
Species where no ortholog for ACR was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for ACR Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for ACR (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for ACR (if available)

Paralogs for ACR Gene

Variants for ACR Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for ACR Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 22 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs1000049898 -- 50,743,702(+) AATAA(C/T)GGGAC intron-variant
rs1000082147 -- 50,743,462(+) TGCAG(C/T)ATATG intron-variant
rs1002439534 -- 50,738,762(+) TCCCA(C/G)AGCCT intron-variant, upstream-variant-2KB
rs1002463827 -- 50,737,410(+) GTAAG(A/G)CTGCC nc-transcript-variant, upstream-variant-2KB
rs1002648495 -- 50,742,462(+) TGGCG(C/G/T)GAACC intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for ACR Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv1344e212 CNV gain 25503493
dgv784n67 CNV gain 20364138
esv3648096 CNV loss 21293372
nsv428394 CNV loss 18775914
nsv955205 CNV deletion 24416366
nsv962805 CNV duplication 23825009
nsv962806 CNV duplication 23825009

Variation tolerance for ACR Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 77.2% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.93; 35.83% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for ACR Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
ACR

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ACR Gene

Disorders for ACR Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(4) MalaCards diseases for ACR Gene - From: DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
spermatogenic failure 6
  • spermatogenic failure 9
male infertility
  • infertility male
infertility
pelvic varices
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search ACR in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for ACR

Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
ACR
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with ACR: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for ACR Gene

Publications for ACR Gene

  1. Molecular cloning of human preproacrosin cDNA. (PMID: 2298447) Adham I.M. … Engel W. (Hum. Genet. 1990) 2 3 4 22 64
  2. Evaluation of the proacrosin/acrosin system and its mechanism of activation in human sperm extracts. (PMID: 11839395) Zahn A. … Vazquez-Levin M.H. (J. Reprod. Immunol. 2002) 3 4 22 64
  3. Inhibition of acrosin by protein C inhibitor and localization of protein C inhibitor to spermatozoa. (PMID: 7521127) Zheng X. … Binder B.R. (Am. J. Physiol. 1994) 3 4 22 64
  4. Molecular cloning, sequencing and restriction mapping of the genomic sequence encoding human proacrosin. (PMID: 1628652) Vazquez-Levin M.H. … Gordon J.W. (Eur. J. Biochem. 1992) 3 4 22 64
  5. Nucleotide sequence and exon-intron organization of the human proacrosin gene. (PMID: 2114285) Keime S. … Engel W. (Eur. J. Biochem. 1990) 3 4 22 64

Products for ACR Gene

Sources for ACR Gene

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