Free for academic non-profit institutions. Other users need a Commercial license

Aliases for ACE2 Gene

Aliases for ACE2 Gene

  • Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme 2 2 3 5
  • Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme (Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A) 2 2 3
  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Homolog 3 4
  • ACE-Related Carboxypeptidase 3 4
  • Metalloprotease MPROT15 3 4
  • Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A 2 3
  • ACEH 3 4
  • EC 3.4.17.23 4
  • EC 3.4.17 63

External Ids for ACE2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for ACE2 Gene

  • GC0XM015289
  • GC0XM014404
  • GC0XM014781
  • GC0XM014940
  • GC0XM015338
  • GC0XM015489
  • GC0XM013333

Summaries for ACE2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for ACE2 Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the angiotensin-converting enzyme family of dipeptidyl carboxydipeptidases and has considerable homology to human angiotensin 1 converting enzyme. This secreted protein catalyzes the cleavage of angiotensin I into angiotensin 1-9, and angiotensin II into the vasodilator angiotensin 1-7. The organ- and cell-specific expression of this gene suggests that it may play a role in the regulation of cardiovascular and renal function, as well as fertility. In addition, the encoded protein is a functional receptor for the spike glycoprotein of the human coronaviruses SARS and HCoV-NL63. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for ACE2 Gene

ACE2 (Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with ACE2 include neurogenic hypertension and severe acute respiratory syndrome. Among its related pathways are Protein digestion and absorption and Agents Acting on the Renin-Angiotensin System Pathway, Pharmacodynamics. GO annotations related to this gene include metallopeptidase activity and peptide binding. An important paralog of this gene is TMEM27.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ACE2 Gene

  • Carboxypeptidase which converts angiotensin I to angiotensin 1-9, a peptide of unknown function, and angiotensin II to angiotensin 1-7, a vasodilator. Also able to hydrolyze apelin-13 and dynorphin-13 with high efficiency. May be an important regulator of heart function.

  • (Microbial infection) Acts as a receptor for SARS coronavirus/SARS-CoV and human coronavirus NL63/HCoV-NL63.

Tocris Summary for ACE2 Gene

  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE, aka peptidyl dipeptidase A, carboxycathepsin) cleaves a C-terminal dipeptide from angiotensin I to create the vasoconstrictor peptide, angiotensin II. ACE can also inactivate the vasodilator, proinflammatory peptide, bradykinin.

Gene Wiki entry for ACE2 Gene

No data available for PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for ACE2 Gene

Genomics for ACE2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for ACE2 Gene

Enhancers for ACE2 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Score Enhancer Sources TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Other Gene Targets for Enhancer

Enhancers around ACE2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for ACE2 Gene

Chromosome:
X
Start:
15,494,402 bp from pter
End:
15,602,148 bp from pter
Size:
107,747 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for ACE2 Gene

Genes around ACE2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
ACE2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for ACE2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for ACE2 Gene

Proteins for ACE2 Gene

  • Protein details for ACE2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Q9BYF1-ACE2_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2
    Protein Accession:
    Q9BYF1
    Secondary Accessions:
    • C7ECU1
    • Q6UWP0
    • Q86WT0
    • Q9NRA7
    • Q9UFZ6

    Protein attributes for ACE2 Gene

    Size:
    805 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    92463 Da
    Cofactor:
    Name=chloride; Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:17996;
    Cofactor:
    Name=Zn(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:29105;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts with ITGB1. Interacts with the catalytically active form of TMPRSS2.
    • (Microbial infection) Interacts with SARS coronavirus/SARS-CoV and human coronavirus NL63/HCoV-NL63 spike glycoprotein (PubMed:14647384, PubMed:15452268, PubMed:15791205, PubMed:15897467).

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for ACE2 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for ACE2 Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for ACE2 Gene

Proteomics data for ACE2 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for ACE2 Gene

  • N-glycosylation on Asn-90 may limit SARS infectivity.
  • Proteolytic cleavage by ADAM17 generates a secreted form. Also cleaved by serine proteases: TMPRSS2, TMPRSS11D and HPN/TMPRSS1.
  • Glycosylation at Asn 53, Asn 90, Asn 103, Asn 322, Asn 432, Asn 546, and Asn 690
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for ACE2 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibody Products

  • Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for ACE2 (ACE2)

Domains & Families for ACE2 Gene

Gene Families for ACE2 Gene

Protein Domains for ACE2 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for ACE2 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

Q9BYF1

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

ACE2_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the peptidase M2 family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the peptidase M2 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with ACE2: view

Function for ACE2 Gene

Molecular function for ACE2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot BiophysicochemicalProperties:
Kinetic parameters: KM=6.9 uM for angiotensin I {ECO:0000269 PubMed:11815627}; KM=2 uM for angiotensin II {ECO:0000269 PubMed:11815627}; KM=6.8 uM for apelin-13 {ECO:0000269 PubMed:11815627}; KM=5.5 uM for dynorphin-13 {ECO:0000269 PubMed:11815627}; pH dependence: Optimum pH is 6.5 in the presence of 1 M NaCl. Active from pH 6 to 9. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:11815627};
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Angiotensin II + H(2)O = angiotensin-(1-7) + L-phenylalanine.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
Activated by chloride and fluoride, but not bromide. Inhibited by MLN-4760, cFP_Leu, and EDTA, but not by the ACE inhibitors linosipril, captopril and enalaprilat.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Carboxypeptidase which converts angiotensin I to angiotensin 1-9, a peptide of unknown function, and angiotensin II to angiotensin 1-7, a vasodilator. Also able to hydrolyze apelin-13 and dynorphin-13 with high efficiency. May be an important regulator of heart function.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
(Microbial infection) Acts as a receptor for SARS coronavirus/SARS-CoV and human coronavirus NL63/HCoV-NL63.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction:
Up-regulated in failing heart.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for ACE2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for ACE2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0008270 zinc ion binding TAS 10924499
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ACE2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with ACE2: view

Animal Models for ACE2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for ACE2:

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for ACE2

miRNA for ACE2 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target ACE2

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for ACE2 Gene

Localization for ACE2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ACE2 Gene

Processed angiotensin-converting enzyme 2: Secreted.
Cell membrane; Single-pass type I membrane protein. Cytoplasm. Note=Detected in both cell membrane and cytoplasm in neurons. {ECO:0000250}.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for ACE2 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for ACE2 gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
plasma membrane 5
peroxisome 2
cytoskeleton 1
cytosol 1
endoplasmic reticulum 1
endosome 1
lysosome 1
nucleus 1
vacuole 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for ACE2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region IDA 10969042
GO:0016020 membrane IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ACE2: view

Pathways & Interactions for ACE2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with ACE2: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for ACE2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001817 regulation of cytokine production IC 15380922
GO:0006508 proteolysis IEA --
GO:0032800 receptor biosynthetic process IMP 18258853
GO:0042127 regulation of cell proliferation TAS 17703127
GO:0046718 viral entry into host cell TAS 15165741
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ACE2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for ACE2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for ACE2 Gene

(28) Drugs for ACE2 Gene - From: DrugBank, PharmGKB, ClinicalTrials, ApexBio, DGIdb, IUPHAR, HMDB, Tocris, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Captopril Approved Pharma Inhibition, Inhibitor ACE inhibitor, ACE inhibitor; also inhibits LTA4 hydrolase 30
Lisinopril Approved, Investigational Pharma inhibitor, Target ACE inhibitor 117
Moexipril Approved Pharma Target, inhibitor 7
Ramipril Approved Pharma 148
L-Phenylalanine Approved Nutra 0

(9) Additional Compounds for ACE2 Gene - From: Novoseek, HMDB, and Tocris

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
Chloride ion
  • Bertholite
  • Chloor
  • Chlor
  • Chlore
  • Chloride
16887-00-6
Water
  • Dihydrogen oxide
  • Steam
7732-18-5
Benazepril hydrochloride
86541-74-4
Moexipril hydrochloride
82586-52-5

(5) Tocris Compounds for ACE2 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Benazepril hydrochloride Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor 86541-74-4
Captopril ACE inhibitor; also inhibits LTA4 hydrolase 62571-86-2
Moexipril hydrochloride Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor 82586-52-5
Perindopril erbumine Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor 107133-36-8
Spinorphin Enkephalin-degrading and ACE inhibitor 137201-62-8

(6) ApexBio Compounds for ACE2 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Acetyl Angiotensinogen (1-14), porcine Angiotensinogen precursor 66641-26-7
Angiotensin 1/2 (1-5) Vasoconstrictor 58442-64-1
Angiotensin 1/2 + A (2 - 8) 51833-76-2
Angiotensin I (human, mouse, rat) Precursor of angiotensin II 484-42-4
Enalaprilat Dihydrate 84680-54-6
Ramipril 87333-19-5
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with ACE2: view

Drug Products

Transcripts for ACE2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for ACE2 Gene

Angiotensin I converting enzyme (peptidyl-dipeptidase A) 2:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for ACE2 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2a · 2b · 2c ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b · 4c ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10a · 10b ^ 11 ^ 12 ^ 13a · 13b ^ 14 ^ 15a · 15b ^ 16 ^ 17a ·
SP1:
SP2: -
SP3: - -
SP4: - -
SP5:
SP6: -

ExUns: 17b ^ 18 ^ 19 ^ 20
SP1:
SP2:
SP3:
SP4:
SP5:
SP6:

Relevant External Links for ACE2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ACE2
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
ACE2

Expression for ACE2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for ACE2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for ACE2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Small Intestine - Terminal Ileum (x13.3), Testis (x7.7), and Heart - Left Ventricle (x6.6).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for ACE2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Ovary (30.4), Urine (19.6), and Pancreatic juice (14.2).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for ACE2 Gene



SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for ACE2 Gene Hs.178098

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for ACE2 Gene

Q9BYF1-ACE2_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Expressed in endothelial cells from small and large arteries, and in arterial smooth muscle cells. Expressed in lung alveolar epithelial cells, enterocytes of the small intestine, Leydig cells and Sertoli cells (at protein level). Expressed in heart, kidney, testis, and gastrointestinal system.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with ACE2: view

Primer Products

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for Protein tissue co-expression partners for ACE2 Gene

Orthologs for ACE2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for ACE2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia ACE2 35
  • 98.53 (n)
  • 98.05 (a)
ACE2 36
  • 99 (a)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Ace2 35
  • 84.93 (n)
  • 82.37 (a)
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Ace2 16
Ace2 36
  • 82 (a)
OneToOne
Ace2 35
  • 85.1 (n)
  • 81.86 (a)
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia ACE2 36
  • 81 (a)
OneToOne
ACE2 35
  • 85.24 (n)
  • 81.09 (a)
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia ACE2 36
  • 83 (a)
OneToOne
ACE2 35
  • 86.95 (n)
  • 83.61 (a)
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia ACE2 36
  • 71 (a)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia ACE2 36
  • 69 (a)
OneToOne
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves ACE2 36
  • 67 (a)
OneToOne
ACE2 35
  • 68.7 (n)
  • 67.13 (a)
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia ACE2 36
  • 63 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia ace2 35
  • 64.56 (n)
  • 61.16 (a)
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.2478 35
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii ace2 36
  • 57 (a)
OneToOne
ace2 35
  • 61.1 (n)
  • 59.21 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Acer 37
  • 35 (a)
Ance-2 37
  • 23 (a)
Acer 36
  • 34 (a)
ManyToMany
Ance 36
  • 35 (a)
ManyToMany
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea acn-1 35
  • 42.11 (n)
  • 27.52 (a)
acn-1 36
  • 20 (a)
OneToMany
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 36
  • 21 (a)
ManyToMany
Species with no ortholog for ACE2:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for ACE2 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for ACE2 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for ACE2 (if available)

Paralogs for ACE2 Gene

Paralogs for ACE2 Gene

(2) SIMAP similar genes for ACE2 Gene using alignment to 1 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with ACE2: view

Variants for ACE2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for ACE2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 0X pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs4646116 - 15,600,835(-) GGCCA(A/G)GACAT reference, missense
rs183135788 - 15,567,810(+) TTTCA(C/T)TGTCG intron-variant, reference, missense
rs747760054 -- 15,569,257(+) GCATC(G/T)TGGAC intron-variant
rs747762085 -- 15,580,200(+) TAGTC(A/T)GTGGC intron-variant
rs747857461 -- 15,596,623(+) TGCCA(C/T)GTTGT intron-variant

Variation tolerance for ACE2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 49.9% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.61; 31.01% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for ACE2 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
ACE2

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for ACE2 Gene

Disorders for ACE2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(5) MalaCards diseases for ACE2 Gene - From: DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
neurogenic hypertension
severe acute respiratory syndrome
  • sars
posterior urethral valves
  • posterior urethral valve
hypertension, essential
  • hypertension, essential 3
tetanus neonatorum
  • neonatal tetanus
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search ACE2 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for ACE2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
ACE2
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
ACE2
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
ACE2
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with ACE2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for ACE2 Gene

Publications for ACE2 Gene

  1. A novel angiotensin-converting enzyme-related carboxypeptidase (ACE2) converts angiotensin I to angiotensin 1-9. (PMID: 10969042) Donoghue M. … Acton S. (Circ. Res. 2000) 2 3 4 23 67
  2. Human recombinant ACE2 reduces the progression of diabetic nephropathy. (PMID: 19934006) Oudit G.Y. … Scholey J.W. (Diabetes 2010) 3 23
  3. [Relationship of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 gene polymorphism with the prognosis of hypertensive stroke patients]. (PMID: 20117991) Mo Y.J. … Chen F.R. (Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao 2010) 3 23
  4. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in disease pathogenesis. (PMID: 20134095) Imai Y. … Penninger J.M. (Circ. J. 2010) 3 23
  5. Plasma ACE2 activity is an independent prognostic marker in Chagas' disease and equally potent as BNP. (PMID: 20142028) Wang Y. … Walther T. (J. Card. Fail. 2010) 3 23

Products for ACE2 Gene

Sources for ACE2 Gene

Content