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Category   Symbol Source: HGNC EntrezGene Ensembl GeneCards RNA genes CroW21
GIFtS

ACE2 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 71
GCID: GC0XM015489

Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme 2

(Previous name: angiotensin I converting enzyme (peptidyl-dipeptidase A)...)
Microbiology & Infectious Diseases Congress
  See related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
About This Section

Aliases
Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme 21 2     Metalloprotease MPROT152 3
ACEH2 3 5     ACE-Related Carboxypeptidase2 3
Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme (Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A) 21 2     Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 22
Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A1 2     EC 3.4.17.233
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Homolog2 3     EC 3.4.178

External Ids:    HGNC: 135571   Entrez Gene: 592722   Ensembl: ENSG000001302347   OMIM: 3003355   UniProtKB: Q9BYF13   

Export aliases for ACE2 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC0XM015289 GC0XM014404 GC0XM014781 GC0XM014940 GC0XM015338 GC0XM013333


(According to Entrez Gene, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
About This Section

Entrez Gene summary for ACE2 Gene:
The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the angiotensin-converting enzyme family of dipeptidyl
carboxydipeptidases and has considerable homology to human angiotensin 1 converting enzyme. This secreted protein
catalyzes the cleavage of angiotensin I into angiotensin 1-9, and angiotensin II into the vasodilator angiotensin
1-7. The organ- and cell-specific expression of this gene suggests that it may play a role in the regulation of
cardiovascular and renal function, as well as fertility. In addition, the encoded protein is a functional
receptor for the spike glycoprotein of the human coronaviruses SARS and HCoV-NL63. (provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008)

GeneCards Summary for ACE2 Gene: 
ACE2 (angiotensin I converting enzyme 2) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with ACE2 include neurogenic hypertension, and posterior urethral valves, and among its related super-pathways are ACE Inhibitor Pathway and Metabolism of Angiotensinogen to Angiotensins. GO annotations related to this gene include metallopeptidase activity and endopeptidase activity. An important paralog of this gene is ACE.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: ACE2_HUMAN, Q9BYF1
Function: Carboxypeptidase which converts angiotensin I to angiotensin 1-9, a peptide of unknown function, and
angiotensin II to angiotensin 1-7, a vasodilator. Also able to hydrolyze apelin-13 and dynorphin-13 with high
efficiency. May be an important regulator of heart function. In case of human coronaviruses SARS and HCoV-NL63
infections, serve as functional receptor for the spike glycoprotein of both coronaviruses

summary for ACE2 Gene:
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE, aka peptidyl dipeptidase A, carboxycathepsin) cleaves a C-terminal
dipeptide from angiotensin I to create the vasoconstrictor peptide, angiotensin II. ACE can also inactivate
the vasodilator peptide, bradykinin. There are two isoforms of ACE, a smaller/single catalytic site enzyme
found in the testes and a more widely expressed ~180kDa dual active site isoform. ACE is often membrane
bound. In contrast to ACE, the homolog ACE2, has recently been shown to cleave and inactivate angiotensin II
to generate the vasodilator Angiotensin (1-7). ACE inhibitors are widely used to treat hypertension and
cardiovascular diseases. ACE inhibitors have also been used to slow nephropathy, particularly when it is
associated with diabetes.

Gene Wiki entry for ACE2 (Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2) Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 73), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, SABiosciences, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
About This Section
RefSeq DNA sequence:
NC_000023.10  NT_167197.1  NC_018934.2  
Regulatory elements:
   SABiosciences Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the ACE2 gene promoter:
         c-Fos   AP-1   Nkx2-5   YY1   GATA-1   IRF-2   FOXO1a   c-Jun   MRF-2   FOXO1   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidACE2 promoter sequence
   Search SABiosciences Chromatin IP Primers for ACE2

Epigenetics:
QIAGEN PyroMark CpG Assay predesigned Pyrosequencing DNA Methylation assays in human, mouse, rat ACE2


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: Xp22   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  Xp22.2   HGNC cytogenetic band: Xp22

ACE2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
ACE2 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome X         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC0XM015489:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
15,579,156 bp from pter      End:
15,620,271 bp from pter
Size:
41,116 bases      Orientation:
minus strand

(According to UniProtKB, HORDE, neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MAXQB RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp., Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 and Entrez Gene, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.)
About This Section

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: ACE2_HUMAN, Q9BYF1 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 precursor  
Size: 805 amino acids; 92463 Da
Cofactor: Binds 1 zinc ion per subunit
Cofactor: Binds 1 chloride ion per subunit
Subunit: Interacts with ITGB1. Interacts with SARS-CoV and HCoV-NL63 spike glycoprotein
Subcellular location: Processed angiotensin-converting enzyme 2: Secreted
Subcellular location: Cell membrane; Single-pass type I membrane protein
6/10 PDB 3D structures from and Proteopedia for ACE2 (see all 10):
1R42 (3D)        1R4L (3D)        1XJP (3D)        2AJF (3D)        3D0G (3D)        3D0H (3D)    
Secondary accessions: C7ECU1 Q6UWP0 Q86WT0 Q9NRA7 Q9UFZ6
Alternative splicing: 2 isoforms:  Q9BYF1-1   Q9BYF1-2   (No experimental confirmation available)

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for ACE2: NX_Q9BYF1

Explore proteomics data for ACE2 at MOPED 

Post-translational modifications:

  • UniProtKB: N-glycosylation on Asn-90 may limit SARS infectivity
  • UniProtKB: Proteolytic cleavage by ADAM17 generates a secreted form
  • View modification sites using PhosphoSitePlus
  • View neXtProt modification sites for NX_Q9BYF1

  • 4/19 DME Specific Peptides for ACE2 (Q9BYF1) (see all 19)
     PWTLALE  KWWEMKR  SFNFFVT  YPSYISP 

    ACE2 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MAXQB3 :    About this image 

    ACE2 Protein Expression
    REFSEQ proteins: NP_068576.1  
    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000252519   ENSP00000389326  
    Reactome Protein details: Q9BYF1
    Human Recombinant Protein Products for ACE2: 
    Browse Purified and Recombinant Proteins at EMD Millipore
    R&D Systems Recombinant & Natural Proteins for ACE2 (ACE-2)
    Enzo Life Sciences proteins for ACE2
    Browse OriGene full length recombinant human proteins expressed in human HEK293 cells
    Browse OriGene Protein Over-expression Lysates
    OriGene Custom MassSpec 
    OriGene Custom Protein Services for ACE2
    GenScript Custom Purified and Recombinant Proteins Services for ACE2
    Novus Biologicals ACE2 Proteins
    Sino Biological Recombinant Protein for ACE2
    Sino Biological Cell Lysate for ACE2 
    Browse ProSpec Recombinant Proteins
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Proteins for ACE2 

    Gene Ontology (GO): 5/7 cellular component terms (GO ID links to tree view) (see all 7):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005576extracellular region IDA10969042
    GO:0005615extracellular space IDA18258853
    GO:0005886plasma membrane TAS--
    GO:0009986cell surface IDA18343844
    GO:0016020membrane ----

    ACE2 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    ACE2 Antibody Products: 
    EMD Millipore Mono- and Polyclonal Antibodies for the study of ACE2
    R&D Systems Antibodies for ACE2 (ACE-2)
    Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for ACE2 
    OriGene Antibodies for ACE2
    OriGene Custom Antibody Services for ACE2
    GenScript Custom Superior Antibodies Services for ACE2
    Novus Biologicals ACE2 Antibodies
    Abcam antibodies for ACE2
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Antibodies for ACE2 
    ThermoFisher Antibodies for ACE2
    LSBio Antibodies in human, mouse, rat for ACE2 

    Assay Products for ACE2: 
    Browse Kits and Assays available from EMD Millipore
    OriGene Custom Assay Services for ACE2
    Browse R&D Systems for biochemical assays
    GenScript ACE2-Activity-based Protease Assay for Compound Screening
    Enzo Life Sciences assays for ACE2
    Cloud-Clone Corp. ELISAs for ACE2 
    Cloud-Clone Corp. CLIAs for ACE2


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
    About This Section
    IUPHAR Guide to PHARMACOLOGY protein family classification: Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 
    Endopeptidases

    1 InterPro protein domain:
     IPR001548 Peptidase_M2

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry Q9BYF1

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: Q9BYF1

    1 Blocks protein domain: IPB001548 Peptidyl-dipeptidase A (M2) metalloprotease family signature

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: ACE2_HUMAN, Q9BYF1
    Similarity: Belongs to the peptidase M2 family


    ACE2 for domains           About GeneDecksing


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    bound targets from SABiosciences, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, RNAi from EMD Millipore, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Sirion Biotech, Clones from EMD Millipore, OriGene, SwitchGear Genomics, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and Sirion Biotech, Cell Lines from GenScript, LifeMap BioReagents, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 via Entrez Gene.)
    About This Section

    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: ACE2_HUMAN, Q9BYF1
    Function: Carboxypeptidase which converts angiotensin I to angiotensin 1-9, a peptide of unknown function, and
    angiotensin II to angiotensin 1-7, a vasodilator. Also able to hydrolyze apelin-13 and dynorphin-13 with high
    efficiency. May be an important regulator of heart function. In case of human coronaviruses SARS and HCoV-NL63
    infections, serve as functional receptor for the spike glycoprotein of both coronaviruses
    Catalytic activity: Angiotensin II + H(2)O = angiotensin-(1-7) + L-phenylalanine
    Enzyme regulation: Activated by chloride and fluoride, but not bromide. Inhibited by MLN-4760, cFP_Leu, and EDTA,
    but not by the ACE inhibitors linosipril, captopril and enalaprilat
    Biophysicochemical properties: Kinetic parameters: KM=6.9 uM for angiotensin I; KM=2 uM for angiotensin II; KM=6.8
    uM for apelin-13; KM=5.5 uM for dynorphin-13; pH dependence: Optimum pH is 6.5 in the presence of 1 M NaCl.
    Active from pH 6 to 9;
    Induction: Up-regulated in failing heart

         Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB): EC 3.4.172 EC 3.4.17.231

         Gene Ontology (GO): 5/9 molecular function terms (GO ID links to tree view) (see all 9):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0001618virus receptor activity IDA18343844
    GO:0001948glycoprotein binding IPI18343844
    GO:0004175endopeptidase activity IDA15283675
    GO:0004180carboxypeptidase activity IDA10924499
    GO:0008237NOT metallopeptidase activity IDA10924499
         
    ACE2 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    Phenotypes:
         2 GenomeRNAi human phenotypes for ACE2:
     Decreased Salmonella enterica   Synthetic lethal with Ras 

         7 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 3 alleles(MGI details for Ace2):
     cardiovascular system  cellular  homeostasis/metabolism  mortality/aging  muscle 
     renal/urinary system  respiratory system 

    ACE2 for phenotypes           About GeneDecksing

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-outs for ACE2: Ace2tm1Hira Ace2tm1Pngr Ace2tm1Cof

       inGenious Targeting Laboratory - Custom generated mouse model solutions for ACE2 
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory - Custom generated inducible mouse model solutions for ACE2

       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for ACE2 
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for ACE2 

    miRNA
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    QIAGEN Custom miScript Target Protector blocks miRNA-binding site of human, mouse, rat ACE2
    5 QIAGEN miScript miRNA Assays for microRNAs that regulate ACE2:
    hsa-miR-942 hsa-miR-2052 hsa-miR-200c hsa-miR-429 hsa-miR-200b
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidACE2 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
        
    Browse for Gene Knock-down Tools from EMD Millipore
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for ACE2
    QIAGEN FlexiTube/FlexiPlate siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat ACE2

    Gene Editing
    Products:
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    Sirion Biotech Customized adenovirus for overexpression of ACE2

    Clone
    Products:
         
    Browse Clones for the Expression of Recombinant Proteins Available from EMD Millipore
    OriGene clones in human, mouse for ACE2 (see all 7)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for ACE2
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector (see all 3): ACE2 (NM_138991)
    Sino Biological Human cDNA Clone for ACE2
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for ACE2
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat ACE2
    Sirion Biotech Customized lentivirus for stable overexpression of ACE2 
                         Customized lentivirus expression plasmids for stable overexpression of ACE2 

    Cell Line
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    GenScript Custom overexpressing Cell Line Services for ACE2
    Search LifeMap BioReagents cell lines for ACE2
    In Situ Assay
    Products:
       

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for ACE2


    (Pathways according to EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to SABiosciences, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 via Entrez Gene).
    About This Section

    SuperPaths for ACE2 About   (see all 10)                                                                                              See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Agents Acting on the Renin-Angiotensin System Pathway, Pharmacodynamics
    ACE Inhibitor Pathway0.85
    ACE Inhibitor Pathway, Pharmacodynamics0.85
    Agents Acting on the Renin-Angiotensin System Pathway, Pharmacodynamics0.85
    2Renin-angiotensin system
    Renin-angiotensin system0.43
    Metabolism of Angiotensinogen to Angiotensins0.43
    3Insulin Processing
    Peptide hormone metabolism0.39
    4Asparagine N-linked glycosylation
    Metabolism of proteins0.35
    5Selected targets of HNF1
    Selected targets of HNF1

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways

    2 EMD Millipore Pathways for ACE2
        Selected targets of HNF1
    Selected targets of C/EBPalpha

    2 R&D Systems Pathways for ACE2
        A-beta Uptake & Degradation
    A-beta Plaque Formation & APP Metabolism


    1 Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Pathway for ACE2
        Protein Stability

    1 BioSystems Pathway for ACE2
        ACE Inhibitor Pathway


    3        Reactome Pathways for ACE2
        Metabolism of Angiotensinogen to Angiotensins
    Metabolism of proteins
    Peptide hormone metabolism

    2 PharmGKB Pathways for ACE2
        ACE Inhibitor Pathway, Pharmacodynamics
    Agents Acting on the Renin-Angiotensin System Pathway, Pharmacodynamics

    2         Kegg Pathways  (Kegg details for ACE2):
        Renin-angiotensin system
    Protein digestion and absorption


    ACE2 for pathways           About GeneDecksing

    Interactions:

        SABiosciences Gene Network CentralTM Interacting Genes and Proteins Network for ACE2

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 11)

    5/13 Interacting proteins for ACE2 (Q9BYF12, 3 ENSP000002525194) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 13)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    CALM2P621582, 3MINT-6175484 I2D: score=2 
    CALM3P621582, 3MINT-6175484 I2D: score=2 
    CALM1P621582, 3, ENSP000003494674MINT-6175484 I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000349467
    AGTP010193, ENSP000003556274I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000355627
    GHRLQ9UBU33, ENSP000003350744I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000335074
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): 5/17 biological process terms (GO ID links to tree view) (see all 17):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0001817regulation of cytokine production IC15380922
    GO:0002003angiotensin maturation TAS--
    GO:0002005angiotensin catabolic process in blood IC10924499
    GO:0003051angiotensin-mediated drinking behavior IMP18258853
    GO:0003081regulation of systemic arterial blood pressure by renin-angiotensin IMP18258853

    ACE2 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB, with drugs/clinical trials/news search links to CenterWatch)
    About This Section

    ACE2 for compounds           About GeneDecksing

    EMD Millipore small molecules for ACE2:
    Small Molecule - inhibitor
    Enzo Life Sciences drugs & compounds for ACE2

    Compounds for ACE2 available from Tocris Bioscience    About this table
    CompoundAction CAS #
    Benazepril hydrochlorideAngiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor[86541-74-4]
    Moexipril hydrochlorideAngiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor[82586-52-5]
    Perindopril erbumineAngiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor[107133-36-8]

    3 HMDB Compounds for ACE2    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
    Angiotensin IIHypertensin (see all 11)11128-99-7--
    Apelin-13prepro-65-77-apelin ----
    ChlorineCl2 (see all 13)16887-00-6--

    2 DrugBank Compounds for ACE2    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #TypeActionsPubMed Ids
    Lisinopril-- 83915-83-7targetinhibitor1536695 11929321 11030016 11752352
    MoexiprilMoexipril HCl (see all 3)103775-10-6targetinhibitor7473177 11929321 11752352 15286086

    1 IUPHAR Ligand for ACE2 (Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2)    About this table 
    LigandTypeActionAffinityPubmed IDs
    captopril
    InhibitorInhibition--

    10/14 Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for ACE2 gene (see all 14)    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    lisinopril 49.7 6 15897343 (2), 10969042 (1), 14609329 (1), 10924499 (1)
    eplerenone 47.5 3 18654024 (1), 16179584 (1)
    ramipril 40.9 1 12623933 (1)
    captopril 39.7 7 19141296 (1), 10969042 (1), 2159692 (1), 17473847 (1) (see all 6)
    enalaprilat 29.5 2 2159692 (1), 10924499 (1)
    zinc 28.3 10 12025971 (2), 12358520 (1), 15165741 (1), 18324760 (1) (see all 7)
    nadph 7.85 4 16046899 (1), 19934006 (1), 16179584 (1)
    nitric oxide 1.45 16 17906677 (2), 16574921 (1), 16962475 (1), 20424953 (1) (see all 6)
    cholesterol 0 5 18814896 (2), 18279660 (1), 17000927 (1)
    chloride 0 21 19021774 (5), 14609329 (4), 16008552 (2)

    Search CenterWatch for drugs/clinical trials and news about ACE2

    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    Conferences by KenesGroup, exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    RNAi Products from EMD Millipore,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, SwitchGear Genomics, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, Sirion Biotech, Primers from OriGene, SABiosciences, and/or QIAGEN )
    About This Section

    REFSEQ mRNAs for ACE2 gene: 
    NM_021804.2  

    Unigene Cluster for ACE2:

    Angiotensin I converting enzyme (peptidyl-dipeptidase A) 2
    Hs.178098  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: AB193259
    5 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000252519(uc004cxa.1) ENST00000471548 ENST00000473851 ENST00000484756
    ENST00000427411(uc004cxb.2)
    Congresses - knowledge worth sharing:  
    European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ECCMID) 10 - 13 May 2014

    miRNA
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    5 QIAGEN miScript miRNA Assays for microRNAs that regulate ACE2:
    hsa-miR-942 hsa-miR-2052 hsa-miR-200c hsa-miR-429 hsa-miR-200b
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidACE2 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
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    OriGene clones in human, mouse for ACE2 (see all 7)
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    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector (see all 3): ACE2 (NM_138991)
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for ACE2
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat ACE2
    Sirion Biotech Customized lentivirus for stable overexpression of ACE2 
                         Customized lentivirus expression plasmids for stable overexpression of ACE2 
    Primer
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    OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human, mouse for ACE2
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      QIAGEN QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat ACE2
      QIAGEN QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat ACE2

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AB046569.1 AB193259.1 AB193260.1 AF241254.1 AF291820.1 AK026461.1 AK315144.1 AL110224.1 
    AY623811.1 BC032938.1 BC039902.1 BC048094.1 BC048144.1 BC059378.1 GQ262784.1 

    6 DOTS entries:

    DT.307623  DT.101981334  DT.121278420  DT.95307906  DT.121278416  DT.65286672 

    24/47 AceView cDNA sequences (see all 47):

    AW611816 BX484152 BP371391 AI928360 BC048144 AK026461 AL551235 AF241254 
    NM_021804 BC048094 BC039902 BX097232 AL110224 BC059378 AY623811 AF291820 
    AA421125 CR599955 AI831883 AW590883 BC032938 AB046569 BE843196 AW271467 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    5/6 Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for ACE2 (see all 6)    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2a · 2b · 2c ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b · 4c ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10a · 10b ^ 11 ^ 12 ^ 13a · 13b ^ 14 ^ 15a · 15b ^ 16 ^ 17a ·
    SP1:                                                                                                                                                            
    SP2:                                                                                                                                      -                     
    SP3:              -     -                                                                                                                                       
    SP4:                                                                                                              -     -                                       
    SP5:                                                                                                                                                            

    ExUns: 17b ^ 18 ^ 19 ^ 20
    SP1:                        
    SP2:                        
    SP3:                        
    SP4:                        
    SP5:                        


    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for ACE2

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, plus additional links to Genevestigator, and/or SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from SABiosciences, Primers from OriGene, SABiosciences, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
    About This Section

    ACE2 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)      ACE2 embryonic expression: see
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: GCCAAGGAGA
    ACE2 Expression
    About this image


    ACE2 expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database 
     5/13 selected tissues (see all 13) fully expand
     
     Kidney (Urinary System)    fully expand to see all 5 entries
             Presumptive Podocytes Podocyte Layer
             Metanephros
             kidney ; cells in tubules   
             visceral organ/mesonephros of female/mesonephric mesenchyme of female mesonephros   
     
     Testis (Reproductive System)    fully expand to see all 5 entries
             Testicular Interstitial Cells Testis Interstitium
             Testis Interstitium
             testis ; cells in seminiferus ducts   
     
     Lower Urinary Tract (Urinary System)    fully expand to see all 3 entries
             Ureter
             visceral organ   
     
     Intestine (Gastrointestinal Tract)    fully expand to see all 3 entries
             small intestine ; glandular cells   
             small intestine   
     
     Ovary (Reproductive System)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             Ovarian Mesenchymal Stroma Cells Ovary Interstitium

    See ACE2 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED and PaxDB
    Genevestigator expression for ACE2

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.178098

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: ACE2_HUMAN, Q9BYF1
    Tissue specificity: Expressed in endothelial cells from small and large arteries, and in arterial smooth muscle
    cells. Expressed in lung alveolar epithelial cells, enterocytes of the small intestine, Leydig cells and Sertoli
    cells (at protein level). Expressed in heart, kidney, testis, and gastrointestinal system

        SABiosciences Expression via Pathway-Focused PCR Array including ACE2: 
              Hypertension in human mouse rat

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    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
    About This Section

    This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

    Orthologs for ACE2 gene from 6/13 species (see all 13)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Ace21 , 5 angiotensin I converting enzyme (peptidyl-dipeptidase more1, 5 85.22(n)1
    82.11(a)1
      X (76.12 cM)5
    700081  NM_027286.41  NP_081562.21 
     1641393325 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves ACE21 angiotensin I converting enzyme (peptidyl-dipeptidase more 68.51(n)
    67.04(a)
      418623  XM_416822.2  XP_416822.2 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia ACE26
    angiotensin I converting enzyme (peptidyl-dipeptid...
    62(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    3(121499663-121544858)
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii BC053284.12   -- 72.89(n)    BC053284.1 
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta Acer3 peptidyl-dipeptidase A 35(a)
    (best of 2)
      2 29D4   --
    worm
    (Caenorhabditis elegans)
    Secernentea acn-11 Protein ACN-1 41.12(n)
    26.48(a)
      180780  NM_001029282.2  NP_001024453.1 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for ACE2 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for ACE2 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
    About This Section
    Paralogs for ACE2 gene
    ACE2  TMEM272  ENSG000002648132  
    2 SIMAP similar genes for ACE2 using alignment to 1 protein entry:     ACE2_HUMAN:
    ACE    TMEM27

    ACE2 for paralogs           About GeneDecksing



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD) and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers from QIAGEN, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays and Copy Number PCR Arrays from SABiosciences)
    About This Section

    10/559 SNPs in ACE2 are shown (see all 559)    About this table     
    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr X posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs1922063351,2
    --15493858(+) ATGCTA/GGTCAC 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs1834114611,2
    --15493957(+) TGCTCA/CCACTG 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs1872662811,2
    --15494164(+) TAGAAC/TTGAAA 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs1921970341,2
    --15494327(+) GTGAAA/CATACA 1 -- ut310--------
    rs1823662251,2
    C--15494353(+) CACTCC/TACAGT 1 -- ut310--------
    rs1420179341,2
    --15494636(+) GAAAGC/TGAGCT 1 -- ut310--------
    rs1882908001,2
    --15495449(+) GTATAC/TTGGCA 1 -- int10--------
    rs1430792561,2
    --15495481(+) TAAGCC/TATCAC 1 -- int10--------
    rs1927812311,2
    --15495961(+) GCTTTC/GGGAAG 1 -- int10--------
    rs1844536411,2
    --15496852(+) CACTTA/TTAGAC 1 -- int10--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for ACE2 (15579156 - 15620271 bp)

    Structural Variations
          Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) variations for ACE2: --

    Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB): ACE2
    SABiosciences Cancer Mutation PCR Assays
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    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for ACE2

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Conferences by KenesGroup, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
    About This Section
    OMIM gene information: 300335    OMIM disorders: --

    20/40 diseases for ACE2 (see all 40):    About MalaCards
    neurogenic hypertension    posterior urethral valves    posterior urethral valve    tetanus neonatorum
    hartnup disease    severe acute respiratory syndrome    intracranial aneurysm    urethritis
    cerebral malaria    hypertension    aortic valve stenosis    tetanus
    essential hypertension    nephrosclerosis    chagas disease    congestive heart failure
    pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma    type 1 diabetes mellitus    hypertrophic cardiomyopathy    type 1 diabetes

    4 diseases from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for ACE2:
    Severe acute respiratory syndrome     Hypertension     Hartnup disease     Tetanus neonatorum

    ACE2 for disorders           About GeneDecksing

    10/23 Novoseek inferred disease relationships for ACE2 gene (see all 23)    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    coronavirus infections 72.6 3 16581295 (1), 17974127 (1), 19297479 (1)
    diabetic nephropathies 48.5 30 19077419 (7), 16211375 (4), 18389211 (3), 19034303 (2) (see all 8)
    essential hypertension 36.5 20 16866021 (3), 16215952 (2), 17024138 (1), 20117991 (1) (see all 7)
    renal disease 35.6 22 15538735 (5), 19034303 (4), 18367030 (2), 18371537 (2) (see all 10)
    cardiovascular diseases 31 12 16009403 (2), 17703127 (2), 18258853 (1), 16822235 (1) (see all 6)
    vesicular stomatitis 29.9 1 16690935 (1)
    cardiomyopathy 29.5 4 17499227 (3), 15151696 (1)
    heart failure 29.3 13 15151696 (3), 19700132 (2), 17499227 (2), 18718423 (2) (see all 8)
    liver fibrosis 18.1 1 16166274 (1)
    virus infection 15.4 4 15221932 (1), 18490652 (1), 15496474 (1), 16510163 (1)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): ACE2
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: ACE2 (31 documents)

    Export disorders for ACE2 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
    About This Section

    PubMed articles for ACE2 gene, integrated from 9 sources (see all 302):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with ACE2)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. A novel angiotensin-converting enzyme-related carboxypeptidase (ACE2) converts angiotensin I to angiotensin 1-9. (PubMed id 10969042)1, 2, 3, 9 Donoghue M.... Acton S. (2000)
    2. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha convertase (ADAM17) mediates regulated ectodomain shedding of the severe-acute respiratory syndrome- coronavirus (SARS-CoV) receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2). (PubMed id 15983030)1, 2, 9 Lambert D.W.... Turner A.J. (2005)
    3. Myocardial infarction increases ACE2 expression in rat and humans. (PubMed id 15671045)1, 2, 9 Burrell L.M....Johnston C.I. (2005)
    4. ACE2 gene expression is up-regulated in the human failing heart. (PubMed id 15151696)1, 2, 9 Goulter A.B.... Clark K.L. (2004)
    5. Efficient replication of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus in mouse cells is limited by murine angiotensin-converting enzyme 2. (PubMed id 15452268)1, 2, 9 Li W.... Choe H. (2004)
    6. Tissue distribution of ACE2 protein, the functional receptor for SARS coronavirus. A first step in understanding SARS pathogenesis. (PubMed id 15141377)1, 2, 9 Hamming I....van Goor H. (2004)
    7. Association of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) gene polymorphisms with parameters of left ventricular hypertrophy in men. Results of the MONICA Augsburg echocardiographic substudy. (PubMed id 16283142)1, 4, 9 Lieb W....Erdmann J. (2006)
    8. Receptor and viral determinants of SARS-coronavirus adaptation to human ACE2. (PubMed id 15791205)1, 2, 9 Li W.... Farzan M. (2005)
    9. Polymorphisms in the gene encoding angiotensin I converting enzyme 2 and diabetic nephropathy. (PubMed id 16211375)1, 4, 9 Frojdo S....Groop P.H. (2005)
    10. The novel angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) homolog, ACE2, is selectively expressed by adult Leydig cells of the testis. (PubMed id 15231706)1, 2, 9 Douglas G.C.... Lew R.A. (2004)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
    About This Section
     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
    About This Section
    Entrez Gene: 59272 HGNC: 13557 AceView: ACE2 Ensembl:ENSG00000130234 euGenes: HUgn59272
    ECgene: ACE2 Kegg: 59272 H-InvDB: ACE2

    (According to HUGE)
    About This Section
      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL,
    Wikipedia and/or GeneReviews via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    About This Section
    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for ACE2 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    ATLAS Chromosomes in Cancer entry for ACE2 Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
    SeattleSNPshttp://pga.gs.washington.edu/data/ace2/

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
    About This Section
    Patent Information for ACE2 gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving ACE2

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, SABiosciences, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Gene Editing from DNA2.0 and Sirion Biotech, Clones from EMD Millipore, OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Sirion Biotech, Cell lines from GenScript, and LifeMap BioReagents, PCR Arrays from SABiosciences, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, and/or Enzo Life Sciences, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
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    About This Section

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