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Aliases for ACE2 Gene

Aliases for ACE2 Gene

  • Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme 2 2 3
  • ACEH 3 4 6
  • Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme (Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A) 2 2 3
  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Homolog 3 4
  • ACE-Related Carboxypeptidase 3 4
  • Metalloprotease MPROT15 3 4
  • Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A 2 3
  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 3
  • EC 4
  • EC 3.4.17 63

External Ids for ACE2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for ACE2 Gene

  • GC0XM015289
  • GC0XM014404
  • GC0XM014781
  • GC0XM014940
  • GC0XM015338
  • GC0XM015489
  • GC0XM013333

Summaries for ACE2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for ACE2 Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the angiotensin-converting enzyme family of dipeptidyl carboxydipeptidases and has considerable homology to human angiotensin 1 converting enzyme. This secreted protein catalyzes the cleavage of angiotensin I into angiotensin 1-9, and angiotensin II into the vasodilator angiotensin 1-7. The organ- and cell-specific expression of this gene suggests that it may play a role in the regulation of cardiovascular and renal function, as well as fertility. In addition, the encoded protein is a functional receptor for the spike glycoprotein of the human coronaviruses SARS and HCoV-NL63. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for ACE2 Gene

ACE2 (Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with ACE2 include tetanus neonatorum and neurogenic hypertension. Among its related pathways are Biosynthesis of the N-glycan precursor (dolichol lipid-linked oligosaccharide, LLO) and transfer to a nascent protein and Protein Stability. GO annotations related to this gene include metallopeptidase activity and virus receptor activity. An important paralog of this gene is TMEM27.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ACE2 Gene

  • Carboxypeptidase which converts angiotensin I to angiotensin 1-9, a peptide of unknown function, and angiotensin II to angiotensin 1-7, a vasodilator. Also able to hydrolyze apelin-13 and dynorphin-13 with high efficiency. May be an important regulator of heart function. In case of human coronaviruses SARS and HCoV-NL63 infections, serve as functional receptor for the spike glycoprotein of both coronaviruses.

Tocris Summary for ACE2 Gene

  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE, aka peptidyl dipeptidase A, carboxycathepsin) cleaves a C-terminal dipeptide from angiotensin I to create the vasoconstrictor peptide, angiotensin II. ACE can also inactivate the vasodilator peptide, bradykinin. There are two isoforms of ACE, a smaller/single catalytic site enzyme found in the testes and a more widely expressed ~180kDa dual active site isoform. ACE is often membrane bound. In contrast to ACE, the homolog ACE2, has recently been shown to cleave and inactivate angiotensin II to generate the vasodilator Angiotensin (1-7). ACE inhibitors are widely used to treat hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. ACE inhibitors have also been used to slow nephropathy, particularly when it is associated with diabetes.

Gene Wiki entry for ACE2 Gene

No data available for PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for ACE2 Gene

Genomics for ACE2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for ACE2 Gene

Genomic Location for ACE2 Gene

15,561,033 bp from pter
15,602,148 bp from pter
41,116 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for ACE2 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for ACE2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for ACE2 Gene

Proteins for ACE2 Gene

  • Protein details for ACE2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • C7ECU1
    • Q6UWP0
    • Q86WT0
    • Q9NRA7
    • Q9UFZ6

    Protein attributes for ACE2 Gene

    805 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    92463 Da
    Name=chloride; Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:17996; Note=Binds 1 Cl(-) ion per subunit.;
    Name=Zn(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:29105; Note=Binds 1 zinc ion per subunit.;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts with ITGB1. Interacts with SARS-CoV and HCoV-NL63 spike glycoprotein. Interacts with the catalytically active form of TMPRSS2.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for ACE2 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for ACE2 Gene


neXtProt entry for ACE2 Gene

Proteomics data for ACE2 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for ACE2 Gene

  • N-glycosylation on Asn-90 may limit SARS infectivity.
  • Proteolytic cleavage by ADAM17 generates a secreted form. Also cleaved by serine proteases: TMPRSS2, TMPRSS11D and HPN/TMPRSS1.
  • Glycosylation at Asn53, Asn90, Asn103, Asn322, Asn432, Asn546, and Asn690
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for ACE2 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
Reactome Protein details:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibody Products

  • Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for ACE2 (ACE2)

Protein Products

Domains for ACE2 Gene

Gene Families for ACE2 Gene

Protein Domains for ACE2 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for ACE2 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Q9BYF1
  • Belongs to the peptidase M2 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with ACE2: view

Function for ACE2 Gene

Molecular function for ACE2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot BiophysicochemicalProperties: Kinetic parameters: KM=6.9 uM for angiotensin I {ECO:0000269 PubMed:11815627}; KM=2 uM for angiotensin II {ECO:0000269 PubMed:11815627}; KM=6.8 uM for apelin-13 {ECO:0000269 PubMed:11815627}; KM=5.5 uM for dynorphin-13 {ECO:0000269 PubMed:11815627}; pH dependence: Optimum pH is 6.5 in the presence of 1 M NaCl. Active from pH 6 to 9. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:11815627};
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity: Angiotensin II + H(2)O = angiotensin-(1-7) + L-phenylalanine
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation: Activated by chloride and fluoride, but not bromide. Inhibited by MLN-4760, cFP_Leu, and EDTA, but not by the ACE inhibitors linosipril, captopril and enalaprilat.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Carboxypeptidase which converts angiotensin I to angiotensin 1-9, a peptide of unknown function, and angiotensin II to angiotensin 1-7, a vasodilator. Also able to hydrolyze apelin-13 and dynorphin-13 with high efficiency. May be an important regulator of heart function. In case of human coronaviruses SARS and HCoV-NL63 infections, serve as functional receptor for the spike glycoprotein of both coronaviruses.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction: Up-regulated in failing heart.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for ACE2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for ACE2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001618 virus receptor activity IMP 24227843
GO:0001948 glycoprotein binding IPI 18343844
GO:0004175 endopeptidase activity IDA 15283675
GO:0004180 carboxypeptidase activity IDA 10924499
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 21068237
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ACE2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with ACE2: view

Animal Models for ACE2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for ACE2:

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

miRNA for ACE2 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target ACE2

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for ACE2

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for ACE2 Gene

Localization for ACE2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ACE2 Gene

Processed angiotensin-converting enzyme 2: Secreted.
Cell membrane; Single-pass type I membrane protein. Cytoplasm. Note=Detected in both cell membrane and cytoplasm in neurons. {ECO:0000250}.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for ACE2 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for ACE2 gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
plasma membrane 5
nucleus 2
peroxisome 2
endoplasmic reticulum 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for ACE2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region IDA 10969042
GO:0005615 extracellular space IDA 18258853
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA --
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS --
GO:0009986 cell surface IDA 18343844
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ACE2: view

Pathways for ACE2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with ACE2: view

Pathways by source for ACE2 Gene

PCR Array Products

  • Pathway & Disease-focused RT² Profiler PCR Arrays

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for ACE2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001817 regulation of cytokine production IC 15380922
GO:0002003 angiotensin maturation TAS --
GO:0002005 angiotensin catabolic process in blood IC 10924499
GO:0003051 angiotensin-mediated drinking behavior IMP 18258853
GO:0003081 regulation of systemic arterial blood pressure by renin-angiotensin IMP 18258853
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ACE2: view

Compounds for ACE2 Gene

(4) Tocris Compounds for ACE2 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Benazepril hydrochloride Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor [86541-74-4]
Moexipril hydrochloride Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor [82586-52-5]
Perindopril erbumine Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor [107133-36-8]
Ramipril Non-peptide, competitive angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor [87333-19-5]

(3) HMDB Compounds for ACE2 Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number PubMed IDs
Angiotensin II
  • Hypertensin
  • prepro-65-77-apelin
Not Available
  • Cl2

(2) Drugbank Compounds for ACE2 Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number Type Actions PubMed IDs
83915-83-7 target inhibitor
  • Moexipril HCl
103775-10-6 target inhibitor

(1) IUPHAR Ligand for ACE2 Gene

Ligand Type Action Affinity Pubmed IDs
captopril Inhibitor Inhibition

(14) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for ACE2 Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
lisinopril 49.7 5
eplerenone 47.5 2
ramipril 40.9 1
captopril 39.7 6
enalaprilat 29.5 2

(1) PharmGKB related drug/compound annotations for ACE2 Gene

Drug/compound Annotation
captopril CA
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with ACE2: view

Transcripts for ACE2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for ACE2 Gene

Angiotensin I converting enzyme (peptidyl-dipeptidase A) 2:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for ACE2

Primer Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for ACE2 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2a · 2b · 2c ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b · 4c ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10a · 10b ^ 11 ^ 12 ^ 13a · 13b ^ 14 ^ 15a · 15b ^ 16 ^ 17a ·
SP2: -
SP3: - -
SP4: - -
SP6: -

ExUns: 17b ^ 18 ^ 19 ^ 20

Relevant External Links for ACE2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for ACE2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for ACE2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for ACE2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Small Intestine - Terminal Ileum (13.3), Testis (7.7), and Heart - Left Ventricle (6.6).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for ACE2 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for ACE2 Gene Hs.178098

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for ACE2 Gene

Tissue specificity: Expressed in endothelial cells from small and large arteries, and in arterial smooth muscle cells. Expressed in lung alveolar epithelial cells, enterocytes of the small intestine, Leydig cells and Sertoli cells (at protein level). Expressed in heart, kidney, testis, and gastrointestinal system.
genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with ACE2: view

In Situ Assay Products

Orthologs for ACE2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for ACE2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia ACE2 35
  • 98.53 (n)
  • 98.05 (a)
ACE2 36
  • 99 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia ACE2 35
  • 85.24 (n)
  • 81.09 (a)
ACE2 36
  • 81 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia ACE2 35
  • 86.95 (n)
  • 83.61 (a)
ACE2 36
  • 83 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Ace2 35
  • 85.1 (n)
  • 81.86 (a)
Ace2 16
Ace2 36
  • 82 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia ACE2 36
  • 71 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia ACE2 36
  • 69 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Ace2 35
  • 84.93 (n)
  • 82.37 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves ACE2 35
  • 68.7 (n)
  • 67.13 (a)
ACE2 36
  • 67 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia ACE2 36
  • 63 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia ace2 35
  • 64.56 (n)
  • 61.16 (a)
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.2478 35
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii ace2 35
  • 61.1 (n)
  • 59.21 (a)
ace2 36
  • 57 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Acer 36
  • 34 (a)
Ance 36
  • 35 (a)
Acer 37
  • 35 (a)
Ance-2 37
  • 23 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea acn-1 35
  • 42.11 (n)
  • 27.52 (a)
acn-1 36
  • 20 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 36
  • 21 (a)
Species with no ortholog for ACE2:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for ACE2 Gene

Gene Tree for ACE2 (if available)
Gene Tree for ACE2 (if available)

Paralogs for ACE2 Gene

Paralogs for ACE2 Gene

Selected SIMAP similar genes for ACE2 Gene using alignment to 1 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with ACE2: view

Variants for ACE2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for ACE2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 0X pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs233574 -- 15,564,486(+) GACTC(C/T)GTTTC intron-variant
rs233575 -- 15,564,843(-) AAATA(C/T)TACTA intron-variant
rs714205 -- 15,565,781(+) CTCCC(C/G)TTTAC intron-variant
rs757066 -- 15,590,829(+) TGTGT(C/T)AGGAT intron-variant
rs879922 -- 15,572,684(-) ACCTA(C/G)TAACC intron-variant

Relevant External Links for ACE2 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for ACE2 Gene

Disorders for ACE2 Gene

(23) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for ACE2 Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
coronavirus infections 72.6 3
diabetic nephropathies 48.5 22
essential hypertension 36.5 10
renal disease 35.6 19
cardiovascular diseases 31 8

Relevant External Links for ACE2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with ACE2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ACE2 Gene

Publications for ACE2 Gene

  1. A novel angiotensin-converting enzyme-related carboxypeptidase (ACE2) converts angiotensin I to angiotensin 1-9. (PMID: 10969042) Donoghue M. … Acton S. (Circ. Res. 2000) 2 3 4 23
  2. Hydrolysis of biological peptides by human angiotensin-converting enzyme-related carboxypeptidase. (PMID: 11815627) Vickers C. … Tummino P. (J. Biol. Chem. 2002) 3 4 23
  3. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 is a functional receptor for the SARS coronavirus. (PMID: 14647384) Li W. … Farzan M. (Nature 2003) 3 4 23
  4. Tissue distribution of ACE2 protein, the functional receptor for SARS coronavirus. A first step in understanding SARS pathogenesis. (PMID: 15141377) Hamming I. … van Goor H. (J. Pathol. 2004) 3 4 23
  5. ACE2 gene expression is up-regulated in the human failing heart. (PMID: 15151696) Goulter A.B. … Clark K.L. (BMC Med. 2004) 3 4 23

Products for ACE2 Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for ACE2

Sources for ACE2 Gene

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