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Aliases for ACADS Gene

Aliases for ACADS Gene

  • Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase, C-2 To C-3 Short Chain 2 3
  • SCAD 3 4 6
  • Acyl-Coenzyme A Dehydrogenase, C-2 To C-3 Short Chain 2 3
  • Butyryl-CoA Dehydrogenase 3 4
  • Short-Chain Specific Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase, Mitochondrial 3
  • Mitochondrial Short-Chain Specific Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase 3
  • Unsaturated Acyl-CoA Reductase 3
  • EC 63
  • EC 4
  • EC 1.3.99 63
  • ACAD3 3

External Ids for ACADS Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for ACADS Gene

  • GC12M120059
  • GC12P120946
  • GC12P119575
  • GC12P119547
  • GC12P119626
  • GC12P119648
  • GC12P121163
  • GC12P118172

Summaries for ACADS Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for ACADS Gene

  • This gene encodes a tetrameric mitochondrial flavoprotein, which is a member of the acyl-CoA dehydrogenase family. This enzyme catalyzes the initial step of the mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation pathway. Mutations in this gene have been associated with short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SCAD) deficiency. Alternative splicing results in two variants which encode different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2014]

GeneCards Summary for ACADS Gene

ACADS (Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase, C-2 To C-3 Short Chain) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with ACADS include acyl-coa dehydrogenase, short-chain, deficiency of and carotid artery dissection. Among its related pathways are Metabolism and Metabolism. GO annotations related to this gene include flavin adenine dinucleotide binding and acyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity. An important paralog of this gene is ACAD8.

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot , Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for ACADS Gene

Genomics for ACADS Gene

Regulatory Elements for ACADS Gene

Epigenetics Products

  • DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human,mouse,rat

Genomic Location for ACADS Gene

120,725,735 bp from pter
120,740,008 bp from pter
14,274 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for ACADS Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for ACADS Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for ACADS Gene

Proteins for ACADS Gene

  • Protein details for ACADS Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Short-chain specific acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, mitochondrial
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • P78331

    Protein attributes for ACADS Gene

    412 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    44297 Da
    Name=FAD; Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:57692;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homotetramer.
    • A number of straight-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenases of different substrate specificities are present in mammalian tissues

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for ACADS Gene

neXtProt entry for ACADS Gene

Proteomics data for ACADS Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for ACADS Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for ACADS Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
Reactome Protein details:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibody Products

Domains for ACADS Gene

Gene Families for ACADS Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the acyl-CoA dehydrogenase family.
  • Belongs to the acyl-CoA dehydrogenase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with ACADS: view

Function for ACADS Gene

Molecular function for ACADS Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
acyl-CoA dehydrogenase,short chain (C2-C3),mitochondrial,fatty acid beta-oxidation,with a frequent variant alleles 511C-T,625G-A together conferring susceptibility to ethylmalonic aciduria
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Butanoyl-CoA + electron-transfer flavoprotein = 2-butenoyl-CoA + reduced electron-transfer flavoprotein

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for ACADS Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for ACADS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000062 fatty-acyl-CoA binding IEA --
GO:0003995 acyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity TAS --
GO:0004085 butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase activity IEA --
GO:0016627 oxidoreductase activity, acting on the CH-CH group of donors --
GO:0050660 flavin adenine dinucleotide binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ACADS: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with ACADS: view

Animal Model Products

miRNA for ACADS Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target ACADS

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for ACADS

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for ACADS Gene

Localization for ACADS Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ACADS Gene

Mitochondrion matrix.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for ACADS Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for ACADS gene
Compartment Confidence
mitochondrion 5
cytoskeleton 2
cytosol 2
nucleus 2
peroxisome 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for ACADS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005634 nucleus IDA 21630459
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IDA 16729965
GO:0005759 mitochondrial matrix TAS --
GO:0031966 mitochondrial membrane IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ACADS: view

Pathways for ACADS Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with ACADS: view

PCR Array Products

  • Pathway & Disease-focused RT² Profiler PCR Arrays

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot P16219-ACADS_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Lipid metabolism; mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation

Interacting Proteins for ACADS Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for ACADS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006635 fatty acid beta-oxidation TAS --
GO:0008152 metabolic process --
GO:0033539 fatty acid beta-oxidation using acyl-CoA dehydrogenase IEA --
GO:0042594 response to starvation IEA --
GO:0044255 cellular lipid metabolic process TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ACADS: view

Compounds for ACADS Gene

(3) Drugbank Compounds for ACADS Gene

Compound Status Synonyms Cas Number PubChem ID Type Actions PubMed IDs
Flavin adenine dinucleotide
  • Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen pyrophosphate), 5'-5'-ester with riboflavine
146-14-5 643975 Target approved
Acetoacetyl-Coenzyme A
1420-36-6 46936566 Target experimental
  • 1,4-dihydronicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
606-68-8 439153 Target nutraceutical

(7) ApexBio Compounds for ACADS Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
AGI-6780 IDH2/R140Q mutation inhibitor [1432660-47-3]
CPI-613 PDH/α-KGDH inhibitor [95809-78-2]
Gimeracil Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase inhibitor [103766-25-2]
Isosafrole "A stiripentol analog, a potent LDH inhibitor." [120-58-1]
Mycophenolate Mofetil IMPDH inhibitor [128794-94-5]
Stiripentol An LDH inhibitor [49763-96-4]
Trilostane [13647-35-3]

(38) HMDB Compounds for ACADS Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number PubMed IDs
  • (E)-S-2-decenoate Coenzyme A
  • 2-trans-Dodecenoyl-Coenzyme A
  • trans-2-Hexadecenoyl-CoA
  • (E)-S-2-octenoate Coenzyme A
  • (2E)-Tetradecenoyl-Coenzyme A

(15) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for ACADS Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
ethylmalonic acid 97.2 7
butyrylcarnitine 95.9 4
acyl-coa 93.3 70
isobutyryl-carnitine 90 2
fatty acid 63.1 12
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with ACADS: view

Transcripts for ACADS Gene

mRNA/cDNA for ACADS Gene

Unigene Clusters for ACADS Gene

Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, C-2 to C-3 short chain:
Representative Sequences:

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for ACADS

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for ACADS Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10a · 10b
SP1: -
SP2: - -

Relevant External Links for ACADS Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for ACADS Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for ACADS Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for ACADS Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver (7.8) and Muscle - Skeletal (4.9).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues for ACADS Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver (10.7) and Nasopharynx (9.3).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for ACADS Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for ACADS Gene Hs.507076

genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with ACADS: view

Expression partners for ACADS Gene

* - Elite partner

Primer Products

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for ACADS Gene

Orthologs for ACADS Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for ACADS Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia ACADS 35
  • 88.67 (n)
  • 89.81 (a)
  • 90 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia ACADS 35
  • 87.97 (n)
  • 91.73 (a)
  • 89 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Acads 35
  • 86.65 (n)
  • 90.53 (a)
Acads 16
Acads 36
  • 91 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia ACADS 35
  • 99.03 (n)
  • 99.51 (a)
  • 100 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Acads 35
  • 86.08 (n)
  • 90.29 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia ACADS 36
  • 84 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia ACADS 36
  • 90 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves ACADS 35
  • 75.59 (n)
  • 82.24 (a)
  • 82 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia ACADS 36
  • 82 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia acads 35
  • 71.3 (n)
  • 82.32 (a)
MGC76107 35
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia acads-prov 35
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii acads 35
  • 70.44 (n)
  • 75.58 (a)
wufc44c01 35
acads 36
  • 74 (a)
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.8763 35
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Arc42 37
  • 69 (a)
CG4860 37
  • 61 (a)
Arc42 35
  • 69.98 (n)
  • 70.72 (a)
Arc42 36
  • 70 (a)
CG4860 36
  • 56 (a)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP001951 35
  • 69.16 (n)
  • 74.67 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea C02D5.1 37
  • 32 (a)
C37A2.3 37
  • 33 (a)
acdh-5 36
  • 29 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.6004 35
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.6600 36
  • 29 (a)
Species with no ortholog for ACADS:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for ACADS Gene

Gene Tree for ACADS (if available)
Gene Tree for ACADS (if available)

Paralogs for ACADS Gene

Paralogs for ACADS Gene

(10) SIMAP similar genes for ACADS Gene using alignment to 4 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with ACADS: view

Variants for ACADS Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for ACADS Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 12 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs3914 Benign 120,737,096(+) AGCCG(C/T)GGCTG synonymous-codon, reference
rs3915 Benign 120,738,876(-) GCAGC(A/C/G/T)CGCCA reference, synonymous-codon
rs3916 -- 120,739,469(+) CCCCA(C/G)GACTG utr-variant-3-prime
rs9204 -- 120,739,975(+) GTGTG(A/G)CTGAC utr-variant-3-prime
rs487915 -- 120,738,746(+) CTCTC(C/T)GTCCT intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for ACADS Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv521928 CNV Gain 19592680
nsv899557 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv899558 CNV Loss 21882294
esv2746476 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv2746477 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv1004916 CNV Deletion 20482838
esv1488435 CNV Deletion 17803354

Relevant External Links for ACADS Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ACADS Gene

Disorders for ACADS Gene

(1) OMIM Diseases for ACADS Gene (606885)


  • Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase short-chain deficiency (ACADSD) [MIM:201470]: An inborn error of mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation resulting in acute acidosis and muscle weakness in infants, and a form of lipid-storage myopathy in adults. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:11134486, ECO:0000269 PubMed:1692038, ECO:0000269 PubMed:9499414}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

(13) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for ACADS Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
scad deficiency 99.2 64
encephalopathy, ethylmalonic 89.5 2
lipid storage myopathy 83.9 1
mcad deficiency 81.5 2
aciduria organic 72.1 2

Genatlas disease for ACADS Gene

myopathy,lipid storage

Relevant External Links for ACADS

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with ACADS: view

Publications for ACADS Gene

  1. Identification of two variant short chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase alleles, each containing a different point mutation in a patient with short chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency. (PMID: 1692038) Naito E. … Tanaka K. (J. Clin. Invest. 1990) 3 4 23
  2. Structural organization of the human short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase gene. (PMID: 9383286) Corydon M.J. … Gregersen N. (Mamm. Genome 1997) 3 4 23
  3. Identification of four new mutations in the short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SCAD) gene in two patients: one of the variant alleles, 511C-->T, is present at an unexpectedly high frequency in the general population, as was the case for 625G-->A, together conferring susceptibility to ethylmalonic aciduria. (PMID: 9499414) Gregersen N. … Koelvraa S. (Hum. Mol. Genet. 1998) 3 4 23
  4. Role of common gene variations in the molecular pathogenesis of short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency. (PMID: 11134486) Corydon M.J. … Gregersen N. (Pediatr. Res. 2001) 3 4 23
  5. The frequency of short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase gene variants in the US population and correlation with the C(4)-acylcarnitine concentration in newborn blood spots. (PMID: 12706374) Nagan N. … Matern D. (Mol. Genet. Metab. 2003) 3 23 48

Products for ACADS Gene

Sources for ACADS Gene

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