Free for academic non-profit institutions. Other users need a Commercial license

Aliases for ACAA1 Gene

Aliases for ACAA1 Gene

  • Acetyl-CoA Acyltransferase 1 2 3 5
  • Peroxisomal 3-Oxoacyl-Coenzyme A Thiolase 2 3
  • Acetyl-Coenzyme A Acyltransferase 1 2 3
  • Peroxisomal 3-Oxoacyl-CoA Thiolase 3 4
  • Beta-Ketothiolase 3 4
  • EC 4 61
  • PTHIO 3 4
  • ACAA 3 4
  • 3-Ketoacyl-CoA Thiolase, Peroxisomal 3
  • Testicular Tissue Protein Li 197 3
  • Acetyl-CoA Acyltransferase 4
  • EC 2.3.1 61
  • THIO 3

External Ids for ACAA1 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for ACAA1 Gene

  • GC03M037452
  • GC03M037977
  • GC03M038124
  • GC03M038139
  • GC03M038164

Summaries for ACAA1 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for ACAA1 Gene

  • This gene encodes an enzyme operative in the beta-oxidation system of the peroxisomes. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to pseudo-Zellweger syndrome. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for ACAA1 Gene

ACAA1 (Acetyl-CoA Acyltransferase 1) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with ACAA1 include Chondrodysplasia Punctata Syndrome and Alpha-Methylacetoacetic Aciduria. Among its related pathways are fatty acid beta-oxidation (peroxisome) and Innate Immune System. GO annotations related to this gene include transferase activity, transferring acyl groups other than amino-acyl groups and palmitoyl-CoA oxidase activity. An important paralog of this gene is HADHB.

Gene Wiki entry for ACAA1 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for ACAA1 Gene

Genomics for ACAA1 Gene

Regulatory Elements for ACAA1 Gene

Enhancers for ACAA1 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH03G038163 2 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 20.4 -30.0 -29957 8.0 MLX CREB3L1 AGO1 ZFP64 FEZF1 DMAP1 YY1 SLC30A9 ZNF143 ZNF263 OXSR1 ACAA1 MYD88 C3orf35 GORASP1 SLC22A13 ACVR2B-AS1 VILL PLCD1 DLEC1
GH03G038150 1.7 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 11.6 -15.9 -15872 5.0 HDAC1 ZFP64 GATA2 FOS NFYC CEBPB USF2 ZEB2 REST ELF1 VILL MYD88 OXSR1 ACAA1
GH03G038129 1.4 ENCODE dbSUPER 10.9 +2.7 2667 10.9 HDGF PKNOX1 FOXA2 MLX ARNT AGO1 ZFP64 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ACAA1 OXSR1 ENSG00000201965 GC03M038125
GH03G038227 0.8 Ensembl ENCODE 16.1 -90.8 -90789 1.1 JUN BHLHE40 SCRT2 CEBPB CEBPG ACAA1 MYD88 GC03P038253 PIR62277 LOC101928234
GH03G038102 0.8 FANTOM5 Ensembl 11.8 +34.8 34790 0.9 IKZF1 ZNF341 KDM1A MYD88 VILL ACAA1 SLC22A13 PLCD1 OXSR1 SLC22A14 PIR60395 GC03M038048
- Elite enhancer and/or Elite enhancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around ACAA1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for ACAA1 Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

Genomic Location for ACAA1 Gene

38,103,129 bp from pter
38,137,242 bp from pter
34,114 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for ACAA1 Gene

Genes around ACAA1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
ACAA1 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for ACAA1 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for ACAA1 Gene

Proteins for ACAA1 Gene

  • Protein details for ACAA1 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase, peroxisomal
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • G5E935
    • Q96CA6

    Protein attributes for ACAA1 Gene

    424 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    44292 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for ACAA1 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for ACAA1 Gene


neXtProt entry for ACAA1 Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for ACAA1 Gene


Post-translational modifications for ACAA1 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Domains & Families for ACAA1 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the thiolase family.
  • Belongs to the thiolase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with ACAA1: view

No data available for Gene Families for ACAA1 Gene

Function for ACAA1 Gene

Molecular function for ACAA1 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
acetyl-CoA acyltransferase,(peroxisomal matrix 3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase),medium or long chain,catalyzing the fourth step of fatty acid beta-oxidation,expressed
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Acyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA = CoA + 3-oxoacyl-CoA.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction:
Peroxisomal thiolase is markedly induced (at the level of transcription) by various hypolipidemic compounds in parallel with the other two enzymes of the peroxisomal beta-oxidation system.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for ACAA1 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for ACAA1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003824 catalytic activity IEA --
GO:0003988 acetyl-CoA C-acyltransferase activity TAS --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 18281296
GO:0008775 acetate CoA-transferase activity EXP 11734571
GO:0016401 palmitoyl-CoA oxidase activity IMP 2882519
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ACAA1: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with ACAA1: view

Animal Models for ACAA1 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for ACAA1:

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for ACAA1

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for ACAA1
  • Addgene plasmids for ACAA1

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for ACAA1 Gene

Localization for ACAA1 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ACAA1 Gene


Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for ACAA1 gene
Compartment Confidence
peroxisome 5
extracellular 4
mitochondrion 3
cytosol 2
nucleus 1
endoplasmic reticulum 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for ACAA1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS --
GO:0005777 peroxisome IEA,IDA 1347505
GO:0005782 peroxisomal matrix TAS --
GO:0016020 membrane IDA 19946888
GO:0035580 specific granule lumen TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ACAA1: view

Pathways & Interactions for ACAA1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with ACAA1: view

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot P09110-THIK_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Lipid metabolism; fatty acid metabolism.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for ACAA1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000038 very long-chain fatty acid metabolic process IMP 2318981
GO:0006629 lipid metabolic process IEA --
GO:0006631 fatty acid metabolic process IEA --
GO:0006635 fatty acid beta-oxidation IMP 2365812
GO:0008152 metabolic process IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ACAA1: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for ACAA1 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for ACAA1 Gene

(7) Drugs for ACAA1 Gene - From: DrugBank, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Trimetazidine Approved Pharma Target, Inhibitor 9
Acetoacetyl-CoA Experimental Pharma 0
myristoyl-coa Experimental Pharma 0
Propionyl-CoA Experimental Pharma 0
Succinyl-CoA Experimental Pharma 0

(60) Additional Compounds for ACAA1 Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
(+)-7-Isojasmonic acid CoA
  • (E)-S-2-decenoate
  • (E)-S-2-decenoate CoA
  • (E)-S-2-decenoate Coenzyme A
  • (E)-S-2-decenoic acid
  • 2-trans-Decenoyl-CoA
  • (2E)-Dodec-2-enoyl-CoA
  • (2E)-Dodec-2-enoyl-Coenzyme A
  • 2-trans-Dodecenoyl-CoA
  • 2-trans-Dodecenoyl-Coenzyme A
  • (2E)-Hexadecenoyl-CoA
  • (2E)-Hexadecenoyl-Coenzyme A
  • trans-2-Hexadecenoyl-CoA
  • trans-2-Hexadecenoyl-Coenzyme A
  • (E)-S-2-octenoate
  • (E)-S-2-octenoate CoA
  • (E)-S-2-octenoate Coenzyme A
  • (E)-S-2-octenoic acid
  • 2,3-trans-Octenoyl coenzyme A
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with ACAA1: view

Transcripts for ACAA1 Gene

Unigene Clusters for ACAA1 Gene

Acetyl-CoA acyltransferase 1:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for ACAA1
  • Addgene plasmids for ACAA1

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for ACAA1 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d · 1e · 1f ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b · 6c ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10a · 10b ^ 11a · 11b · 11c ^ 12a · 12b · 12c ^ 13 ^
SP1: - - - - - - - -
SP2: - - - - -
SP3: - - - - - - -
SP4: - - - - - - - - - -
SP5: - - - - - - - -
SP6: - - - - - - - - -
SP7: - - - - - - -
SP8: -
SP9: - -
SP10: - - - - - - - -
SP11: - - - -
SP12: -
SP13: - -
SP15: -
SP17: - - -
SP18: - - - -

ExUns: 14a · 14b · 14c ^ 15 ^ 16a · 16b ^ 17a · 17b · 17c · 17d
SP9: - - -
SP11: - - -
SP12: - - -
SP15: - - -

Relevant External Links for ACAA1 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for ACAA1 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for ACAA1 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for ACAA1 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver (x7.4) and Whole Blood (x4.2).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for ACAA1 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Fetal Liver (22.6), Liver, secretome (6.5), and Kidney (6.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for ACAA1 Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for ACAA1 Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of ACAA1 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for ACAA1 Gene:


Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for ACAA1 Gene

  • Liver(4.8)
  • Nervous system(4.4)
  • Pancreas(4.3)
  • Intestine(2.9)
  • Lung(2.9)
  • Blood(2.3)
  • Heart(2.2)
  • Kidney(2.1)
  • Muscle(2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with ACAA1: view

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for ACAA1 Gene

Orthologs for ACAA1 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for ACAA1 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia ACAA1 34 35
  • 99.84 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia ACAA1 34 35
  • 90.8 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia ACAA1 34 35
  • 89.47 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Acaa1b 35
  • 86 (a)
Acaa1a 34 16 35
  • 85.06 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Acaa1b 34
  • 85.14 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia ACAA1 35
  • 84 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia ACAA1 35
  • 72 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves ACAA1 34 35
  • 74.51 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia ACAA1 35
  • 71 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia acaa1 34
  • 69.93 (n)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia acaa1-prov 34
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii acaa1 34 35
  • 66.67 (n)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes POT1 35 37
  • 51 (a)
Alicante grape
(Vitis vinifera)
eudicotyledons Vvi.5310 34
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os10g0457600 34
  • 57.38 (n)
(Triticum aestivum)
Liliopsida Ta.28367 34
Species where no ortholog for ACAA1 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for ACAA1 Gene

Gene Tree for ACAA1 (if available)
Gene Tree for ACAA1 (if available)

Paralogs for ACAA1 Gene

Paralogs for ACAA1 Gene

(4) SIMAP similar genes for ACAA1 Gene using alignment to 8 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with ACAA1: view

Variants for ACAA1 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for ACAA1 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 03 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs137853065 Pathogenic 38,138,978(+) GCTGC(C/T)TACCA upstream-variant-2KB, reference, missense
rs878852993 Pathogenic 38,138,853(+) CTGGC(-/GGA)GGAGA upstream-variant-2KB, cds-indel
rs201871349 untested 38,138,780(+) CAACA(C/T)GCGAG upstream-variant-2KB, reference, missense
rs587778543 untested 38,138,821(+) TGCGG(A/T)CACAG upstream-variant-2KB, reference, missense
rs587778544 untested 38,138,692(+) CAGGA(C/G)CGCCC upstream-variant-2KB, reference, missense

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for ACAA1 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv476175 CNV novel sequence insertion 20440878

Variation tolerance for ACAA1 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 60.7% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 6.88; 79.49% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for ACAA1 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ACAA1 Gene

Disorders for ACAA1 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(4) MalaCards diseases for ACAA1 Gene - From: DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
chondrodysplasia punctata syndrome
  • chondrodysplasia punctata
alpha-methylacetoacetic aciduria
  • beta-ketothiolase deficiency
alpha-methylacyl-coa racemase deficiency
  • amacr deficiency
cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic, 20
  • hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 20
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search ACAA1 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Genatlas disease for ACAA1 Gene

pseudo Zellweger syndrome with abundant peroxisomes and normal plasmalogen biosynthesis (ACAA deficiency)

Relevant External Links for ACAA1

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with ACAA1: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ACAA1 Gene

Publications for ACAA1 Gene

  1. Characterization of the gene encoding human peroxisomal 3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase (ACAA). No large DNA rearrangement in a thiolase-deficient patient. (PMID: 1679347) Bout A. … Benne R. (Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1991) 3 4 22 64
  2. Risk of meningioma and common variation in genes related to innate immunity. (PMID: 20406964) Rajaraman P. … Inskip P.D. (Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 2010) 3 46 64
  3. Polymorphisms in innate immunity genes and risk of childhood leukemia. (PMID: 20438785) Han S. … Kang D. (Hum. Immunol. 2010) 3 46 64
  4. Variation at the NFATC2 locus increases the risk of thiazolidinedione-induced edema in the Diabetes REduction Assessment with ramipril and rosiglitazone Medication (DREAM) study. (PMID: 20628086) Bailey S.D. … Anand S. (Diabetes Care 2010) 3 46 64
  5. Genetic variants in nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes influence AIDS progression. (PMID: 20877624) Hendrickson S.L. … O'Brien S.J. (PLoS ONE 2010) 3 46 64

Products for ACAA1 Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for ACAA1
  • Addgene plasmids for ACAA1

Sources for ACAA1 Gene

Loading form....