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Category   Symbol Source: HGNC EntrezGene Ensembl GeneCards RNA genes CroW21
GIFtS

ABRA Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 47
GCID: GC08M107841

Actin-Binding Rho Activating Protein

  See related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
About This Section

Aliases
Actin-Binding Rho Activating Protein1 2
Striated Muscle Activator Of Rho-Dependent Signaling1 2 3
STARS2 3 5
Actin-Binding Rho-Activating Protein2

External Ids:    HGNC: 306551   Entrez Gene: 1377352   Ensembl: ENSG000001744297   OMIM: 6097475   UniProtKB: Q8N0Z23   

Export aliases for ABRA gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifer: GC08M103092


(According to Entrez Gene, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
About This Section

GeneCards Summary for ABRA Gene: 
ABRA (actin-binding Rho activating protein) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with ABRA include granulomatous angiitis, and retinal drusen. GO annotations related to this gene include transcription coactivator activity and actin binding.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: ABRA_HUMAN, Q8N0Z2
Function: Acts as an activator of serum response factor (SRF)-dependent transcription possibly by inducing nuclear
translocation of MKL1 or MKL2 and through a mechanism requiring Rho-actin signaling (By similarity)

Gene Wiki entry for ABRA Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 73), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, SABiosciences, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
About This Section
RefSeq DNA sequence:
NC_000008.10  NC_018919.2  NT_008046.16  
Regulatory elements:
   SABiosciences Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the ABRA gene promoter:
         HFH-3   SRF   AML1a   SRF (504 AA)   FOXO3   FOXO3b   PPAR-alpha   FOXI1   E2F   FOXO3a   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidABRA promoter sequence
   Search SABiosciences Chromatin IP Primers for ABRA

Epigenetics:
QIAGEN PyroMark CpG Assay predesigned Pyrosequencing DNA Methylation assays in human, mouse, rat ABRA


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 8q23.1   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  8q23.1   HGNC cytogenetic band: 8q23.1

ABRA Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
ABRA gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 8         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC08M107841:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
107,771,711 bp from pter      End:
107,782,473 bp from pter
Size:
10,763 bases      Orientation:
minus strand

(According to UniProtKB, HORDE, neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MAXQB RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp., Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 and Entrez Gene, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.)
About This Section

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: ABRA_HUMAN, Q8N0Z2 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Actin-binding Rho-activating protein  
Size: 381 amino acids; 43117 Da
Subunit: Binds F-actin and ABLIM1, ABLIM2 AND ABLIM3. Interaction with ABLIM2 AND ABLIM3 enhances activity (By
similarity)
Subcellular location: Cytoplasm, myofibril, sarcomere (By similarity). Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton (By similarity).
Note=Localized to the I-band of the sarcomere and to a lesser extent to the sarcomeric structure between Z-lines
(By similarity)

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for ABRA: NX_Q8N0Z2

Explore proteomics data for ABRA at MOPED 

Post-translational modifications:

  • View modification sites using PhosphoSitePlus
  • View neXtProt modification sites for NX_Q8N0Z2

  • ABRA Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MAXQB3 :    About this image 

    ABRA Protein Expression
    REFSEQ proteins: NP_631905.1  
    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000311436  

    Human Recombinant Protein Products for ABRA: 
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    Novus Biologicals ABRA Lysate
    Browse Sino Biological Recombinant Proteins
    Browse Sino Biological Cell Lysates 
    Browse ProSpec Recombinant Proteins
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Proteins for ABRA 

    Gene Ontology (GO): 4 cellular component terms (GO ID links to tree view):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005886plasma membrane IDA--
    GO:0015629actin cytoskeleton ISS--
    GO:0030016myofibril ----
    GO:0030017sarcomere ISS--

    ABRA for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



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    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
    About This Section
    1 InterPro protein domain:
     IPR026111 Abra

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry Q8N0Z2

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: Q8N0Z2

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: ABRA_HUMAN, Q8N0Z2
    Domain: The actin-binding domain 1 (ABD1) is intrinsically disordered, and binds to F-actin with higher affinity
    than ABD2 (By similarity)


    ABRA for domains           About GeneDecksing


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    bound targets from SABiosciences, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, RNAi from EMD Millipore, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Sirion Biotech, Clones from EMD Millipore, OriGene, SwitchGear Genomics, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and Sirion Biotech, Cell Lines from GenScript, LifeMap BioReagents, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 via Entrez Gene.)
    About This Section

    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: ABRA_HUMAN, Q8N0Z2
    Function: Acts as an activator of serum response factor (SRF)-dependent transcription possibly by inducing nuclear
    translocation of MKL1 or MKL2 and through a mechanism requiring Rho-actin signaling (By similarity)

         Gene Ontology (GO): 2 molecular function terms (GO ID links to tree view):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0003713transcription coactivator activity IEA--
    GO:0003779actin binding ISS--
         
    ABRA for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    Phenotypes:
         2 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 1 allele(MGI details for Abra):
     cardiovascular system  homeostasis/metabolism 

    ABRA for phenotypes           About GeneDecksing

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-out Abratm1Eno for ABRA

       inGenious Targeting Laboratory - Custom generated mouse model solutions for ABRA 
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory - Custom generated inducible mouse model solutions for ABRA

       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for ABRA 
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for ABRA 

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    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for ABRA


    (Pathways according to EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to SABiosciences, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 via Entrez Gene).
    About This Section



    Interactions:

        SABiosciences Gene Network CentralTM Interacting Genes and Proteins Network for ABRA

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 3 interactants - click image to see more details)

    3 Interacting proteins for ABRA (Q8N0Z23 ENSP000003114364) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    ACTBP607093, ENSP000003499604I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000349960
    ACTC1P680323, ENSP000002903784I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000290378
    MYCP011063, ENSP000003672074I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000367207
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): 5/6 biological process terms (GO ID links to tree view) (see all 6):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0000060protein import into nucleus, translocation IEA--
    GO:0006351transcription, DNA-dependent IEA--
    GO:0035025positive regulation of Rho protein signal transduction ISS--
    GO:0045893positive regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent ----
    GO:0045944positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter IEA--

    ABRA for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB, with drugs/clinical trials/news search links to CenterWatch)
    About This Section
    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
    Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences

    Browse Tocris compounds for ABRA

    Search CenterWatch for drugs/clinical trials and news about ABRA

    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    Conferences by KenesGroup, exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    RNAi Products from EMD Millipore,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, SwitchGear Genomics, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, Sirion Biotech, Primers from OriGene, SABiosciences, and/or QIAGEN )
    About This Section

    REFSEQ mRNAs for ABRA gene: 
    NM_139166.4  

    Unigene Cluster for ABRA:

    Actin-binding Rho activating protein
    Hs.374668  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: AL832152
    1 Ensembl transcript including schematic representation, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000311955(uc003ymm.4)
    miRNA
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    8/10 QIAGEN miScript miRNA Assays for microRNAs that regulate ABRA (see all 10):
    hsa-miR-4311 hsa-miR-4328 hsa-miR-488 hsa-miR-519e* hsa-miR-33a hsa-miR-515-5p hsa-miR-889 hsa-miR-3119
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    Inhib. RNA
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                         Customized lentivirus expression plasmids for stable overexpression of ABRA 
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      QIAGEN QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat ABRA

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AF503617.1 AK056976.1 AK092694.1 AL832152.1 AL833422.1 BC105103.1 BC105105.1 

    1 DOTS entry:

    DT.100018909 

    16 AceView cDNA sequences:

    AF503617 BX500732 NM_139166 AL833422 AX747674 AL832152 AK056976 AK092694 
    BF790561 CF552464 CD677000 BF670302 AA664594 BF670582 BF576174 BF694393 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure


    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, plus additional links to Genevestigator, and/or SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from SABiosciences, Primers from OriGene, SABiosciences, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
    About This Section

    ABRA expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: TAAGATGCAC
    ABRA Expression
    About this image


    See ABRA Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED and PaxDB
    Genevestigator expression for ABRA

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.374668
        SABiosciences Expression via Pathway-Focused PCR Array including ABRA: 
              Cardiotoxicity in human mouse rat

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    In Situ
    Assay Products:
     

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for ABRA

    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
    About This Section

    This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

    Orthologs for ABRA gene from 6/14 species (see all 14)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Abra1 , 5 actin-binding Rho activating protein1, 5 83.11(n)1
    80.27(a)1
      15 (16.42 cM)5
    2235131  NM_175456.41  NP_780665.11 
     418652935 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves ABRA1 actin-binding Rho activating protein 65.25(n)
    63.03(a)
      430953  XM_428503.3  XP_428503.2 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia ABRA6
    Uncharacterized protein
    61(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    4(12002838-12012877)
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii abrab1 actin-binding Rho activating protein b 56.8(n)
    54.89(a)
      445477  NM_001003986.1  NP_001003986.1 
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta CG21136
    CG36306
    --
    26(a)
    18(a)
    possible ortholog
    possible ortholog
    3L(2995172-2996155)
    X(2056229-2066314)
    worm
    (Caenorhabditis elegans)
    Secernentea F36F2.11 Protein F36F2.1 55.99(n)
    55.34(a)
      172722  NM_060025.3  NP_492426.1 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for ABRA (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for ABRA (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
    About This Section
    Paralogs for ABRA gene
    1 SIMAP similar gene for ABRA using alignment to 1 protein entry:     ABRA_HUMAN:
    ABRACL

    ABRA for paralogs           About GeneDecksing



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD) and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers from QIAGEN, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays and Copy Number PCR Arrays from SABiosciences)
    About This Section

    10/280 SNPs in ABRA are shown (see all 280)    About this table     
    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 8 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs789015321,2
    F--107771301(+) CACAAG/ACTAGT 1 -- ds50012Minor allele frequency- A:0.11CSA WA 120
    rs755347511,2
    C,F--107771345(+) CACAAG/AGTGCT 1 -- ds50011Minor allele frequency- A:0.04WA 118
    rs1453691041,2
    C--107771433(+) TCAGA-/AGAGTGT 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs1844359561,2
    --107771558(+) TGAATA/GTGAGG 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs17844761,2
    C,F,A,H--107771680(+) ATAACC/TTATAA 1 -- ds500124Minor allele frequency- T:0.09NS EA NA WA CSA 2340
    rs1886985241,2
    --107771726(+) CATCTC/TTTATT 1 -- ut310--------
    rs1811341621,2
    --107771851(+) GGTATA/GGAAAC 1 -- ut310--------
    rs1389115021,2
    C--107771873(+) ACTTTA/CTTAAG 1 -- ut310--------
    rs1862530071,2
    --107771921(+) AAAACA/TAATAT 1 -- ut310--------
    rs1907724731,2
    --107772110(+) GTCCAA/GTGATT 1 -- ut310--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for ABRA (107771711 - 107782473 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 1 variation for ABRA:    About this table     
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    nsv831419CNV Loss17160897

    SABiosciences Cancer Mutation PCR Assays
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    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Conferences by KenesGroup, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
    About This Section
    OMIM gene information: 609747    OMIM disorders: --

    7 diseases for ABRA:    About MalaCards
    granulomatous angiitis    retinal drusen    mediastinitis    cerebral amyloid angiopathy
    malaria    cerebritis    retinitis

    1 disease from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for ABRA:
    Cerebral amyloid angiopathy

    ABRA for disorders           About GeneDecksing

    1 Novoseek inferred disease relationship for ABRA gene    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    malaria 53.5 3 11489167 (1), 9025691 (1), 8980624 (1)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): ABRA

    Export disorders for ABRA gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
    About This Section

    PubMed articles for ABRA gene, integrated from 9 sources (see all 26):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with ABRA)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. STARS, a striated muscle activator of Rho signaling and serum response factor-dependent transcription. (PubMed id 11983702)1, 2, 3 Arai A.... Olson E.N. (2002)
    2. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PubMed id 15489334)1, 2 Gerhard D.S....Malek J. (2004)
    3. Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs. (PubMed id 14702039)1, 2 Ota T.... Sugano S. (2004)
    4. Genome-wide association scan of dental caries in the p ermanent dentition. (PubMed id 23259602)1 Wang X....Marazita M.L. (2012)
    5. Striated muscle activator of Rho signalling (STARS) i s a PGC-1I+/oestrogen-related receptor-I+ target gene and is upregulated in human skeletal muscle after endurance exercise. (PubMed id 21486805)1 Wallace M.A....Russell A.P. (2011)
    6. Regulation of STARS and its downstream targets suggest a novel pathway involved in human skeletal muscle hypertrophy and atrophy. (PubMed id 19255118)1 Lamon S....Russell A.P. (2009)
    7. Modulation of adverse cardiac remodeling by STARS, a mediator of MEF2 signaling and SRF activity. (PubMed id 17415416)1 Kuwahara K....Olson E.N. (2007)
    8. A genome-wide association study for blood lipid phenotypes in the Framingham Heart Study. (PubMed id 17903299)4 Kathiresan S....Cupples L.A. (2007)
    9. Genome-wide association to body mass index and waist circumference: the Framingham Heart Study 100K project. (PubMed id 17903300)4 Fox C.S....Atwood L.D. (2007)
    10. Genome-wide association with select biomarker traits in the Framingham Heart Study. (PubMed id 17903293)4 Benjamin E.J....Vasan R.S. (2007)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
    About This Section
     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
    About This Section
    Entrez Gene: 137735 HGNC: 30655 AceView: STARS Ensembl:ENSG00000174429 euGenes: HUgn137735
    ECgene: ABRA H-InvDB: ABRA

    (According to HUGE)
    About This Section
      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL,
    Wikipedia and/or GeneReviews via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    About This Section
    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for ABRA Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
    About This Section
    Patent Information for ABRA gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving ABRA

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, SABiosciences, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Gene Editing from DNA2.0 and Sirion Biotech, Clones from EMD Millipore, OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Sirion Biotech, Cell lines from GenScript, and LifeMap BioReagents, PCR Arrays from SABiosciences, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, and/or Enzo Life Sciences, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Animal models from inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway)
    About This Section

     
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    GeneCards Homepage - Last full update: 23 Oct 2013 - Incrementals: 3 Nov 2013 , 7 Nov 2013 , 23 Jan 2014

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