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Aliases for A2M Gene

Aliases for A2M Gene

  • Alpha-2-Macroglobulin 2 3
  • C3 And PZP-Like Alpha-2-Macroglobulin Domain-Containing Protein 5 3 4
  • Alpha-2-M 3 4
  • CPAMD5 3 4
  • A2MD 3 6
  • FWP007 3
  • S863-7 3
  • A2M 6

External Ids for A2M Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for A2M Gene

  • GC12M008928
  • GC12M009368
  • GC12M009120
  • GC12M009111
  • GC12M009103
  • GC12M009220
  • GC12M009001

Summaries for A2M Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for A2M Gene

  • Alpha-2-macroglobulin is a protease inhibitor and cytokine transporter. It inhibits many proteases, including trypsin, thrombin and collagenase. A2M is implicated in Alzheimer disease (AD) due to its ability to mediate the clearance and degradation of A-beta, the major component of beta-amyloid deposits. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for A2M Gene

A2M (Alpha-2-Macroglobulin) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with A2M include alpha-2-macroglobulin deficiency and alzheimer disease. Among its related pathways are Signaling by GPCR and Rho GTPase cycle. GO annotations related to this gene include enzyme binding and growth factor binding. An important paralog of this gene is CD109.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for A2M Gene

  • Is able to inhibit all four classes of proteinases by a unique trapping mechanism. This protein has a peptide stretch, called the bait region which contains specific cleavage sites for different proteinases. When a proteinase cleaves the bait region, a conformational change is induced in the protein which traps the proteinase. The entrapped enzyme remains active against low molecular weight substrates (activity against high molecular weight substrates is greatly reduced). Following cleavage in the bait region a thioester bond is hydrolyzed and mediates the covalent binding of the protein to the proteinase

No data available for Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for A2M Gene

Genomics for A2M Gene

Regulatory Elements for A2M Gene

Genomic Location for A2M Gene

Start:
9,067,664 bp from pter
End:
9,116,229 bp from pter
Size:
48,566 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for A2M Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for A2M Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for A2M Gene

Proteins for A2M Gene

  • Protein details for A2M Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P01023-A2MG_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Alpha-2-macroglobulin
    Protein Accession:
    P01023
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q13677
    • Q59F47
    • Q5QTS0
    • Q68DN2
    • Q6PIY3
    • Q6PN97

    Protein attributes for A2M Gene

    Size:
    1474 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    163291 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homotetramer; disulfide-linked.
    SequenceCaution:
    • Sequence=AAT02228.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally shortened.; Evidence={ECO:0000305}; Sequence=BAD92851.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally shortened.; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for A2M Gene

neXtProt entry for A2M Gene

Proteomics data for A2M Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for A2M Gene

  • Glycosylation at Asn55, Asn70, Asn247, Asn396, Asn410, Asn869, Asn991, and Asn1424
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for A2M Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
Reactome Protein details:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibody Products

  • R&D Systems Antibodies for A2M (alpha 2-Macroglobulin)

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for A2M Gene

Domains for A2M Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for A2M Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P01023

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

A2MG_HUMAN :
  • P01023
Family:
  • Belongs to the protease inhibitor I39 (alpha-2-macroglobulin) family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with A2M: view

No data available for Gene Families for A2M Gene

Function for A2M Gene

Molecular function for A2M Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry: macroglobulin,alpha-2- (protease inhibitor),may be implicated in susceptibility to Alzheimer disease (AD5)
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Is able to inhibit all four classes of proteinases by a unique trapping mechanism. This protein has a peptide stretch, called the bait region which contains specific cleavage sites for different proteinases. When a proteinase cleaves the bait region, a conformational change is induced in the protein which traps the proteinase. The entrapped enzyme remains active against low molecular weight substrates (activity against high molecular weight substrates is greatly reduced). Following cleavage in the bait region a thioester bond is hydrolyzed and mediates the covalent binding of the protein to the proteinase

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for A2M Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0002020 protease binding IPI 18485748
GO:0004866 endopeptidase inhibitor activity --
GO:0004867 serine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity IDA 12538697
GO:0005102 receptor binding IMP 15226301
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 14687906
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with A2M: view

Phenotypes for A2M Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with A2M: view

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

miRNA for A2M Gene

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for A2M

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for A2M Gene

Localization for A2M Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for A2M Gene

Secreted.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for A2M Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for A2M gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
cytosol 4
lysosome 1
plasma membrane 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for A2M Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS --
GO:0005615 extracellular space --
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
GO:0031093 platelet alpha granule lumen TAS --
GO:0070062 extracellular exosome IDA 20458337
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with A2M: view

Pathways for A2M Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with A2M: view

PCR Array Products

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for A2M Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001869 negative regulation of complement activation, lectin pathway IDA 12538697
GO:0002576 platelet degranulation TAS --
GO:0007264 small GTPase mediated signal transduction TAS --
GO:0007596 blood coagulation TAS --
GO:0007597 blood coagulation, intrinsic pathway TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with A2M: view

Compounds for A2M Gene

(3) Drugbank Compounds for A2M Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number Type Actions PubMed IDs
Bacitracin
1405-87-4 target inhibitor
Becaplermin
  • c-sis
165101-51-9 target
Ocriplasmin
1048016-9-6 target ligand

(10) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for A2M Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
alpha 2 macroglobulin 97.7 11
methylamine 51.3 2
thermolysin 45.2 1
fibrinogen 19.1 3
serine 13.6 1

(1) PharmGKB related drug/compound annotations for A2M Gene

Drug/compound Annotation
Enzymes CA
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with A2M: view

Transcripts for A2M Gene

Unigene Clusters for A2M Gene

Alpha-2-macroglobulin:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for A2M

Primer Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for A2M Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2a · 2b · 2c · 2d · 2e ^ 3a · 3b ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9a · 9b ^ 10a · 10b ^ 11a · 11b ^ 12a · 12b ^ 13a · 13b ^ 14a ·
SP1: - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP2:
SP3:
SP4:
SP5:
SP6: - -
SP7: - - - - -
SP8:
SP9: - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP10:
SP11:
SP12: -
SP13:
SP14:

ExUns: 14b ^ 15a · 15b ^ 16 ^ 17a · 17b ^ 18a · 18b ^ 19 ^ 20a · 20b · 20c ^ 21a · 21b ^ 22 ^ 23 ^ 24a · 24b ^ 25 ^ 26 ^ 27a · 27b ^ 28a · 28b ^ 29 ^ 30 ^
SP1: - - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP2:
SP3:
SP4:
SP5:
SP6:
SP7:
SP8:
SP9: - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP10:
SP11:
SP12:
SP13:
SP14:

ExUns: 31 ^ 32 ^ 33 ^ 34 ^ 35 ^ 36 ^ 37 ^ 38 ^ 39 ^ 40
SP1:
SP2:
SP3:
SP4:
SP5:
SP6:
SP7:
SP8:
SP9:
SP10:
SP11:
SP12:
SP13:
SP14:

Relevant External Links for A2M Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
A2M
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
A2M

Expression for A2M Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for A2M Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for A2M Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Lung (7.4) and Liver (4.6).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for A2M Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for A2M Gene Hs.212838

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for A2M Gene

P01023-A2MG_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Secreted in plasma.
genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with A2M: view

In Situ Assay Products

Orthologs for A2M Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for A2M Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia A2M 35
  • 99.32 (n)
  • 99.19 (a)
A2M 36
  • 99 (a)
OneToOne
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia A2M 35
  • 83.51 (n)
  • 79.35 (a)
A2M 36
  • 77 (a)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia A2M 35
  • 84.75 (n)
  • 80.63 (a)
A2M 36
  • 80 (a)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia A2m 35
  • 78.19 (n)
  • 73.39 (a)
A2m 16
A2m 36
  • 72 (a)
OneToOne
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 60 (a)
OneToMany
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 42 (a)
ManyToMany
-- 36
  • 57 (a)
ManyToMany
-- 36
  • 60 (a)
ManyToMany
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia LOC100911545 35
  • 78.36 (n)
  • 74.77 (a)
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves -- 36
  • 58 (a)
ManyToMany
-- 36
  • 56 (a)
ManyToMany
-- 36
  • 65 (a)
ManyToMany
A2M 35
  • 64.21 (n)
  • 59.71 (a)
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 36
  • 53 (a)
ManyToMany
-- 36
  • 53 (a)
ManyToMany
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia a2m 35
  • 57.27 (n)
  • 52.21 (a)
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.10981 35
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii LOC100006925 35
  • 53.89 (n)
  • 44.6 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta TepII 37
  • 29 (a)
Species with no ortholog for A2M:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for A2M Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for A2M (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for A2M (if available)

Paralogs for A2M Gene

Paralogs for A2M Gene

Selected SIMAP similar genes for A2M Gene using alignment to 7 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with A2M: view

Variants for A2M Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for A2M Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 12 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs669 other, - 9,079,672(-) CAGAG(A/G)TCAAG reference, missense
rs2477 -- 9,113,200(+) CTGGA(G/T)AGTCA intron-variant
rs113973 -- 9,091,671(+) TTTAA(C/T)ATGCA intron-variant
rs226379 -- 9,115,989(-) TAGAG(A/G)TCTTG upstream-variant-2KB
rs226380 -- 9,115,877(-) GTCTG(G/T)TCTCC utr-variant-5-prime

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for A2M Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv832327 CNV Loss 17160897
nsv898738 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv527404 CNV Gain 19592680

Relevant External Links for A2M Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
A2M
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
A2M

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for A2M Gene

Disorders for A2M Gene

(2) OMIM Diseases for A2M Gene (103950)

(1) University of Copenhagen DISEASES for A2M Gene

(8) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for A2M Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
alzheimers disease 32.2 8
senile plaques 30.3 2
nephrotic syndrome 14.3 2
inflammation 7.25 2
rheumatoid arthritis 6.99 1

Genatlas disease for A2M Gene

emphysema with lung destruction II (macroglobulin,alpha-2- deficiency)

Relevant External Links for A2M

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
A2M
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
A2M
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with A2M: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for A2M Gene

Publications for A2M Gene

  1. Structure of the human alpha-2 macroglobulin gene and its promotor. (PMID: 1374237) Matthijs G. … Marynen P. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1992) 3 4 23
  2. Cloning of the human alpha 2-macroglobulin gene and detection of mutations in two functional domains: the bait region and the thiolester site. (PMID: 1370808) Poller W. … Olek K. (Hum. Genet. 1992) 3 4 23
  3. Human alpha2-macroglobulin: genotype-phenotype relation. (PMID: 14637088) Birkenmeier G. … Reichenbach A. (Exp. Neurol. 2003) 3 23 48
  4. Human alpha 2-macroglobulin gene is located on chromosome 12. (PMID: 2408344) Bell G.I. … Shows T.B. (Somat. Cell Mol. Genet. 1985) 2 3 4
  5. Alpha-2 macroglobulin is genetically associated with Alzheimer disease. (PMID: 9697696) Blacker D. … Tanzi R.E. (Nat. Genet. 1998) 2 3 48

Products for A2M Gene

Sources for A2M Gene

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