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Aliases for PTGS1 Gene

Aliases for PTGS1 Gene

  • Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthase 1 (Prostaglandin G/H Synthase And Cyclooxygenase) 2 3
  • COX1 3 4 6
  • Prostaglandin H2 Synthase 1 3 4
  • Cyclooxygenase-1 3 4
  • PGH Synthase 1 3 4
  • EC 4 64
  • PGHS-1 3 4
  • PCOX1 3 6
  • PGHS1 3 6
  • COX3 3 6
  • Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthase 1 4
  • Prostaglandin G/H Synthase 1 3
  • EC 1.14.99 64
  • PGG/HS 3
  • PES-1 3
  • PTGHS 3
  • COX-1 4
  • PHS 1 4
  • PHS1 3

External Ids for PTGS1 Gene

Summaries for PTGS1 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PTGS1 Gene

  • This is one of two genes encoding similar enzymes that catalyze the conversion of arachinodate to prostaglandin. The encoded protein regulates angiogenesis in endothelial cells, and is inhibited by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as aspirin. Based on its ability to function as both a cyclooxygenase and as a peroxidase, the encoded protein has been identified as a moonlighting protein. The protein may promote cell proliferation during tumor progression. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]

GeneCards Summary for PTGS1 Gene

PTGS1 (Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthase 1 (Prostaglandin G/H Synthase And Cyclooxygenase)) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PTGS1 include chronic cystitis and ureteral obstruction. Among its related pathways are PEDF Induced Signaling and Platelet Aggregation Inhibitor Pathway, Pharmacodynamics. GO annotations related to this gene include heme binding and dioxygenase activity. An important paralog of this gene is PTGS2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PTGS1 Gene

  • Converts arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), a committed step in prostanoid synthesis. Involved in the constitutive production of prostanoids in particular in the stomach and platelets. In gastric epithelial cells, it is a key step in the generation of prostaglandins, such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which plays an important role in cytoprotection. In platelets, it is involved in the generation of thromboxane A2 (TXA2), which promotes platelet activation and aggregation, vasoconstriction and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells

Tocris Summary for PTGS1 Gene

  • Cyclooxygenase (also known as COX, Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase, Prostaglandin G/H synthase) is expressed in cells in three isoforms: COX-1, COX-2 and COX-3. COX-1 (constitutive) and COX-2 (inducible) isoforms catalyze the rate-limiting step of prostaglandin production and are the targets of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. COX-3 does not appear to be involved in inflammatory processes, but seems to be involved in pain and fever. COX-3 is thought to be derived through the retention of the highly structured G + C-rich intron 1 of the COX-1 gene.

Gene Wiki entry for PTGS1 Gene

No data available for PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for PTGS1 Gene

Genomics for PTGS1 Gene

Genomic Location for PTGS1 Gene

122,370,530 bp from pter
122,395,703 bp from pter
25,174 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for PTGS1 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for PTGS1 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PTGS1 Gene

Regulatory Elements for PTGS1 Gene

Proteins for PTGS1 Gene

  • Protein details for PTGS1 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Prostaglandin G/H synthase 1
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A8K1V7
    • B4DHQ2
    • B4E2S5
    • Q15122
    • Q3HY28
    • Q3HY29
    • Q5T7T6
    • Q5T7T7
    • Q5T7T8

    Protein attributes for PTGS1 Gene

    599 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    68686 Da
    Name=heme b; Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:60344; Note=Binds 1 heme b (iron(II)-protoporphyrin IX) group per subunit.;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer
    • Conversion of arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 is mediated by 2 different isozymes: the constitutive PTGS1 and the inducible PTGS2. PGHS1 is expressed constitutively and generally produces prostanoids acutely in response to hormonal stimuli to fine-tune physiological processes requiring instantaneous, continuous regulation (e.g. hemostasis). PGHS2 is inducible and typically produces prostanoids that mediate responses to physiological stresses such as infection and inflammation
    • PTGS1 and PTGS2 are the targets of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) including aspirin and ibuprofen. Aspirin is able to produce an irreversible inactivation of the enzyme through a serine acetylation. Inhibition of the PGHSs with NSAIDs acutely reduces inflammation, pain, and fever, and long-term use of these drugs reduces fatal thrombotic events, as well as the development of colon cancer and Alzheimers disease. PTGS2 is the principal isozyme responsible for production of inflammatory prostaglandins. New generation PTGSs inhibitors strive to be selective for PTGS2, to avoid side effects such as gastrointestinal complications and ulceration
    • The conversion of arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 is a 2 step reaction: a cyclooxygenase (COX) reaction which converts arachidonate to prostaglandin G2 (PGG2) and a peroxidase reaction in which PGG2 is reduced to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2). The cyclooxygenase reaction occurs in a hydrophobic channel in the core of the enzyme. The peroxidase reaction occurs at a heme-containing active site located near the protein surface. The nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) binding site corresponds to the cyclooxygenase active site
    • Sequence=CAI14716.1; Type=Erroneous gene model prediction; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Alternative splice isoforms for PTGS1 Gene

neXtProt entry for PTGS1 Gene

Proteomics data for PTGS1 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for PTGS1 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Glycosylation at Asn67, Asn103, and Asn143

Domains for PTGS1 Gene

Gene Families for PTGS1 Gene


  • Contains 1 EGF-like domain.:
    • P23219
  • Belongs to the prostaglandin G/H synthase family.:
    • P23219
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PTGS1: view

Function for PTGS1 Gene

Molecular function for PTGS1 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry: prostaglandin G/H synthase 1,constitutively expressed in a wide range of tissues,acting first as a dioxygenase,then as a peroxidase (lipocalin family,Kernel group),monomer,potent mediator of inflammation
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity: Arachidonate + AH(2) + 2 O(2) = prostaglandin H(2) + A + H(2)O
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Converts arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), a committed step in prostanoid synthesis. Involved in the constitutive production of prostanoids in particular in the stomach and platelets. In gastric epithelial cells, it is a key step in the generation of prostaglandins, such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which plays an important role in cytoprotection. In platelets, it is involved in the generation of thromboxane A2 (TXA2), which promotes platelet activation and aggregation, vasoconstriction and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for PTGS1 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PTGS1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004601 peroxidase activity TAS --
GO:0004666 prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase activity TAS --
GO:0005515 protein binding --
GO:0020037 heme binding IEA --
GO:0046872 metal ion binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PTGS1: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PTGS1: view

Animal Models for PTGS1 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for PTGS1:

miRNA for PTGS1 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target PTGS1

No data available for Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for PTGS1 Gene

Localization for PTGS1 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PTGS1 Gene

Microsome membrane; Peripheral membrane protein. Endoplasmic reticulum membrane; Peripheral membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for PTGS1 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PTGS1 gene
Compartment Confidence
endoplasmic reticulum 5
nucleus 4
extracellular 2
mitochondrion 2
cytosol 1
golgi apparatus 1
lysosome 1
peroxisome 1
plasma membrane 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PTGS1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001750 photoreceptor outer segment IEA --
GO:0005634 nucleus ISS --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm ISS --
GO:0005789 endoplasmic reticulum membrane TAS --
GO:0043231 intracellular membrane-bounded organelle ISS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PTGS1: view

Pathways for PTGS1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PTGS1: view

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot P23219-PGH1_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Lipid metabolism; prostaglandin biosynthesis

Interacting Proteins for PTGS1 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PTGS1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001516 prostaglandin biosynthetic process ISS --
GO:0006629 lipid metabolic process NAS 1907252
GO:0006693 prostaglandin metabolic process --
GO:0006805 xenobiotic metabolic process TAS --
GO:0006954 inflammatory response IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PTGS1: view

Compounds for PTGS1 Gene

(5) Tocris Compounds for PTGS1 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Celecoxib Selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor [169590-42-5]
Indomethacin Cyclooxygenase inhibitor (COX-1 > COX-2) [53-86-1]
NS 398 Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor [123653-11-2]
Resveratrol Cyclooxygenase inhibitor [501-36-0]
SC 58125 Selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor [162054-19-5]

(13) HMDB Compounds for PTGS1 Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number PubMed IDs
  • 11(R)-hydroxyeicosa-5Z,8Z,12E,14Z,17Z-pentaenoate
Not Available
  • 4'-Hydroxyacetanilide
Arachidonic acid
  • 5,8,11,14-Eicosatetraenoic acid
  • 2-(Acetyloxy)benzoic acid
  • (protoporphyrinato)iron

(2) IUPHAR Ligand for PTGS1 Gene

Ligand Type Action Affinity Pubmed IDs
FR122047 Inhibitor Inhibition 7.5
valerylsalicylate Inhibitor Inhibition

(125) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for PTGS1 Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
prostaglandin 91 120
pge2 90.6 147
celecoxib 89.5 68
arachidonic acid 89.5 140
rofecoxib 89.5 58

(2) PharmGKB related drug/compound annotations for PTGS1 Gene

Drug/compound Annotation
aspirin CA
clopidogrel CA
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PTGS1: view

Transcripts for PTGS1 Gene

Unigene Clusters for PTGS1 Gene

Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 1 (prostaglandin G/H synthase and cyclooxygenase):
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PTGS1 Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2 ^ 3a · 3b ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9a · 9b ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12a · 12b ^ 13 ^ 14a · 14b · 14c · 14d
SP2: - -
SP3: - - - -
SP4: - - -
SP5: - -
SP6: - - -
SP7: - - - - -
SP8: - - -

Relevant External Links for PTGS1 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for PTGS1 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for PTGS1 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for PTGS1 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Bladder (10.9), Colon - Sigmoid (6.6), and Skin - Sun Exposed (Lower leg) (4.1).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for PTGS1 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PTGS1 Gene Hs.201978

genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with PTGS1: view

Orthologs for PTGS1 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for PTGS1 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PTGS1 36
  • 99.12 (n)
  • 98.77 (a)
PTGS1 37
  • 99 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PTGS1 36
  • 89.35 (n)
  • 92.36 (a)
PTGS1 37
  • 91 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PTGS1 36
  • 89.7 (n)
  • 92.88 (a)
PTGS1 37
  • 91 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Ptgs1 36
  • 85.76 (n)
  • 89.93 (a)
Ptgs1 16
Ptgs1 37
  • 88 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 37
  • 78 (a)
-- 37
  • 71 (a)
-- 37
  • 73 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia PTGS1 37
  • 71 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Ptgs1 36
  • 84.32 (n)
  • 87.15 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PTGS1 36
  • 75.97 (n)
  • 78.18 (a)
PTGS1 37
  • 74 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia PTGS1 37
  • 69 (a)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.6116 36
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia ptgs1 36
  • 69.08 (n)
  • 75.18 (a)
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.11882 36
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii ptgs1 36
  • 67.5 (n)
  • 70.43 (a)
ptgs1 37
  • 67 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.1052 36
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 37
  • 46 (a)
CSA.3689 37
  • 43 (a)
Species with no ortholog for PTGS1:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for PTGS1 Gene

Gene Tree for PTGS1 (if available)
Gene Tree for PTGS1 (if available)

Paralogs for PTGS1 Gene

Paralogs for PTGS1 Gene

Selected SIMAP similar genes for PTGS1 Gene using alignment to 1 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PTGS1: view

Variants for PTGS1 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for PTGS1 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 09 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs5787 -- 122,378,544(+) CATCC(A/G)AGAGA missense, reference, utr-variant-5-prime
rs5788 -- 122,381,513(+) TCTGG(A/C)AAGAT synonymous-codon, reference
rs5789 - 122,381,694(+) ACAAT(A/C)TGGAG missense, reference
rs5790 -- 122,383,697(+) AAGGC(C/T)GAGCA synonymous-codon, reference
rs5791 - 122,386,512(+) GCTGA(A/G)ATTTG reference, missense

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PTGS1 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv831716 CNV Gain 17160897
esv2417467 CNV Deletion 18987734
nsv416964 CNV Loss 16902084

Relevant External Links for PTGS1 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

Disorders for PTGS1 Gene

(2) University of Copenhagen DISEASES for PTGS1 Gene

(93) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for PTGS1 Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
inflammation 71.7 107
osteoarthritis 61.6 18
gastrointestinal complications 58.1 2
colon cancer 57 18
intestinal polyps 53.6 4

Relevant External Links for PTGS1

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PTGS1: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PTGS1 Gene

Publications for PTGS1 Gene

  1. Characterization of the human prostaglandin H synthase 1 gene (PTGS1): exclusion by genetic linkage analysis as a second modifier gene in familial thrombosis. (PMID: 12192304) Scott B.T. … Long G.L. (Blood Coagul. Fibrinolysis 2002) 3 4 23
  2. Mutations within the cyclooxygenase-1 gene in aspirin non-responders with recurrence of stroke. (PMID: 15041270) Hillarp A. … Mattiasson I. (Thromb. Res. 2003) 3 23 49
  3. Cyclooxygenase-1 gene polymorphisms in patients with different asthma phenotypes and atopy. (PMID: 16055872) Shi J. … Kedda M.A. (Eur. Respir. J. 2005) 3 23 49
  4. Polymorphisms of COX-1 and GPVI associate with the antiplatelet effect of aspirin in coronary artery disease patients. (PMID: 16493486) LepAontalo A. … Lassila R. (Thromb. Haemost. 2006) 3 23 49
  5. Genetically mediated interindividual variation in analgesic responses to cyclooxygenase inhibitory drugs. (PMID: 16678543) Lee Y.S. … Dionne R.A. (Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 2006) 3 23 49

Products for PTGS1 Gene

Sources for PTGS1 Gene

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