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POLK Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 63
GCID: GC05P074843

Polymerase (DNA Directed) Kappa


(Previous symbol: DINB1)
  See POLK-related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Polymerase (DNA Directed) Kappa1 2     DINP2 3
DINB11 2 3 5     EC 2.7.7.73 8
DINB Protein1 3     POLQ2 5
DNA Polymerase Kappa1 2     Polymerase (DNA-Directed) Kappa1

External Ids:    HGNC: 91831   Entrez Gene: 514262   Ensembl: ENSG000001220087   OMIM: 6056505   UniProtKB: Q9UBT63   

Export aliases for POLK gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC05P073614 GC05P075044 GC05P074846 GC05P074891 GC05P070013


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for POLK Gene:
External and internal DNA-damaging agents continually threaten the integrity of genetic material in cells.
Although a variety of repair mechanisms exist to remove the resulting lesions, some lesions escape repair and
block the replication machinery. Members of the Y family of DNA polymerases, such as POLK, permit the continuity
of the replication fork by allowing replication through such DNA lesions. Each Y family polymerase has a unique
DNA-damage bypass and fidelity profile. POLK is specialized for the extension step of lesion bypass (summary by
Lone et al., 2007 (PubMed 17317631)).(supplied by OMIM, Jan 2010)

GeneCards Summary for POLK Gene:
POLK (polymerase (DNA directed) kappa) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with POLK include brain compression, and cholinergic urticaria. GO annotations related to this gene include damaged DNA binding and DNA-directed DNA polymerase activity. An important paralog of this gene is REV1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: POLK_HUMAN, Q9UBT6
Function: DNA polymerase specifically involved in DNA repair. Plays an important role in translesion synthesis,
where the normal high-fidelity DNA polymerases cannot proceed and DNA synthesis stalls. Depending on the context,
it inserts the correct base, but causes frequent base transitions, transversions and frameshifts. Lacks 3'-5'
proofreading exonuclease activity. Forms a Schiff base with 5'-deoxyribose phosphate at abasic sites, but does
not have lyase activity

Gene Wiki entry for POLK Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence at NCBI GenBank:
NC_000005.9  NT_034772.7  NC_018916.2  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the POLK gene promoter:
         AREB6   HEN1   CREB   Sp1   p53   deltaCREB   Cdc5   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmids (see all 3): POLK promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for POLK

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat POLK


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 5q13   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  5q13.3   HGNC cytogenetic band: 5q13

POLK Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
POLK gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 5         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC05P074843:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
74,807,581 bp from pter      End:
74,896,969 bp from pter
Size:
89,389 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, antibodies-online, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: POLK_HUMAN, Q9UBT6 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: DNA polymerase kappa  
Size: 870 amino acids; 98809 Da
Cofactor: Divalent metal cations. Prefers magnesium, but can also use manganese
Subunit: Interacts with REV1 (By similarity). Interacts with PCNA
Selected PDB 3D structures from and Proteopedia for POLK (see all 9):
1T94 (3D)        2LSI (3D)        2OH2 (3D)        2W7O (3D)        2W7P (3D)        3IN5 (3D)    
Secondary accessions: B2RBD2 Q5Q9G5 Q5Q9G6 Q5Q9G7 Q5Q9G8 Q86VJ8 Q8IZY0 Q8IZY1 Q8NB30 Q96L01
Q96Q86 Q96Q87 Q9UHC5
Alternative splicing: 8 isoforms:  Q9UBT6-1   Q9UBT6-2   Q9UBT6-3   Q9UBT6-4   Q9UBT6-5   Q9UBT6-6   Q9UBT6-7   Q9UBT6-8   
(May be produced at very low levels due to a premature stop codon in the mRNA, leading to nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. No experimental confirmation available)

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for POLK: NX_Q9UBT6

Explore proteomics data for POLK at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Ubiquitination2 at Lys641, Lys772
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • 3 DME Specific Peptides for POLK (Q9UBT6)
     AAVEMRD  DMDAFYA  LTASAGIAP 


    See POLK Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins: NP_057302.1  
    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000241436   ENSP00000421997   ENSP00000422094   ENSP00000421879   ENSP00000425208  
     ENSP00000424174   ENSP00000423526   ENSP00000420997   ENSP00000425075   ENSP00000424859  
     ENSP00000426853   ENSP00000423532   ENSP00000342256   ENSP00000369848  

    POLK Human Recombinant Protein Products:

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    Novus Biologicals POLK Protein
    Novus Biologicals POLK Lysates
    Browse Sino Biological Recombinant Proteins
    Browse Sino Biological Cell Lysates
    Browse ProSpec Recombinant Proteins
    Browse Proteins at Cloud-Clone Corp.

     
    Search eBioscience for Proteins for POLK 

     
    antibodies-online proteins for POLK (2 products) 

     
    antibodies-online peptides for POLK

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    antibodies-online antibodies for POLK (57 products) 

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    Browse CLIAs at Cloud-Clone Corp.
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    antibodies-online kits for POLK (4 products) 


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    HGNC Gene Families:
    POL: DNA polymerases

    Selected InterPro protein domains (see all 6):
     IPR001126 DNA_repair_prot_UmuC-like
     IPR017963 DNA_repair_prot_UmuC-like_N
     IPR017961 DNA_pol_Y-fam_little_finger
     IPR024728 PolY_HhH_motif
     IPR006642 Znf_Rad18_put

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry Q9UBT6

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: Q9UBT6

    1 Blocks protein domain: IPB001126 UMUC-like DNA-repair protein

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: POLK_HUMAN, Q9UBT6
    Domain: The catalytic core consists of fingers, palm and thumb subdomains, but the fingers and thumb subdomains
    are much smaller than in high-fidelity polymerases; residues from five sequence motifs of the Y-family cluster
    around an active site cleft that can accommodate DNA and nucleotide substrates with relaxed geometric
    constraints, with consequently higher rates of misincorporation and low processivity
    Similarity: Belongs to the DNA polymerase type-Y family
    Similarity: Contains 2 UBZ-type zinc fingers
    Similarity: Contains 1 umuC domain


    Find genes that share domains with POLK           About GenesLikeMe


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: POLK_HUMAN, Q9UBT6
    Function: DNA polymerase specifically involved in DNA repair. Plays an important role in translesion synthesis,
    where the normal high-fidelity DNA polymerases cannot proceed and DNA synthesis stalls. Depending on the context,
    it inserts the correct base, but causes frequent base transitions, transversions and frameshifts. Lacks 3'-5'
    proofreading exonuclease activity. Forms a Schiff base with 5'-deoxyribose phosphate at abasic sites, but does
    not have lyase activity
    Catalytic activity: Deoxynucleoside triphosphate + DNA(n) = diphosphate + DNA(n+1)
    Biophysicochemical properties: pH dependence: Optimum pH is 6.5-7.5; Temperature dependence: Optimum temperature
    is 37 degrees Celsius;

         Enzyme Number (IUBMB): EC 2.7.7.71 2

         Gene Ontology (GO): 4 molecular function terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0003677DNA binding ----
    GO:0003684damaged DNA binding IEA--
    GO:0003887DNA-directed DNA polymerase activity IEA--
    GO:0046872metal ion binding IEA--
         
    Find genes that share ontologies with POLK           About GenesLikeMe


    Phenotypes:
         2 GenomeRNAi human phenotypes for POLK:
     Synthetic lethal with Ras  Upregulation of Wnt/beta-caten 

         3 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 2 alleles(MGI details for Polk):
     cellular  homeostasis/metabolism  immune system 

    Find genes that share phenotypes with POLK           About GenesLikeMe

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-outs for POLK: Polktm1Hohm Polktm1.1Rsky

       genOway: Develop your customized and physiologically relevant rodent model for POLK

    miRNA
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    miRTarBase miRNAs that target POLK:
    hsa-mir-132-3p (MIRT021743), hsa-mir-335-5p (MIRT017418)

    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat POLK using miScript Target Protectors
    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate POLK (see all 33):
    hsa-miR-520f hsa-miR-520e hsa-miR-302d hsa-miR-429 hsa-miR-548k hsa-miR-25 hsa-miR-372 hsa-miR-4325
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidPOLK 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
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    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat POLK

    Gene Editing
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    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: POLK (NM_016218)
    Browse Sino Biological Human cDNA Clones
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    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat POLK

    Cell Line
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    Browse ESI BIO Cell Lines and PureStem Progenitors for POLK 
    In Situ Assay
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    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for POLK


    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    POLK_HUMAN, Q9UBT6: Nucleus. Note=Detected throughout the nucleus and at replication foci
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    nucleus5
    cytosol2
    peroxisome2

    Gene Ontology (GO): 2 cellular component terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005634nucleus IDA--
    GO:0005730NOT nucleolus IDA--

    Find genes that share ontologies with POLK           About GenesLikeMe


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for POLK About    
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Chks in Checkpoint Regulation
    DNA Repair Mechanisms0.32
    2Fanconi anemia pathway (KEGG)
    Fanconi anemia pathway
    3Cell Cycle Control of Chromosomal Replication
    Cell Cycle Control of Chromosomal Replication


    Find genes that share SuperPaths with POLK           About GenesLikeMe

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways

    2 Downloadable PowerPoint Slides of GeneGlobe Pathway Central Maps for POLK
        DNA Repair Mechanisms
    Cell Cycle Control of Chromosomal Replication


    1 Kegg Pathway  (Kegg details for POLK):
        Fanconi anemia pathway

        Custom Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays for POLK
    Interactions:

        Search GeneGlobe Interaction Network for POLK

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    Selected Interacting proteins for POLK (Q9UBT63 ENSP000002414364) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 57)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    REV1Q9UBZ93, ENSP000002584284I2D: score=4 STRING: ENSP00000258428
    PCNAP120043, ENSP000003684384I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000368438
    RAD18Q9NS913, ENSP000002649264I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000264926
    XRCC1P188873, ENSP000002628874I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000262887
    RPA1P276943, ENSP000002547194I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000254719
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): 2 biological process terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0006281DNA repair TAS10620008
    GO:0006297nucleotide-excision repair, DNA gap filling IMP--

    Find genes that share ontologies with POLK           About GenesLikeMe



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Browse Tocris compounds for POLK

    8 HMDB Compounds for POLK    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
    MagnesiumMagnesium (see all 2)7439-95-4--
    Manganesemanganese 7439-96-5--
    Phosphoric acidacide phosphorique (FRENCH) (see all 20)7664-38-2--
    Pyrophosphate(4-)Diphosphoric acid ion (see all 10)14000-31-8--
    Thymidine 5'-triphosphate2'-Deoxythymidine 5'-triphosphate (see all 13)365-08-2--
    dATP2'-Deoxy-5'-ATP (see all 8)1927-31-7--
    dCTP2'-deoxycytidine-5'-triphosphate (see all 4)2056-98-6--
    dGTP2'-Deoxyguanosine 5'-triphosphate (see all 4)2564-35-4--

    3 DrugBank Compounds for POLK    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #TypeActionsPubMed Ids
    1,2,3-TRIHYDROXY-1,2,3,4-TETRAHYDROBENZO[A]PYRENE-- --target--10592235
    1-[2-DEOXYRIBOFURANOSYL]-2,4-DIFLUORO-5-METHYL-BENZENE-5'MONOPHOSPHATE-- --target--10592235
    2'-deoxy-N-(naphthalen-1-ylmethyl)guanosine 5'-(dihydrogen phosphate)-- --target--10592235

    2 Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for POLK gene    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    benzo(a)pyrene 60.2 1 19542228 (1)
    cisplatin 16.9 1 12778700 (1)



    Find genes that share compounds with POLK           About GenesLikeMe



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for POLK gene: 
    NM_016218.2  

    Unigene Cluster for POLK:

    Polymerase (DNA directed) kappa
    Hs.135756  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_016218
    Selected Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant (see all 19):
    ENST00000241436(uc003kdw.3 uc003kdx.3 uc003kdy.3 uc003kec.3 uc010izs.3 uc003ked.3 uc003kee.3)
    ENST00000503479 ENST00000510815 ENST00000506928 ENST00000505774 ENST00000514296(uc003kdz.2)
    ENST00000508867(uc003kea.3) ENST00000515295(uc003keb.3) ENST00000514141(uc010izr.3)
    ENST00000511527 ENST00000504026 ENST00000505975 ENST00000508526 ENST00000509126
    ENST00000507073 ENST00000505069 ENST00000502567 ENST00000352007(uc010izq.3)

    miRNA
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    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate POLK (see all 33):
    hsa-miR-520f hsa-miR-520e hsa-miR-302d hsa-miR-429 hsa-miR-548k hsa-miR-25 hsa-miR-372 hsa-miR-4325
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidPOLK 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
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    Primer
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      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat POLK

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AB027564.1 AB209291.1 AF163570.1 AF194973.1 AF315601.1 AF315602.1 AF318313.1 AK026316.1 
    AK091659.1 AK314610.1 AY769932.1 BC014955.2 BC041798.2 BC050718.1 

    16 DOTS entries:

    DT.86846450  DT.100793764  DT.95126455  DT.120830249  DT.120830320  DT.95277004  DT.95361013  DT.100023167 
    DT.100793763  DT.121633180  DT.40286876  DT.95277007  DT.99941471  DT.75101732  DT.101963549  DT.75124739 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 171):

    AW468655 CD722627 AV752322 BM701738 AK026316 AI695917 AK091659 NM_016218 
    AW162497 BE221747 BC050718 BU175377 AA564687 AA769578 T90210 CF272314 
    CK429649 AI300388 AF315602 AL598302 AA907554 BX098742 AI560141 BC041798 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    Selected Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for POLK (see all 9)    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1 ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12 ^ 13a · 13b ^ 14 ^ 15 ^ 16a · 16b · 16c · 16d
    SP1:                          -                                                                                                   
    SP2:                                                                                                                              
    SP3:                                                                                -                                             
    SP4:                          -                                               -                                                   
    SP5:                                                                                -     -     -                                 


    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for POLK

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
    About This Section

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    POLK expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: --
    POLK Expression
    About this image


    POLK expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 3) fully expand
     
     Endothelium (Cardiovascular System)
             Adult Endothelial Cells Blood Brain Barrier
     
     Brain (Nervous System)
             Adult Endothelial Cells Blood Brain Barrier
     
     Testis (Reproductive System)
    POLK Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    POLK Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.135756

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: POLK_HUMAN, Q9UBT6
    Tissue specificity: Detected at low levels in testis, spleen, prostate and ovary. Detected at very low levels in
    kidney, colon, brain, heart, liver, lung, placenta, pancreas and peripheral blood leukocytes

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    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

    Orthologs for POLK gene from Selected species (see all 18)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Polk1 , 5 polymerase (DNA directed), kappa1, 5 81.41(n)1
    77.53(a)1
      13 (50.56 cM)5
    270151  NM_012048.21  NP_036178.11 
     964806895 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves POLK1 polymerase (DNA directed) kappa 66.95(n)
    60.87(a)
      374003  NM_204183.1  NP_989514.1 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia POLK6
    polymerase (DNA directed) kappa
    56(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    2(14734021-14765136)
    tropical clawed frog
    (Xenopus tropicalis)
    Amphibia polk1 polymerase (DNA directed) kappa 70.09(n)
    72.6(a)
      448219  NM_001005705.1  NP_001005705.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii polk1 polymerase (DNA directed) kappa 59.17(n)
    56.86(a)
      562749  XM_686127.6  XP_691219.4 
    worm
    (Caenorhabditis elegans)
    Secernentea F22B7.63
    polk-11
    mucb3
    polk-11
    42(a)3
    49.72(n)1
    46.07(a)1
      III(8698443-8700218)3
    1762091  NM_001129220.11  NP_001122692.11 
    baker's yeast
    (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
    Saccharomycetes REV16
    Deoxycytidyl transferase; involved in repair of ab...
    9(a)
    1 → many
    XV(981828-984785) YOR346W
    rice
    (Oryza sativa)
    Liliopsida Os.95492 Oryza sativa (japonica cultivar-group) cDNA cloneJ more 70.58(n)    AK066372.1 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for POLK (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for POLK (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for POLK gene
    REV12  POLH2  POLI2  

    Find genes that share paralogs with POLK           About GenesLikeMe



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for POLK (see all 1659)    About this table                                 

    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 5 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs1445093381,2
    --74809953(+) GTTTAA/TGATCT 1 -- int10--------
    rs1461520671,2
    --74810057(+) TTTCTC/GTCTAG 1 -- int10--------
    rs1887634671,2
    --74810247(+) AAATTC/GGTCAG 1 -- int10--------
    rs1401506481,2
    C--74810273(+) ATAACA/TTCATA 1 -- int10--------
    rs1816102681,2
    --74810345(+) GGTTCA/GTTTGA 1 -- int10--------
    rs100590221,2
    C,F,H--74810384(+) AGGTAG/AACATT 1 -- int116Minor allele frequency- A:0.15NS EA NA WA 2212
    rs799963111,2
    C,F--74810448(+) TCATCG/CCTAGT 1 -- int12Minor allele frequency- C:0.19CSA WA 120
    rs1872474531,2
    C--74810505(+) ACTTTC/TAATAC 1 -- int10--------
    rs1119982381,2
    F--74810558(+) AATGGC/TACATA 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- T:0.50CSA 2
    rs1511769351,2
    C--74810618(+) CCAGAA/GGTTTG 1 -- int10--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for POLK (74807581 - 74896969 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 9 variations for POLK:    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    nsv4881CNV Insertion18451855
    dgv6185n71CNV Loss21882294
    nsv882203CNV Loss21882294
    nsv882201CNV Loss21882294
    dgv6184n71CNV Loss21882294
    nsv882202CNV Loss21882294
    nsv882200CNV Loss21882294
    dgv6183n71CNV Loss21882294
    nsv518475CNV Gain19592680

    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing POLK
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for POLK

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 605650    OMIM disorders: --

    2 diseases for POLK:    
    About MalaCards
    brain compression    cholinergic urticaria

    2 diseases from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for POLK:
    Brain compression     Cholinergic urticaria

    Find genes that share disorders with POLK           About GenesLikeMe

    1 Novoseek inferred disease relationship for POLK gene    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    cancer lung 9.87 3 15202001 (2)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): POLK
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: POLK (10 documents)

    Export disorders for POLK gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for POLK gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 81):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with POLK)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Human and mouse homologs of Escherichia coli DinB (DNA polymerase IV), members of the UmuC/DinB superfamily. (PubMed id 10518552)1, 2, 3 Gerlach V.L....Friedberg E.C. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1999)
    2. Multiple PolK (POLK) transcripts in mammalian testis. (PubMed id 15661663)1, 2, 9 Guo C.... Friedberg E.C. (DNA Repair 2005)
    3. Human DNA polymerase kappa bypasses and extends beyond thymine glycols during translesion synthesis in vitro, preferentially incorporating correct nucleotides. (PubMed id 12145297)1, 2, 9 Fischhaber P.L....Friedberg E.C. (J. Biol. Chem. 2002)
    4. Error-prone bypass of certain DNA lesions by the human DNA polymerase kappa. (PubMed id 10887153)1, 3, 9 Ohashi E....Ohmori H. (amp 2000)
    5. Comprehensive screen of genetic variation in DNA repair pathway genes and postmenopausal breast cancer risk. (PubMed id 20496165)1, 4 Monsees G.M....Han J. (Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 2011)
    6. Personalized smoking cessation: interactions between nicotine dose, dependence and quit-success genotype score. (PubMed id 20379614)1, 4 Rose J.E....Uhl G.R. (Mol. Med. 2010)
    7. Genetic polymorphisms in 85 DNA repair genes and bladder cancer risk. (PubMed id 19237606)1, 4 Michiels S....Benhamou S. (Carcinogenesis 2009)
    8. Polymorphism discovery in 62 DNA repair genes and haplotype associations with risks for lung and head and neck cancers. (PubMed id 17494052)1, 4 Michiels S....Benhamou S. (Carcinogenesis 2007)
    9. Crystal structure of the catalytic core of human DNA polymerase kappa. (PubMed id 15296733)1, 2 Uljon S.N....Aggarwal A.K. (Structure 2004)
    10. Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs. (PubMed id 14702039)1, 2 Ota T.... Sugano S. (Nat. Genet. 2004)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 51426 HGNC: 9183 AceView: POLK Ensembl:ENSG00000122008 euGenes: HUgn51426
    ECgene: POLK Kegg: 51426 H-InvDB: POLK

    (According to HUGE)
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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for POLK Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    ATLAS Chromosomes in Cancer entry for POLK Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
    NIEHS-SNPshttp://egp.gs.washington.edu/data/polk/

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for POLK gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving POLK

    Licensable Technologies for POLK gene:
    Weizmann Institute:Increasing the efficiency of Chemotherapy by modulating the function of DNA polymerase kappa
    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



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