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HDAC1 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 75
GCID: GC01P032757

Histone Deacetylase 1


(Previous symbol: RPD3L1)
  See HDAC1-related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Histone Deacetylase 11 2     GON-102
RPD3L11 2 3 5     RPD32
HD12 3     Reduced Potassium Dependency, Yeast Homolog-Like 12
EC 3.5.1.983 8     

External Ids:    HGNC: 48521   Entrez Gene: 30652   Ensembl: ENSG000001164787   OMIM: 6012415   UniProtKB: Q135473   

Export aliases for HDAC1 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC01P032525 GC01P031697 GC01P032184 GC01P032260 GC01P032426 GC01P030873


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for HDAC1 Gene:
Histone acetylation and deacetylation, catalyzed by multisubunit complexes, play a key role in the regulation of
eukaryotic gene expression. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the histone deacetylase/acuc/apha family
and is a component of the histone deacetylase complex. It also interacts with retinoblastoma tumor-suppressor
protein and this complex is a key element in the control of cell proliferation and differentiation. Together with
metastasis-associated protein-2, it deacetylates p53 and modulates its effect on cell growth and apoptosis.
(provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008)

GeneCards Summary for HDAC1 Gene:
HDAC1 (histone deacetylase 1) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with HDAC1 include atrichia with papular lesions, and chromosome 1p deletion. GO annotations related to this gene include enzyme binding and sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity. An important paralog of this gene is HDAC2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: HDAC1_HUMAN, Q13547
Function: Responsible for the deacetylation of lysine residues on the N-terminal part of the core histones (H2A,
H2B, H3 and H4). Histone deacetylation gives a tag for epigenetic repression and plays an important role in
transcriptional regulation, cell cycle progression and developmental events. Histone deacetylases act via the
formation of large multiprotein complexes. Deacetylates SP proteins, SP1 and SP3, and regulates their function.
Component of the BRG1-RB1-HDAC1 complex, which negatively regulates the CREST-mediated transcription in resting
neurons. Upon calcium stimulation, HDAC1 is released from the complex and CREBBP is recruited, which facilitates
transcriptional activation. Deacetylates TSHZ3 and regulates its transcriptional repressor activity. Deacetylates
'Lys-310' in RELA and thereby inhibits the transcriptional activity of NF-kappa-B. Component a
RCOR/GFI/KDM1A/HDAC complex that suppresses, via histone deacetylase (HDAC) recruitment, a number of genes
implicated in multilineage blood cell development. Deacetylates NR1D2 and abrogates the effect of KAT5-mediated
relieving of NR1D2 transcription repression activity

summary for HDAC1 Gene:
Histone Deacetylases (HDACs) are a group of enzymes closely related to sirtuins. They catalyze the removal
of acetyl groups from lysine residues in histones and non-histone proteins, resulting in transcriptional
repression. In general, they do not act autonomously but as components of large multiprotein complexes, such
as pRb-E2F and mSin3A, that mediate important transcription regulatory pathways. There are three classes of
HDACs; classes 1, 2 and 4, which are closely related Zn2+-dependent enzymes. HDACs are ubiquitously
expressed and they can exist in the nucleus or cytosol. Their subcellular localization is effected by
protein-protein interactions (for example HDAC-14.3.3 complexes are retained in the cytosol) and by the
class to which they belong (class 1 HDACs are predominantly nuclear whilst class 2 HDACs shuttle between the
nucleus and cytosol). HDACs have a role in cell growth arrest, differentiation and death and this has led to
substantial interest in HDAC inhibitors as possible antineoplastic agents.

Gene Wiki entry for HDAC1 Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence at NCBI GenBank:
NC_000001.10  NC_018912.2  NT_032977.10  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the HDAC1 gene promoter:
         AML1a   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidHDAC1 promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for HDAC1

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat HDAC1


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 1p34   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  1p35.1   HGNC cytogenetic band: 1p34

HDAC1 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
HDAC1 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 1         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC01P032757:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
32,757,687 bp from pter      End:
32,799,236 bp from pter
Size:
41,550 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, antibodies-online, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: HDAC1_HUMAN, Q13547 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Histone deacetylase 1  
Size: 482 amino acids; 55103 Da
Subunit: Interacts with C10orf90/FATS (via its N-terminal): the interaction prevents binding of HDAC1 to
CDKN1A/p21 and facilitates the acetylation and stabilization of CDKN1A/p21. Interacts with CDKN1A/p21; the
interaction is prevented by binding of C10orf90/FATS facilitating acetylation and stabilization of CDKN1A/p21.
Component of a RCOR/GFI/KDM1A/HDAC complex. Interacts directly with GFI1 and GFI1B. Part of the core histone
deacetylase (HDAC) complex composed of HDAC1, HDAC2, RBBP4 and RBBP7. The core complex associates with MTA2,
MBD2, MBD3, MTA1L1, CHD3 and CHD4 to form the nucleosome remodeling and histone deacetylation (NuRD) complex, or
with SIN3, SAP18 and SAP30 to form the SIN3 HDAC complex. Component of a BHC histone deacetylase complex that
contains HDAC1, HDAC2, HMG20B/BRAF35, KDM1A, RCOR1/CoREST and PHF21A/BHC80. The BHC complex may also contain
ZMYM2, ZNF217, ZMYM3, GSE1 and GTF2I. Associates with the 9-1-1 complex; interacts with HUS1. Found in a complex
with DNMT3A and HDAC7. Interacts with BAZ2A/TIP5, BCOR, BRMS1L, DAXX, DNMT1, EP300, HCFC1, NFE4, PCAF, PHB2,
MIER1, KDM4A, MINT, NRIP1, PRDM6, RERE, SETDB1, SMYD2, SUV39H1, TGIF, TGIF2, UHRF1, UHRF2 and ZNF541. Interacts
with the non-histone region of H2AFY. Interacts with HDAC9. Component of a mSin3A corepressor complex that
contains SIN3A, SAP130, SUDS3/SAP45, ARID4B/SAP180, HDAC1 and HDAC2. Interacts with BANP, CBFA2T3 and KDM5B.
Interacts with SAP30L. Interacts with E4F1. Interacts with KFL1 and SAMSN1. Interacts with SV40 large T antigen.
Interacts with CHFR, PRDM16 and SMAD3. Interacts with SP1; the interaction deacetylates SP1 and regulates its
transcriptional activity. Interacts with SP3; the interaction deacetylates SP3 and regulates its transcriptional
activity. In vitro, C(18) ceramides increase this interaction and the subsequent SP3 deacetylation and
SP3-mediated repression of the TERT promoter. Interacts with RB1 and SMARCA4/BRG1. Interacts with TRAF6.
Interacts with TSHZ3 (via N-terminus); the interaction is direct. Found in a trimeric complex with APBB1 and
TSHZ3; the interaction between HDAC1 and APBB1 is mediated by TSHZ3. Interacts with APEX1; the interaction is not
dependent on the acetylated status of APEX1. Interacts with NR4A2/NURR1 and BRMS1. Interacts with TRIM28; the
interaction recruits HDAC1 to E2F1 and inhibits its acetylation. Binds to CDK5 complexed to CDK5R1 (p25).
Interacts with ZMYND15. Interacts with DDX5. Part of a complex composed of TRIM28, HDAC1, HDAC2 and EHMT2.
Interacts with BCL6 and DDIT3/CHOP. Part of a complex containing at least CDYL, MIER1, MIER2, HDAC1 and HDAC2.
Interacts with NR1D2 (via C-terminus). Interacts with ZNF431. Interacts with INSM1
2 PDB 3D structures from and Proteopedia for HDAC1:
1TYI (3D)        4BKX (3D)    
Secondary accessions: Q92534

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for HDAC1: NX_Q13547

Explore proteomics data for HDAC1 at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Sumoylated on Lys-444 and Lys-476; which promotes enzymatic activity. Desumoylated by SENP11
  • Phosphorylation on Ser-421 and Ser-423 promotes enzymatic activity and interactions with NuRD and SIN3 complexes.
    Phosphorylated by CDK51
  • Ubiquitinated by CHFR, leading to its degradation by the proteasome (By similarity). Ubiquitinated by KCTD11,
    leading to proteasomal degradation1
  • Ubiquitination2 at Lys10, Lys66, Lys74, Lys89, Lys126, Lys200, Lys279, Lys361
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Selected DME Specific Peptides for HDAC1 (Q13547) (see all 29)
     AVVLQCG  HPMKPHR  LNYGLYR  PDKRISI 


    See HDAC1 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins: NP_004955.2  
    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000362649   ENSP00000407859   ENSP00000362642  
    Reactome Protein details: Q13547

    HDAC1 Human Recombinant Protein Products:

    EMD Millipore Purified and/or Recombinant HDAC1 Protein
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    Enzo Life Sciences proteins for HDAC1
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    OriGene Protein Over-expression Lysate for HDAC1
    OriGene MassSpec for HDAC1
    OriGene Custom Protein Services for HDAC1
    GenScript Custom Purified and Recombinant Proteins Services for HDAC1
    Novus Biologicals HDAC1 Proteins
    Novus Biologicals HDAC1 Lysates
    Browse Sino Biological Recombinant Proteins
    Browse Sino Biological Cell Lysates
    ProSpec Recombinant Protein for HDAC1
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Proteins for HDAC1

     
    Search eBioscience for Proteins for HDAC1 

     
    antibodies-online proteins for HDAC1 (13 products) 

     
    antibodies-online peptides for HDAC1

    HDAC1 Antibody Products:

    EMD Millipore Mono- and Polyclonal Antibodies for the study of HDAC1
    Browse R&D Systems for Antibodies
    Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for HDAC1 
    OriGene Antibodies for HDAC1
    OriGene Custom Antibody Services for HDAC1
    Novus Biologicals HDAC1 Antibodies
    Abcam antibodies for HDAC1
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Antibodies for HDAC1
    ThermoFisher Antibody for HDAC1
    antibodies-online antibodies for HDAC1 (304 products) 

    HDAC1 Assay Products:

    EMD Millipore Kits and Assays for the Analysis of HDAC1
    OriGene Custom Assay Services for HDAC1
    Browse R&D Systems for biochemical assays
    GenScript Custom Assay Services for HDAC1
    Enzo Life Sciences assays for HDAC1
    Cloud-Clone Corp. ELISAs for HDAC1
    Cloud-Clone Corp. CLIAs for HDAC1
    Search eBioscience for ELISAs for HDAC1 
    antibodies-online kits for HDAC1 (14 products) 


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    3 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR000286 His_deacetylse
     IPR003084 His_deacetylse_1
     IPR023801 His_deacetylse_dom

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry Q13547

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: Q13547

    2 Blocks protein domains:
    IPB000286 Histone deacetylase superfamily signature
    IPB003084 Histone deacetylase signature


    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: HDAC1_HUMAN, Q13547
    Similarity: Belongs to the histone deacetylase family. HD type 1 subfamily


    Find genes that share domains with HDAC1           About GenesLikeMe


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: HDAC1_HUMAN, Q13547
    Function: Responsible for the deacetylation of lysine residues on the N-terminal part of the core histones (H2A,
    H2B, H3 and H4). Histone deacetylation gives a tag for epigenetic repression and plays an important role in
    transcriptional regulation, cell cycle progression and developmental events. Histone deacetylases act via the
    formation of large multiprotein complexes. Deacetylates SP proteins, SP1 and SP3, and regulates their function.
    Component of the BRG1-RB1-HDAC1 complex, which negatively regulates the CREST-mediated transcription in resting
    neurons. Upon calcium stimulation, HDAC1 is released from the complex and CREBBP is recruited, which facilitates
    transcriptional activation. Deacetylates TSHZ3 and regulates its transcriptional repressor activity. Deacetylates
    'Lys-310' in RELA and thereby inhibits the transcriptional activity of NF-kappa-B. Component a
    RCOR/GFI/KDM1A/HDAC complex that suppresses, via histone deacetylase (HDAC) recruitment, a number of genes
    implicated in multilineage blood cell development. Deacetylates NR1D2 and abrogates the effect of KAT5-mediated
    relieving of NR1D2 transcription repression activity
    Catalytic activity: Hydrolysis of an N(6)-acetyl-lysine residue of a histone to yield a deacetylated histone

         Genatlas biochemistry entry for HDAC1:
    histone deacetyltransferase 1,modulator of chromatin structure,involved in repression of gene expression,through
    interaction with RB1,also downregulating MEF2 activity after being recruited by MITR

         Enzyme Number (IUBMB): EC 3.5.1.981 2

         Gene Ontology (GO): Selected molecular function terms (see all 15):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0001047core promoter binding IDA18974119
    GO:0001103RNA polymerase II repressing transcription factor binding IPI--
    GO:0001106RNA polymerase II transcription corepressor activity IDA15919722
    GO:0003700sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity TAS8646880
    GO:0004407histone deacetylase activity TAS12711221
         
    Find genes that share ontologies with HDAC1           About GenesLikeMe


    Phenotypes:
         2 GenomeRNAi human phenotypes for HDAC1:
     Increased gamma-H2AX phosphory  Upregulation of Wnt/beta-caten 

         15 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 10 alleles(MGI details for Hdac1):
     behavior/neurological  cardiovascular system  cellular  craniofacial  embryogenesis 
     growth/size/body  hematopoietic system  immune system  liver/biliary system  mortality/aging 
     muscle  no phenotypic analysis  normal  respiratory system  tumorigenesis 

    Find genes that share phenotypes with HDAC1           About GenesLikeMe

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-outs for HDAC1: Hdac1tm1.2Pmt Hdac1tm1.2Eno

       genOway: Develop your customized and physiologically relevant rodent model for HDAC1

    miRNA
    Products:
        
    miRTarBase miRNAs that target HDAC1:
    hsa-mir-615-3p (MIRT039704), hsa-mir-92a-3p (MIRT049098), hsa-mir-34a-5p (MIRT025557), hsa-mir-24-3p (MIRT030619), hsa-mir-671-5p (MIRT039285), hsa-mir-449a (MIRT003760), hsa-mir-30a-5p (MIRT049948), hsa-mir-449b-5p (MIRT006353)

    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat HDAC1 using miScript Target Protectors
    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate HDAC1 (see all 17):
    hsa-miR-3200-5p hsa-miR-520d-5p hsa-miR-1914* hsa-miR-371-5p hsa-miR-410 hsa-miR-373* hsa-miR-3613-3p hsa-miR-3662
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidHDAC1 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
        
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for HDAC1
    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat HDAC1

    Gene Editing
    Products:
    DNA2.0 Custom Protein Engineering Service for HDAC1

    Clone
    Products:
         
    OriGene clones in human, mouse for HDAC1 (see all 6)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for HDAC1
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: HDAC1 (NM_004964)
    Sino Biological Human cDNA Clone for HDAC1
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for HDAC1
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat HDAC1
    Addgene plasmids for HDAC1 

    Cell Line
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    GenScript Custom overexpressing Cell Line Services for HDAC1
    Browse ESI BIO Cell Lines and PureStem Progenitors for HDAC1 
    In Situ Assay
    Products:
       

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for HDAC1

    Flow Cytometry
    Products:
       

     
    eBioscience FlowRNA Probe Sets ( VA1-12119) for HDAC1 


    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    HDAC1_HUMAN, Q13547: Nucleus
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    cytosol5
    nucleus5

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected cellular component terms (see all 9):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0000118histone deacetylase complex TAS12711221
    GO:0000790nuclear chromatin IDA--
    GO:0005634nucleus IDA--
    GO:0005654nucleoplasm TAS--
    GO:0005730NOT nucleolus IDA--

    Find genes that share ontologies with HDAC1           About GenesLikeMe


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for HDAC1 About   (see all 75)  
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathSelected contained pathways About (see all per SuperPath)
    1Notch signaling pathway (KEGG)
    Notch signaling pathway0.84
    Delta-Notch Signaling Pathway0.33
    Notch Signaling Pathway0.84
    Notch Signaling0.30
    2RNA Polymerase I Promoter Opening
    RNA Polymerase I Transcription0.78
    RNA Polymerase I, RNA Polymerase III, and Mitochondrial Transcription0.73
    RNA Polymerase I Promoter Clearance0.78
    Alcoholism0.34
    3Cell cycle
    Cell cycle0.59
    Cell cycle0.59
    4p53 Signaling
    p53 Signaling0.38
    p53 Pathway0.38
    5Packaging Of Telomere Ends
    Signal transduction Activin A signaling regulation0.40
    Histone modification0.31


    Find genes that share SuperPaths with HDAC1           About GenesLikeMe

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways

    1 R&D Systems Pathway for HDAC1
        Notch Signaling Pathways

    Selected Downloadable PowerPoint Slides of GeneGlobe Pathway Central Maps for HDAC1 (see all 17)
        Calcium Mediated T-Cell Apoptosis
    DNA Methylation and Transcriptional Repression
    Nur77 Signaling in T-Cell
    BRCA1 Pathway
    Intracellular Calcium Signaling

    1 Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Pathway for HDAC1
        Chromatin Regulation / Acetylation

    Selected GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) Pathways for HDAC1 (see all 8)
        Signal transduction Activin A signaling regulation
    Transcription P53 signaling pathway
    Development NOTCH1-mediated pathway for NF-KB activity modulation
    Transcription Sin3 and NuRD in transcription regulation
    Transcription Ligand-Dependent Transcription of Retinoid-Target genes

    Selected BioSystems Pathways for HDAC1 (see all 29)
        Cell cycle
    EGFR1 Signaling Pathway
    SIDS Susceptibility Pathways
    Notch Signaling Pathway
    Integrated Breast Cancer Pathway

    2 Sino Biological Pathways for HDAC1
        Notch Signaling Pathway
    p53 Pathway

    Selected Reactome Pathways for HDAC1 (see all 12)
        Constitutive Signaling by NOTCH1 HD+PEST Domain Mutants
    NOTCH1 Intracellular Domain Regulates Transcription
    deactivation of the beta-catenin transactivating complex
    G0 and Early G1
    p75NTR negatively regulates cell cycle via SC1

    1 PharmGKB Pathway for HDAC1
        Valproic Acid Pathway, Pharmacodynamics

    Selected Kegg Pathways  (Kegg details for HDAC1) (see all 12):
        Cell cycle
    Notch signaling pathway
    Thyroid hormone signaling pathway
    Huntington's disease
    Amphetamine addiction

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including HDAC1 (see all 13): 
              Epigenetic Chromatin Modification Enzymes in human mouse rat
              Multiple Sclerosis in human mouse rat
              Leukemia in human mouse rat
              Autophagy in human mouse rat
              Nuclear Receptors & Coregulators in human mouse rat

    Interactions:

        GeneGlobe Interaction Network for HDAC1

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    Selected Interacting proteins for HDAC1 (Q135471, 2, 3 ENSP000003626494) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 1628)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    HIST1H4AP628051, 2, 3, ENSP000003529804EBI-301834,EBI-302023 MINT-8309424 I2D: score=4 STRING: ENSP00000352980
    HIST1H4HP628051, 2, 3, ENSP000002893524EBI-301834,EBI-302023 MINT-8309424 I2D: score=4 STRING: ENSP00000289352
    HIST1H4LP628051, 2, 3, ENSP000003482584EBI-301834,EBI-302023 MINT-8309424 I2D: score=4 STRING: ENSP00000348258
    HIST1H4BP628051, 2, 3EBI-301834,EBI-302023 MINT-8309424 I2D: score=4 
    HIST1H4CP628051, 2, 3EBI-301834,EBI-302023 MINT-8309424 I2D: score=4 
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected biological process terms (see all 33):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0000122negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter TAS--
    GO:0000278mitotic cell cycle TAS--
    GO:0006338chromatin remodeling IC16762839
    GO:0006351transcription, DNA-templated TAS--
    GO:0006367transcription initiation from RNA polymerase II promoter TAS--

    Find genes that share ontologies with HDAC1           About GenesLikeMe



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Enzo Life Sciences drugs & compounds for HDAC1
    Selected ApexBio Compounds for HDAC1 (see all 29)     About this table
    CompoundAction CAS #
    AR-42 (OSU-HDAC42)Pan-HDAC inhibitor[935881-37-1]
    Belinostat (PXD101)Novel and potent hydroxamate-type HDAC inhibitor[414864-00-9]
    CI994 (Tacedinaline)HDAC1 and 3 inhibitor[112522-64-2]
    CUDC-101Multitargeted HDAC inhibitor[1012054-59-9]
    CUDC-907PI3K and HDAC inhibitor[1339928-25-4]
    DroxinostatSelective HDAC inhibitor[99873-43-5]
    Entinostat (MS-275,SNDX-275)Entinostat inhibits HDAC1 and HDAC3 but not HDAC8[209783-80-2]
    ITF2357 (Givinostat)HDAC inhibitor, inhibits class I and class II HDACs[732302-99-7]
    JNJ-26481585Potent pan-HDAC inhibitor[875320-29-9]
    LAQ824 (NVP-LAQ824,Dacinostat)Novel and potent HDAC inhibitor[404951-53-7]

    Compounds for HDAC1 available from Tocris Bioscience    About this table
    CompoundAction CAS #
    TCS HDAC6 20bSelective HDAC6 inhibitor[956154-63-5]
    LMK 235Selective HDAC4/HDAC5 inhibitor[1418033-25-6]
    Trichostatin AHistone deacetylase inhibitor[58880-19-6]
    TubacinHDAC6 inhibitor; inhibits alpha-tubulin deacetylation[1350555-93-9]
    Sodium 4-PhenylbutyrateHistone deacetylase inhibitor[1716-12-7]

    1 HMDB Compound for HDAC1    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
    Butyric acid1-Butyrate (see all 25)107-92-617258775

    1 DrugBank Compound for HDAC1    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #TypeActionsPubMed Ids
    VorinostatMK0683 (see all 7)149647-78-9targetinhibitor11752352 17694093

    Selected Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for HDAC1 gene (see all 35)    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    9-hydroxystearic acid 85.9 10 15716589 (3), 16487928 (2), 17234448 (2), 16702808 (1)
    trapoxin 80.4 7 13679859 (2), 11134513 (2), 9520398 (1)
    suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid 80.3 9 18398905 (2), 17671692 (1), 19683536 (1), 18552382 (1)
    apicidin 69.2 9 16870149 (3), 11085529 (1), 17828306 (1)
    butyrate 66.2 8 15051827 (2), 16849648 (1), 15716589 (1), 18791934 (1) (see all 6)
    5-aza-2'deoxycytidine 62.4 10 16043219 (3), 15722551 (1), 12646234 (1), 17464181 (1) (see all 5)
    hydroxamate 58.2 2 18412327 (1), 11134513 (1)
    depsipeptide 54.4 3 19198625 (1), 11092981 (1), 12208741 (1)
    lysine 54.1 10 16287849 (2), 19084395 (1), 19272776 (1), 12426395 (1) (see all 7)
    valproic acid 51 8 17389244 (2), 18789133 (1), 16099290 (1), 17670825 (1) (see all 6)



    Find genes that share compounds with HDAC1           About GenesLikeMe



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
    About This Section

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    REFSEQ mRNAs for HDAC1 gene: 
    NM_004964.2  

    Unigene Cluster for HDAC1:

    Histone deacetylase 1
    Hs.88556  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: BX648622
    11 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000373548(uc010ohd.1 uc010ohe.1 uc001bvb.1 uc010ohf.1)
    ENST00000481281 ENST00000463172 ENST00000428704 ENST00000472928 ENST00000490081
    ENST00000482310 ENST00000476391(uc001bvc.1) ENST00000484305 ENST00000471488
    ENST00000373541
    miRNA
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    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate HDAC1 (see all 17):
    hsa-miR-3200-5p hsa-miR-520d-5p hsa-miR-1914* hsa-miR-371-5p hsa-miR-410 hsa-miR-373* hsa-miR-3613-3p hsa-miR-3662
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidHDAC1 3' UTR sequence
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    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: HDAC1 (NM_004964)
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    Addgene plasmids for HDAC1 
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    Flow Cytometry
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    eBioscience FlowRNA Probe Sets ( VA1-12119) for HDAC1 

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AB451297.1 AB451430.1 AK225555.1 AK296308.1 AK299241.1 AK299792.1 AK313061.1 AY627042.1 
    BC000301.2 BX648055.1 BX648622.1 CR541717.1 D50405.1 U50079.1 

    Selected DOTS entries (see all 37):

    DT.95110789  DT.95183522  DT.97760203  DT.80101499  DT.91765896  DT.92033151  DT.102843990  DT.91765912 
    DT.100827063  DT.95174496  DT.100757502  DT.100834279  DT.100044936  DT.100827065  DT.121448429  DT.100044939 
    DT.100827064  DT.121448462  DT.91744092  DT.95077165  DT.95174489  DT.100827066  DT.121448323  DT.121448420 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 849):

    AA713957 BI915630 AU141862 AI075699 NM_004964 AI689643 AI687089 AI570706 
    BI087411 BU731765 BM850484 AA340079 BU683591 BQ440608 CD673175 AA548122 
    AL531607 AA306063 BU728287 BG248617 AA928576 BM838808 CD358789 CA435700 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    Selected Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for HDAC1 (see all 9)    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b · 6c ^ 7 ^ 8a · 8b ^ 9a · 9b · 9c · 9d ^ 10a · 10b · 10c ^ 11a · 11b ^ 12a · 12b · 12c ^ 13 ^ 14 ^
    SP1:                                      -     -     -           -           -     -                                                                           
    SP2:                                                                                                                                                            
    SP3:                                                              -           -     -                                                                           
    SP4:                                                              -           -     -                                                                           
    SP5:                                                                                            -     -                                                         

    ExUns: 15
    SP1:      
    SP2:      
    SP3:      
    SP4:      
    SP5:      


    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for HDAC1

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
    About This Section

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    HDAC1 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: --
    HDAC1 Expression
    About this image


    HDAC1 expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 21) fully expand
     
     Brain (Nervous System)    fully expand to see all 6 entries
             Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells Spinal Cord White Matter
             Cerebral Cortex
     
     Ovary (Reproductive System)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             Ovarian Mesenchymal Stroma Cells Ovary Interstitium
             Oviduct
     
     Testis (Reproductive System)
             Leydig Cells Testis Interstitium
     
     Epithelial Cells
             Primary Hair Placode Cells Hair Follicle
     
     Neural Tube (Nervous System)
             Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells Motor Neural Progenitor Domain
    HDAC1 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    HDAC1 Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.88556

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: HDAC1_HUMAN, Q13547
    Tissue specificity: Ubiquitous, with higher levels in heart, pancreas and testis, and lower levels in kidney and
    brain

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including HDAC1 (see all 13): 
              Epigenetic Chromatin Modification Enzymes in human mouse rat
              Multiple Sclerosis in human mouse rat
              Leukemia in human mouse rat
              Autophagy in human mouse rat
              Nuclear Receptors & Coregulators in human mouse rat

    Primer
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    In Situ
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    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for HDAC1

    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

    Orthologs for HDAC1 gene from Selected species (see all 28)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Hdac11 , 5 histone deacetylase 11, 5 90.46(n)1
    99.38(a)1
      4 (63.26 cM)5
    4337591  NM_008228.21  NP_032254.11 
     1295161045 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves HDAC11 histone deacetylase 1 81.45(n)
    93.93(a)
      373961  NM_204156.1  NP_989487.1 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia HDAC16
    histone deacetylase 1
    92(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    GL343706.1(23935-44462)
    African clawed frog
    (Xenopus laevis)
    Amphibia AF020658.12   -- 80.03(n)    AF020658.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii AF506201.12   -- 78.69(n)   192302  AF506201.1 
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta Rpd31 , 3 chromatin silencing transcription
    co-repressor3
    Rpd31
    82(a)
    (best of 2)3
    72.17(n)1
    82.11(a)1
      3 64B133
    385651  NM_139661.41  NP_647918.21 
    worm
    (Caenorhabditis elegans)
    Secernentea hda-13
    hda-31
    Yeast RPD3 protein like3
    hda-31
    64(a)
    (best of 2)3
    63.51(n)1
    69.47(a)1
      V(14528006-14529575)3
    1730741  NM_060625.41  NP_493026.11 
    baker's yeast
    (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
    Saccharomycetes RPD3(YNL330C)4
    RPD31
    Histone deacetylase; regulates transcription, silencing, more4
    RPD31
    60.28(n)1
    64.83(a)1
      14(19302-18001)4
    8553861, 4  NP_014069.11, 4 
    thale cress
    (Arabidopsis thaliana)
    eudicotyledons HD11 HD1 63.36(n)
    67.62(a)
      829969  NM_119974.3  NP_195526.1 
    rice
    (Oryza sativa)
    Liliopsida AF513382.12   -- 75.98(n)    AF513382.1 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for HDAC1 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for HDAC1 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
    About This Section

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    Paralogs for HDAC1 gene
    HDAC22  HDAC32  HDAC82  
    5 SIMAP similar genes for HDAC1 using alignment to 6 protein entries:     HDAC1_HUMAN (see all proteins):
    DKFZp686H12203    HDAC2    HDAC3    HDAC8    HDAC9

    Find genes that share paralogs with HDAC1           About GenesLikeMe


    2 Pseudogenes.org Pseudogenes for HDAC1
    PGOHUM00000238893 PGOHUM00000245213


    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
    About This Section

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    Selected SNPs for HDAC1 (see all 824)    About this table                                 

    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 1 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs1451438331,2
    --32755746(+) GCCCAG/TGCTGG 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs563542091,2
    C--32755993(+) CACTGT/CGCCCA 1 -- us2k13Minor allele frequency- C:0.13NA EA 242
    rs1852651531,2
    --32755996(+) TGTGCC/TCAGCC 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1449242501,2
    C--32756066(+) GAAGCA/CCTCAT 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1889463391,2
    --32756102(+) TTTAAC/TAGCCC 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1174648501,2
    C,F--32756162(+) TTGATG/TATCTG 1 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- T:0.08EA 120
    rs1815528571,2
    --32756277(+) AATGTC/GTAGAG 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1857984541,2
    --32756314(+) GGAAGA/GTGCTA 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs17419811,2
    C,F,H--32756439(+) CAGAAC/TAGCTT 1 -- us2k128Minor allele frequency- T:0.44NS EA NA WA CSA 2491
    rs352998501,2
    C,H--32756508(+) CCCTCC/ATAGGC 1 -- us2k12Minor allele frequency- A:0.01NS NA 178

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for HDAC1 (32757687 - 32799236 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 1 variation for HDAC1:    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    dgv211n71CNV Loss21882294

    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing HDAC1
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for HDAC1

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 601241    OMIM disorders: --

    3 diseases for HDAC1:    
    About MalaCards
    atrichia with papular lesions    chromosome 1p deletion    retinoblastoma

    1 disease from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for HDAC1:
    Cancer

    Find genes that share disorders with HDAC1           About GenesLikeMe

    Selected Novoseek inferred disease relationships for HDAC1 gene (see all 36)    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    retinoblastoma 61.8 9 16964284 (1), 10888886 (1), 11847125 (1), 18391013 (1) (see all 7)
    cancer 54.4 51 19471575 (3), 19351825 (2), 19007204 (2), 19818845 (2) (see all 28)
    leukemogenesis 51.4 1 17389244 (1)
    tumors 48.4 47 15361834 (2), 10938272 (2), 12665570 (2), 16172792 (2) (see all 33)
    colon cancer 43.1 11 16487928 (1), 19367703 (1), 15716589 (1), 15981215 (1) (see all 6)
    prostate cancer 37.1 16 11563853 (3), 19252524 (2), 15042618 (2), 18212746 (1) (see all 10)
    breast cancer 35.4 11 14506733 (3), 15770522 (3), 19372552 (1), 16172792 (1) (see all 7)
    promyelocytic leukemia 33.1 2 12821938 (1), 17341628 (1)
    colon carcinoma 27.7 2 12847090 (2)
    pancreatic cancer 25.8 5 19424621 (3), 20398369 (1)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): HDAC1
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: HDAC1 (8 documents)

    Export disorders for HDAC1 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for HDAC1 gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 1096):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with HDAC1)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. A mammalian histone deacetylase related to the yeast transcriptional regulator Rpd3p. (PubMed id 8602529)1, 2, 3 Taunton J.... Schreiber S.L. (Science 1996)
    2. Stable histone deacetylase complexes distinguished by the presence of SANT domain proteins CoREST/kiaa0071 and Mta-L1. (PubMed id 11102443)1, 2, 9 Humphrey G.W....Howard B.H. (J. Biol. Chem. 2001)
    3. Histone deacetylase 1 phosphorylation promotes enzymatic activity and complex formation. (PubMed id 11602581)1, 2, 9 Pflum M.K.H.... Schreiber S.L. (J. Biol. Chem. 2001)
    4. HDAC1, a histone deacetylase, forms a complex with Hus1 and Rad9, two G2/M checkpoint Rad proteins. (PubMed id 10846170)1, 2, 9 Cai R.L.... Cohen D. (J. Biol. Chem. 2000)
    5. Chfr is linked to tumour metastasis through the downregulation of HDAC1. (PubMed id 19182791)1, 2, 9 Oh Y.M.... Seol J.H. (Nat. Cell Biol. 2009)
    6. Mechanisms of ceramide-mediated repression of the human telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter via deacetylation of Sp3 by histone deacetylase 1. (PubMed id 17548428)1, 2, 9 Wooten-Blanks L.G.... Ogretmen B. (FASEB J. 2007)
    7. SENP1 enhances androgen receptor-dependent transcription through desumoylation of histone deacetylase 1. (PubMed id 15199155)1, 2, 9 Cheng J.... Yeh E.T.H. (Mol. Cell. Biol. 2004)
    8. Isolation and mapping of a human gene (RPD3L1) that is homologous to RPD3, a transcription factor in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (PubMed id 8646880)1, 2, 9 Furukawa Y.... Nakamura Y. (Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 1996)
    9. Histone deacetylase and Cullin3-REN(KCTD11) ubiquitin ligase interplay regulates Hedgehog signalling through Gli acetylation. (PubMed id 20081843)1, 2, 9 Canettieri G....Gulino A. (Nat. Cell Biol. 2010)
    10. Sp1 deacetylation induced by phorbol ester recruits p300 to activate 12(S)-lipoxygenase gene transcription. (PubMed id 16478997)1, 2, 9 Hung J.J.... Chang W.C. (Mol. Cell. Biol. 2006)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 3065 HGNC: 4852 AceView: HDAC1 Ensembl:ENSG00000116478 euGenes: HUgn3065
    ECgene: HDAC1 Kegg: 3065 H-InvDB: HDAC1

    (According to HUGE)
    About This Section

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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    About This Section

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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for HDAC1 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    ATLAS Chromosomes in Cancer entry for HDAC1 Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
    About This Section

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    Patent Information for HDAC1 gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving HDAC1

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, eBioscience, antibodies-online, and/or others, Gene Editing from DNA2.0. Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Addgene, Cell lines from GenScript, and ESI BIO, Flow cytometery from eBioscience, PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or ApexBio, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Animal models from genOway)
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     Search www.enzolifesciences.com for proteins, assays, substrates, inhibitors & antibodies

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    GeneCards Homepage - Last full update: 7 May 2014 - Incrementals: 9 May 2014 , 2 Jun 2014 , 26 Jun 2014 , 30 Jun 2014 , 21 Aug 2014 , 8 Sep 2014 , 7 Oct 2014

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