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Aliases for AANAT Gene

Aliases for AANAT Gene

  • Aralkylamine N-Acetyltransferase 2 3 4
  • Arylalkylamine N-Acetyltransferase 2 3
  • Serotonin Acetylase 3 4
  • EC 4 63
  • SNAT 3 4
  • Serotonin N-Acetyltransferase 2
  • AA-NAT 4
  • DSPS 3

External Ids for AANAT Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for AANAT Gene

  • GC17P074297
  • GC17P077455
  • GC17P074927
  • GC17P075060
  • GC17P071975
  • GC17P074449
  • GC17P069877

Summaries for AANAT Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for AANAT Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the acetyltransferase superfamily. It is the penultimate enzyme in melatonin synthesis and controls the night/day rhythm in melatonin production in the vertebrate pineal gland. Melatonin is essential for the function of the circadian clock that influences activity and sleep. This enzyme is regulated by cAMP-dependent phosphorylation that promotes its interaction with 14-3-3 proteins and thus protects the enzyme against proteasomal degradation. This gene may contribute to numerous genetic diseases such as delayed sleep phase syndrome. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

GeneCards Summary for AANAT Gene

AANAT (Aralkylamine N-Acetyltransferase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with AANAT include delayed sleep phase syndrome and sleep disorder. Among its related pathways are Metabolism and CDK-mediated phosphorylation and removal of Cdc6. GO annotations related to this gene include N-acetyltransferase activity and arylamine N-acetyltransferase activity.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for AANAT Gene

  • Controls the night/day rhythm of melatonin production in the pineal gland. Catalyzes the N-acetylation of serotonin into N-acetylserotonin, the penultimate step in the synthesis of melatonin

No data available for Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for AANAT Gene

Genomics for AANAT Gene

Regulatory Elements for AANAT Gene

Epigenetics Products

  • DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human,mouse,rat

Genomic Location for AANAT Gene

76,452,853 bp from pter
76,470,790 bp from pter
17,938 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for AANAT Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for AANAT Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for AANAT Gene

Proteins for AANAT Gene

  • Protein details for AANAT Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Serotonin N-acetyltransferase
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A0AVF2
    • J3KMZ5
    • Q562F4

    Protein attributes for AANAT Gene

    207 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    23344 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Monomer (By similarity). Interacts with several 14-3-3 proteins, including YWHAB, YWHAE, YWHAG and YWHAZ, preferentially when phosphorylated at Thr-31. Phosphorylation on Ser-205 also allows binding to YWHAZ, but with lower affinity. The interaction with YWHAZ considerably increases affinity for arylalkylamines and acetyl-CoA and protects the enzyme from dephosphorylation and proteasomal degradation (By similarity). It may also prevent thiol-dependent inactivation (By similarity).
    • Sequence=AAH69434.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally extended.; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Alternative splice isoforms for AANAT Gene


neXtProt entry for AANAT Gene

Proteomics data for AANAT Gene at MOPED

Selected DME Specific Peptides for AANAT Gene

Post-translational modifications for AANAT Gene

  • cAMP-dependent phosphorylation on both N-terminal Thr-31 and C-terminal Ser-205 regulates AANAT activity by promoting interaction with 14-3-3 proteins
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for AANAT Gene

Antibody Products

Domains & Families for AANAT Gene

Gene Families for AANAT Gene

Protein Domains for AANAT Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Contains 1 N-acetyltransferase domain.
  • Belongs to the acetyltransferase family. AANAT subfamily.
  • Contains 1 N-acetyltransferase domain.
  • Belongs to the acetyltransferase family. AANAT subfamily.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with AANAT: view

Function for AANAT Gene

Molecular function for AANAT Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase,23kDa,expressed in the pineal gland,penultimate step in melatonin synthesis,controlling the circadian rythm of production of melatonin,rhythmic activity controlled by ICER,an early response repressor
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot BiophysicochemicalProperties:
Kinetic parameters: KM=0.13 mM for tryptamine {ECO:0000269 PubMed:11313340}; KM=2.6 mM for 5-hydroxytryptamine {ECO:0000269 PubMed:11313340}; KM=0.55 mM for phenylethylamine {ECO:0000269 PubMed:11313340}; KM=10.6 mM for tyramine {ECO:0000269 PubMed:11313340};
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Acetyl-CoA + a 2-arylethylamine = CoA + an N-acetyl-2-arylethylamine
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Controls the night/day rhythm of melatonin production in the pineal gland. Catalyzes the N-acetylation of serotonin into N-acetylserotonin, the penultimate step in the synthesis of melatonin

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for AANAT Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for AANAT Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004059 aralkylamine N-acetyltransferase activity NAS 8661026
GO:0004060 arylamine N-acetyltransferase activity IEA --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 25416956
GO:0008080 N-acetyltransferase activity --
GO:0071889 14-3-3 protein binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with AANAT: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with AANAT: view

Animal Model Products

miRNA for AANAT Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target AANAT

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for AANAT

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for AANAT Gene

Localization for AANAT Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for AANAT Gene


Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for AANAT Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for AANAT gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 4
chloroplast 2
nucleus 1
plasma membrane 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for AANAT Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005737 cytoplasm --
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
GO:0048471 perinuclear region of cytoplasm IDA 11313340
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with AANAT: view

Pathways & Interactions for AANAT Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with AANAT: view

PCR Array Products

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Q16613-SNAT_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Aromatic compound metabolism; melatonin biosynthesis; melatonin from serotonin: step 1/2

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for AANAT Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006474 N-terminal protein amino acid acetylation IDA 11313340
GO:0007623 circadian rhythm NAS 8661026
GO:0009416 response to light stimulus IEA --
GO:0010043 response to zinc ion IEA --
GO:0014070 response to organic cyclic compound --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with AANAT: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for AANAT Gene

Drugs & Compounds for AANAT Gene

(32) Drugs for AANAT Gene - From: NovoSeek, HMDB, and DrugBank

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Clonidine Approved Pharma Partial agonist, Agonist 177
Dexamethasone Approved, Investigational Pharma Agonist 1806
Dopamine Approved Pharma Full agonist, Agonist 2814
Isoproterenol Approved Pharma Full agonist, Agonist 15
Nitric Oxide Approved Pharma 540

(20) Additional Compounds for AANAT Gene - From: NovoSeek and HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • Ac-CoA
  • Ac-Coenzyme A
  • Ac-S-CoA
  • Ac-S-Coenzyme A
  • Acetyl coenzyme-A
  • 2-(5-Methoxy-1H-indol-3-yl)ethanamine
  • 2-(5-Methoxyindol-3-yl)ethylamine
  • 3-(2-Aminoethyl)-5-methoxyindole
  • 5-Mot
  • 5MOT
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with AANAT: view

Transcripts for AANAT Gene

mRNA/cDNA for AANAT Gene

Unigene Clusters for AANAT Gene

Aralkylamine N-acetyltransferase:
Representative Sequences:

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for AANAT

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for AANAT Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for AANAT Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for AANAT Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for AANAT Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for AANAT Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Testis (x8.8).

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for AANAT Gene Hs.431417

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for AANAT Gene

Tissue specificity: Highly expressed in pineal gland and at lower levels in the retina. Weak expression in several brain regions and in the pituitary gland.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with AANAT: view

Primer Products

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , Protein differential expression in normal tissues , Protein expression and Protein tissue co-expression partners for AANAT Gene

Orthologs for AANAT Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for AANAT Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia LOC618594 35
  • 84.23 (n)
  • 77.56 (a)
-- 36
  • 77 (a)
  • 77 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia AANAT 35
  • 84.54 (n)
  • 78.74 (a)
  • 72 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Aanat 35
  • 84.56 (n)
  • 84.73 (a)
Aanat 16
Aanat 36
  • 84 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia AANAT 35
  • 98.39 (n)
  • 97.58 (a)
  • 98 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Aanat 35
  • 85.06 (n)
  • 84.24 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia AANAT 36
  • 67 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia AANAT 36
  • 68 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves AANAT 35
  • 75.33 (n)
  • 70.5 (a)
  • 68 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia AANAT 36
  • 68 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia aanat 35
  • 73.33 (n)
  • 70.26 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii aanat1 35
  • 66.17 (n)
  • 68.47 (a)
zgc73074 35
aanat1 36
  • 66 (a)
aanat2 36
  • 58 (a)
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.11691 35
Species with no ortholog for AANAT:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for AANAT Gene

Gene Tree for AANAT (if available)
Gene Tree for AANAT (if available)

Paralogs for AANAT Gene

No data available for Paralogs for AANAT Gene

Variants for AANAT Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for AANAT Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 17 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs200643384 -- 76,469,104(+) ACACT(C/T)GGGGT intron-variant
rs200854347 -- 76,469,807(+) CGTGC(A/G)CCGGG missense, reference, nc-transcript-variant
rs200972121 -- 76,468,885(+) CTGTC(A/C)GCGCC reference, missense, nc-transcript-variant
rs201145211 -- 76,455,628(+) TAGTA(A/G)GTTGG intron-variant
rs201200092 -- 76,469,193(+) TGGGC(A/G)TCTGC missense, reference, nc-transcript-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for AANAT Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv833549 CNV Gain 17160897

Variation tolerance for AANAT Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 83.15% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.59; 30.65% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for AANAT Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for AANAT Gene

Disorders for AANAT Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(4) MalaCards diseases for AANAT Gene - From: OMIM, ClinVar, Swiss-Prot, DISEASES, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
delayed sleep phase syndrome
  • delayed sleep phase syndrome, susceptibility to
sleep disorder
  • non-organic sleep disorder
  • pinealocytoma
advanced sleep phase syndrome
  • familial advanced sleep-phase syndrome
- elite association
Search AANAT in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • Delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS) [MIM:614163]: A circadian rhythm sleep disorder characterized by sleep-onset insomnia and difficulty in awakening at the desired time. Patients with DSPS have chronic difficulty in adjusting their sleep-onset and wake-up times to occupational, school, and social activities. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:12736803}. Note=Disease susceptibility may be associated with variations affecting the gene represented in this entry. Susceptibility to delayed sleep phase syndrome can be conferred by variant Thr-129. Thr-129 shows a significantly higher frequency in affected individuals than in healthy controls.

Relevant External Links for AANAT

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with AANAT: view

No data available for Genatlas for AANAT Gene

Publications for AANAT Gene

  1. The human serotonin N-acetyltransferase (EC gene (AANAT): structure, chromosomal localization, and tissue expression. (PMID: 8661026) Coon S.L. … Rodriguez I.R. (Genomics 1996) 2 23 67
  2. Mutation screening of melatonin-related genes in patients with autism spectrum disorders. (PMID: 20377855) Jonsson L. … Melke J. (BMC Med Genomics 2010) 23 67
  3. Receptor- and ligand-based study on novel 2,2'-bithienyl derivatives as non-peptidic AANAT inhibitors. (PMID: 20196559) Lepailleur A. … Rault S. (J Chem Inf Model 2010) 23 67
  4. Posttranscriptional regulation of pineal melatonin synthesis in Octodon degus. (PMID: 19538336) Lee S.J. … Borjigin J. (J. Pineal Res. 2009) 23 67
  5. The melatonin-producing system is fully functional in retinal pigment epithelium (ARPE-19). (PMID: 19409957) Zmijewski M.A. … Slominski A.T. (Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 2009) 23 67

Products for AANAT Gene

Sources for AANAT Gene

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