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GeneCards Sources and External Links

The information presented in GeneCards is extracted from or linked to the following databases:

  1. Addgene The non profit plasmid repository: Addgene provides a non-profit plasmid repository, and is dedicated to helping scientists around the world share high-quality plasmids
  2. Abcam: Abcam: maker and commercial supplier of primary and secondary antibodies, biochemicals, proteins, peptides, lysates, immunoassays and other kits
  3. AceView: AceView offers an integrated view of the human and nematode genes as reconstructed by mRNA and EST alignments
  4. Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Inc, (ACD): Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Inc, (ACD) provides multiplex fluorescent and chromogenic in situ hybridization kits, assays,and probes, to unlock the power of RNA biomarkers
  5. antibodies-online: antibodies-online, a marketplace for research reagents, offers >1 million research antibodies, ELISA kits, proteins and related products from over 150 suppliers
  6. ApexBio - An Apoptosis and Epigenetics Company: ApexBio provides peptides and lab reagents for biological research
  7. Atlas: ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
  8. BioGPS: BioGPS is a service from the Genomics Institute of Novartis Research Foundation which provides an integrated portal which displays gene-centric annotation, including "annotation" based on reference gene expression data sets
  9. BitterDB: BitterDB provides several ways to investigate the bitter world: search for bitter compounds by different criteria, search for bitter molecules with structure similar to a query compound, blast bitter receptors and more.
  10. Blocks: BLOCKS is a database of Blocks multiply aligned ungapped segments corresponding to the most highly conserved regions of proteins
  11. Blood Group Antigen Gene Mutation Database: BGMUT is the Blood Group Antigen Gene Mutation Database of variations in the genes that encode antigens of blood group systems
  12. Cell Signaling Technology: CST (Cell Signaling Technology) provides discovery tools for cell signaling research, including information about pathways and phosphorylation sites
  13. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) contains information about various diseases and health conditions.
  14. CGAP SAGE: CGAP (The Cancer Genome Anatomy Project) determines the gene expression profiles of normal, precancer, and cancer cells,leading eventually to improved detection, diagnosis, and treatment for the patient
  15. chromosme 21 mapping, WIS projects: CroW21 is the Human Chromosome 21 Database at the Weizmann Institute of Science
  16. is a registry and results database of federally and privately supported clinical trials conducted in the United States and around the world.
  17. ClinVar: ClinVar archives and aggregates information about relationships among variation and human health
  18. Cloud-Clone Corp.: Cloud-Clone Corp.: produces ELISA Kits and other relevant life sciences reagents covering a full range of fields.
  19. COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database: COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database integrates evidence on protein subcellular localization from manually curated literature, high-throughput screens, automatic text mining, and sequence-based prediction methods
  20. Data Mining of Enzymes: Data Mining of Enzymes (DME): a Web service that provides Specific Peptides for arbitrary proteins, determining from its sequence whether a protein is an enzyme and what the enzyme's EC classification is
  21. Database of Genetic Variants: The Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) provides a comprehensive summary of structural variation in the human genome
  22. Disease Ontology: Disease Ontology provides a hierarchical open source ontology for the integration of biomedical data that is associated with human disease.
  23. diseasecard: Diseasecard is an information retrieval tool for accessing and integrating genetic and medical information for health applications.
  24. DrugBank: The DrugBank database is a unique bioinformatics and cheminformatics resource that combines detailed drug (i.e. chemical, pharmacological and pharmaceutical) data with comprehensive drug target (i.e. sequence, structure, and pathway) information
  25. eBioscience: eBioscience, an Affymetrix company, leads in immunology and oncology flow cytometry reagents, and offers large selections of antibodies, ELISAs and proteins for Life Science research and diagnostics
  26. EMD MILLIPORE: EMD Millipore offers a broad range of Life Science tools, technologies, and services, and creates personalized solutions to industry challenges to assure scientific success
  27. Ensembl: Ensembl: a software system producing and maintaining automatic annotation on eukaryotic genomes, which provides identification of known human genes in the genome sequence, prediction of additional genes with supporting evidence, and ortholog predictions based on duplication aware phylogenetic trees
  28. Ensembl Pan Taxonomic Compara: Ensembl pan taxonomic compara: A broad view of homologous relationships across representative genomes from all significant clades represented in Ensembl and EnsemblGenomes
  29. Enzo Life Sciences: Enzo Life Sciences incorporates BIOMOL, a supplier ofspecialty biochemicals, with applications in signal transduction, lipid research, apoptosis,neuroscience and drug discovery
  30. ESI BIO: ESI BIO provides human embryonic stemcell lines and human embryonic progenitor cells
  31. euGenes: euGenes: Genomic Information for Eukaryotic Organisms Database for more details on similar genes in other organisms
  32. FlyBase: a database of the Drosophila genome.
  33. FRNADB: A comprehensive non-coding RNA sequence database
  34. GENATLAS: Genatlas: a catalog of genes, markers and phenotypes with many links to major data sources. GeneCards offers the short description of the gene that often contains interesting, concise information about its cellular functions and/or role in diseases
  35. GenBank: the NIH genetic sequence database, an annotated collection of all publicly available DNA sequences.
  36. Gene Ontology: GO, the Gene Ontology, is a dynamic controlled vocabulary that can be applied to all organisms even as knowledge of gene and protein roles in cells is accumulating and changing
  37. Gene Wiki: Gene Wiki is a project that facilitates transferring information on human genes to Wikipedia article stubs with the goal of promoting collaboration and expansion of the articles
  38. GeneAnnot: Annotation of high-density oligunocleotide arrays at the Weizmann Institute of Science, with links to Affymetrix probe-sets.
  39. GeneCards: GeneCards is a searchable, integrative database that provides comprehensive, user-friendly information on all annotated and predicted human genes
  40. GeneGo (Thomson Reuters Life Sciences Research): GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) Maps are interactive pathways with consensus knowledge on signaling and metabolism involved in human biology and diseases
  41. GeneLoc: GeneLoc (formerly The Unified DataBase (UDB)) integrates information on the human genome, with emphasis on mapping information. Mapped DNA segments, classified by categories (such as genes, EST clusters and STSs mapped by various methods) are presented on a Megabase-scale integrated map, with further links to relevant databases
  42. GeneReviews: GeneReviews are expert-authored, peer-reviewed disease descriptions presented in a standardized format and focused on clinically relevant and medically actionable information on the diagnosis, management, and genetic counseling of patients and families with specific inherited conditions.
  43. GENETests: GeneTests (formerly GeneClinics): a clinical information resource relating genetic testing to the diagnosis, management, and genetic counseling of individuals and families with specific inherited disorders
  44. GeneTex: GeneTex provides GeneCards with antibodies and recombinant proteins, and strives to serve and accelerate life science research by creating essential biomedical reagents where quality can be found in every vial
  45. Genetic Association Database: The Genetic Association Database (GAD) is an archive of human genetic association studies of complex diseases and disorders
  46. Genetic Testing Registry: The Genetic Testing Registry (GTR) provides a central location for voluntary submission of genetic test information by providers. The scope includes the test's purpose, methodology, validity, evidence of the test's usefulness, and laboratory contacts and credentials.
  47. Genetics Home Reference: Genetics Home Reference provides consumer-friendly information about the effects of genetic variations on human health.
  48. Genome Annotation for Alternative Splicing: A new EST clustering method that produces gene models based on genomic alignment of mRNA and ESTs
  49. GenomeRNAi: Genome RNAi is a database containing phenotypes from RNA interference (RNAi) screens in Drosophila and Homo sapiens. In addition, the database provides an updated resource of RNAi reagents and their predicted quality
  50. genOway: genOway develops the most adapted, highly physiologically relevant animal models for your research program
  51. GenScript: GenScript is a biology clinical research organization focusing exclusively on early drug discovery and development services
  52. HomoloGene: HomoloGene: a resource of curated and calculated orthologs for genes as represented by UniGene or by annotation of genomic sequences
  53. HORDE: HORDE is the Human Olfactory Receptor Data Explorer at the Weizmann Institute of Science
  54. HUGE: HUGE: the Database of Human Unidentified Gene-Encoded Large Proteins
  55. Hugo Gene Nomenclature Committee: HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee (HGNC) is the central clearinghouse for assigning gene names
  56. Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database: The Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database is a database of CYP alleles and their associated effects
  57. Human Gene Damage Index: The gene damage index (GDI) is the accumulated mutational damage of each human gene in healthy human population, based on the 1000 Genomes Project database (Phase 3) gene variations of healthy individuals and of the CADD score for calculating impact.
  58. Human Gene Mutation Database: HGMD (Human Gene Mutation Database): information about disease-causing mutations in genes. GeneCards presents a link to specific entries in this database whenever they can be found
  59. Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator: The HUman Genome Epidemiology Navigator: An integrated, searchable knowledge base of genetic associations and human genome epidemiology
  60. Human Metabolome Database: HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database) is an electronic database containing detailed information about small molecule metabolites found in the human body
  61. Human-Invitational Database: HInv-DB: H-Invitational Database (H-InvDB) is an integrated database of curated annotations of human genes and transcripts
  62. Hypergeometric Optimization of Motif Enrichment: Hypergeometric Optimization of Motif EnRichment is a suite of tools for Motif Discovery and next-gen sequencing analysis
  63. Illumina Human BodyMap: Illumina Human BodyMap: RNA obtained from 16 normal human tissues was sequenced and mapped to genes via their transcripts
  64. ImMunoGeneTics Information System: ImMunoGeneTics Information System (IMGT): a high-quality integrated information system specialising in Immunoglobulins (IG), T cell receptors (TR) and Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) molecules of all vertebrate species
  65. IntAct: IntAct: IntAct provides a freely available, open source database system and analysis tools for protein interaction data. All interactions are derived from literature curation or direct user submissions and are freely available
  66. Interlogous Interaction Database: I2D (Interologous Interaction Database) is an online database of known and predicted mammalian and eukaryotic protein-protein interactions
  67. International HapMap Project: The International HapMap Project aims to develop a public resource that will help researchers find genes associated with human disease and response to pharmaceuticals
  68. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology: The IUPHAR: Guide to Pharmocology provides a searchable database with quantitative information on drug targets and the prescription medicines and experimental drugs that act on them
  69. International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology: IUBMB: The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology - the Nomenclature Committee
  70. InterPro: InterPro: a database of protein families, domains and functional sites in which identifiable features found in known proteins can be applied to unknown protein sequences
  71. Invitrogen by Thermo Fisher Scientific: Thermo Fisher Scientific provides analytical instruments, laboratory equipment, software, services, consumables and reagents
  72. KEGG, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) provides pathway information
  73. Leiden Muscular Dystrophy: Leiden Muscular Dystrophy pages are specifically designed for scientists performing research and/or diagnosis in Duchenne and Duchenne-like muscular dystrophies
  74. LifeMap Sciences: LifeMap: a web based discovery platform aiding research and product development efforts in the stem cells field
  75. Locus Specific Mutation Databases: LSDB: The Human Genome Variation Society's Locus Specific Mutation Databases
  76. MalaCards: MalaCards: an integrated database of human maladies and their annotations, modeled on the architecture and richness of GeneCards, and leveraging GeneDecks and GeneNote
  77. Medical Subject Headings: MeSH is the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus. It consists of sets of terms naming descriptors in a hierarchical structure that permits searching at various levels of specificity.
  78. MedlinePlus: Medlineplus contains health information from the National Library of Medicine.
  79. miRBase: miRBase is the new home for microRNA data, incorporating the database and gene naming roles previously provided by the miRNA Registry, and including the new miRBase Target database
  80. miRTarBase : miRTarBase is a database that curates experimentally validated microRNA-target interactions
  81. Molecular INTeraction database: MINT (Molecular Interactions Database) focuses on experimentally verified protein interactions with special emphasis on proteomes from mammalian organisms, consists of entries mined in the scientific literature by curators
  82. MOPED: Model Organism Protein Expression Database
  83. Mouse Genome Informatics: MGI (Mouse Genome Informatics, formerly MGD) provides a comprehensive source of information on the experimental genetics of the laboratory mouse; it includes information on mouse markers, mammalian homologies, probes and clones. GeneCards presents links to mammalian homology pages, the name of the mouse gene, its location (in centiMorgan), phenotypic alleles, and links to the entries for the mouse gene
  84. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke: The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) conducts and supports research on brain and nervous system disorders.
  85. Nature: Nature 405, 311-319: is the chromosome 21 mapping and sequencing consortium paper entitled "The DNA sequence of human chromosome 21".
  86. NCBI: National Center for Biotechnology Information creates public databases, conducts research in computational biology, develops software tools for analyzing genome data, and disseminates biomedical information
  87. NCBI BioSystems Database: The NCBI BioSystems Database provides integrated access to biological systems and their component genes, proteins, and small molecules, as well as literature describing those biosystems and other related data throughout Entrez
  88. NCBI Bookshelf: The NCBI Bookshelf provides free online access to books and documents in life science and healthcare.
  89. NCBI Entrez Gene: EntrezGene at NCBI provides a single query interface to curated sequence and descriptive information about genetic loci
  90. NCBI Reference Sequence Database: RefSeq: NCBI Reference Sequence Database A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
  91. NCBI-PubMed: PubMed: NLM's search service to access the 9 million citations in MEDLINE and Pre-MEDLINE (with links to participating on-line journals), and other related databases
  92. NEXTPROT: neXtProt offers seamless integration of human protein data
  93. NIH Rare Diseases: The Office of Rare Diseases Research (ORDR) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) coordinates research and information on rare diseases.
  94. NONCODE: NONCODE is a database of all kinds of noncoding RNAs (except tRNAs and rRNAs)
  95. NovoSeek: Novoseek extracts knowledge from biological databases and text repositories, enabling users to uncover the knowledge hidden within these data sources
  96. Novus Biologicals: Novus Biologicals provides the biological research community with a mechanism for commercializing unique biological materials
  97. OCA: OCA a browser-database for protein structure/function
  98. Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man: OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man): a catalog of human genes and genetic disorders with a lot of information about many different aspects (medical and genetic).GeneCards presents a list of diseases listed as allelic variants in the respective entry for the gene, synonyms for the gene, and a link to the OMIM database entry
  99. OriGene : OriGene is a world-wide supplier of authentic full-length CDNA clones in a standard expression vector
  100. Orphanet: Orphanet is the reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs, for all audiences. Orphanet’s aim is to help improve the diagnosis, care and treatment of patients with rare diseases.
  101. PathCards: PathCards is an integrated database of human pathways and their annotations. Human pathways were clustered into SuperPaths based on gene content similarity. Each PathCards provides information on one SuperPath which represent one or more human pathways. 1073 SuperPath entries, consolidated from 12 sources
  102. PaxDb: Protein Abundance Across Organisms: PaxDb is a database of protein abundances across organisms
  103. Pharmacogenomics Knowledge Base: The PharmGKB is an integrated resource about how variation in human genes leads to variation in our response to drugs
  104. PhosphoSitePlus: PhosphoSitePlus from CST is a curated, sequence-oriented protein database dedicated to in vivo phosphorylation sites
  105. ProSpec: ProSpec, a biotechnology company, specializes in production of bacterial-derived recombinant proteins
  106. ProteomicsDB: ProteomicsDB is dedicated to expedite the identification of the human proteome and its use across the scientific community.
  107. Proteopedia: Proteopedia is a project that provides structural and functional knowledge about protein, RNA, DNA, and other macromolecules, and their assemblies and interactions with small molecules, in a manner that is relevant and broadly accessible to students and scientists
  108. ProtoNet: ProtoNet at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem provides global classification of the proteins into hierarchical clusters
  109., a project of the Gerstein Lab at Yale University, provides information on pseudogenes and intergenic analyses
  110. Qiagen: Qiagen provides sample and assay technologies
  111. R&D Systems: R&D Systems:a specialty manufacturer of biological products with two operating divisions: Biotechnology and Hematology
  112. Reactome, a curated pathway database: Reactome is an open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database
  113. Residual Variation Intolerance Score: RVIS (Residual Variation Intolerance Score) is a gene-based score intended to help in the interpretation of human sequence data. The intolerance score in its current form is based upon allele frequency data as represented in whole exome sequence data from the NHLBI-ESP6500 data set.
  114. RNA Database: A database for RNA genes annotations
  115. Saccharomyces Genome Database: (Saccharomyces Genome Database) is a scientific database of the molecularbiology and genetics of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is commonly known as baker's or budding yeast
  116. Salk Institute: SALK Institute: Dr. Jonas Salk, developer of the polio vaccine, established the Salk Institute for Biological Studies, to pursue questions about the basic principles of life. Today, the Salk Institute conducts its biological research under the guidance of 59 faculty investigators. It employs a scientific staff of more than 850, including visiting scientists, postdoctoral fellows, and graduate students
  117. Santa Cruz Biotechnology, (SCBT): Santa Cruz Biotechnology, SCBT, is a leading producer of antibodies, RNAi, CRISPR KO/Activation products, biochemicals and labware for research applications.
  118. SIGnaling Network Open Resource: SIGNOR, the SIGnaling Network Open Resource, organizes and stores signaling information published in the scientific literature in a structured format.
  119. SIMAP: SIMAP is a database containing the similarity space formed by all amino-acid sequences from public databases and completely sequenced genomes
  120. Sino Biological: Sino Biological offers cost-effectivepremium quality services and reagents for life science research and biological product development
  121. SNP Database: SNP Database at NCBI provides information on Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms
  122. SOURCE: SOURCE (The Stanford Online Universal Resource for Clones and ESTs) compiles information from several publicly accessible databases, including UniGene, dbEST, UniprotKB/Swiss-Prot, GeneMap99, GeneCardsand EntrezGene
  123. SPIRE: Systematic Protein Investigative Research Environment, proteomics analysis pipeline
  124. STRING: STRING is a database of known and predicted protein-protein interactions
  125. SwitchGear Genomics: SwitchGear Genomics identifies functional elements in the human genome and develops this genomic content into novel high-throughput cell-based functional assays
  126. Taconic Biosciences: Taconic Biosciences aims to create a difference in human health by providing the best, most relevant mouse and rat models to researchers in the life science community.
  127. The Alternative Splicing Database: The Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) maintains a database of alternative splice events and the resultant isoform splice patterns of genes from human, and other model species
  128. The Drug Gene Interaction Database: The Drug–Gene Interaction Database is a web resource that consolidates disparate data sources describing drug–gene interactions and gene druggability
  129. The Genotype-Tissue Expression project: The Genotype-Tissue Expression project (GTEx) is providing a comprehensive atlas of gene expression and regulation across multiple human tissues.
  130. The MaxQuant DataBase: MaxQB is a database that stores and displays collections of large proteomics projects and allows joint analysis and comparison
  131. The University of Copenhagen DISEASES: The University of Copenhagen DISEASES database provides disease-gene associations mined from literature
  132. Tocris Bioscience: Tocris Bioscience is a leading supplier of high performance life science reagents, peptides and antibodies, with customers in virtually all of the world's major pharmaceutical companies, universities and research institutes
  133. TreeFam: TreeFam contains gene phylogenetic trees
  134. Tufts University: Tufts University founded in 1852, Tufts University is one of the premier universities in the United States. Tufts enjoys a global reputation for academic excellence and for preparing students as leaders in a wide range of professions
  135. Tumor Gene Family of Databases: The Tumor Gene Database (TGDB) contains information about genes that are targets for cancer-causing mutations
  136. UCSC Golden Path: UCSC Golden Path: the University of California at Santa Cruz Human Draft Genomic Assembly
  137. Unified Medical Language System: The UMLS integrates and distributes key terminology, classification and coding standards, and associated resources to promote creation of more effective and interoperable biomedical information systems and services, including electronic health records.
  138. UniGene: UniGene: an experimental system for automatically partitioning GenBank sequences into a non-redundant set of gene-oriented clusters. GeneCards extracts from UniGene the cluster (Hs.) number, gene symbol or title, GenBank accession, EST's clone identifier and library ID
  139. UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: UniprotKB/Swiss-Prot stores information about proteins (the sequence, some notes about cellular functions, and many other useful data, as well as links to related sites on the web). GeneCards extracts from Swiss-Prot the name of the product(s) of the gene and data about the cellular functions, similarities, involvement in diseases, and links to other databases related to the gene product(s)
  140. UniProtKB/TrEMBL: UniprotKB/TrEMBL: a computer-annotated supplement of Swiss-Prot that contains all the translations of EMBL nucleotide sequence entries not yet integrated in Swiss-Prot. GeneCards extracts from TrEMBL the name of the product(s) of the gene and data about the cellular functions, similarities, involvement in diseases, and links to other databases related to the gene product(s)
  141. USFDA Approved Drugs: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services. The FDA is responsible for protecting and promoting public health through the regulation and supervision of food safety, tobacco products, dietary supplements, prescription and over-the-counter pharmaceutical drugs (medications), vaccines, biopharmaceuticals, blood transfusions, medical devices, electromagnetic radiation emitting devices (ERED), cosmetics, animal foods & feed and veterinary products.
  142. Vector BioLabs : Vector BioLabs provides gene delivery products & services using many viral platforms, including recombinant adenoviruses, adeno-associated virus (AAV) and lentivirus
  143. WormBase: WormBase, the genome and biology of C.elegans
  144. YEDA: Yeda: Yeda Research and Development Company Ltd. is responsible for technology transfer from the Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel's leading center of research and graduate education